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Lowell Textile Journal. 


THE DIFFERENT PROCESSES IN MANUFACTURING 

WORSTED YARNS. 

By GEORGE FRANK, Landenberg, Pa. 


Wool Sorting. 

Wool Washing. 

Wool Drying. 

Carding (if not carded, preparers are used, 6 boxes being a set, this is only used in 
low wool). 

Back Wash. 

3 Gilling before Combing. 

Balling Box for Combe. 

Combe, 
i Gill Box. 

i Balling Box (or top maker). 

DRAWING. 


The following is a list of boxes 
Smith & Sons, Keighley, England 

that comprises a set 

of 

Drawing, made by Prince 

Dia. of back roll Dia. of front ml 

2 

Double Can Gill Boxes . 


. 


3 in. 

2 in. 

2 

Spindle Gill Boxes, size of bobbins, 

14x9 

in. 

3 in. 

2 in. 

I 

4-Spindle Drawing Box, 

<c 

x 4 x 9 

in. 

2$ in. 

4 in. 

I 

4-Spindle Drawing Box, 

u 

14 X 9 

in. 

2J in. 

4 in. 

I 

8-Spindle Drawing Box, 

u 

14x8 

in. 

2 i in. 

4 in. 

2 

6-Spindle Drawing Boxes, 

l ( 

12x6 

in. 

2$ in. 

4 in. 

2 

8-Spindle Intermediates, 

tc 

12x6 

in. 

2$ in. 

4 in. 

3 

1 2-Spindle Finishers, 

ii 

9 x 4 b 

in. 

2 in. 

4 in. 

4 

30-Spindle Reducers, 

.( 

6 x 3 i 

in. 

2 in. 

4 in. 

8 

30-Spindle Roving Frames, 

it 

5 x 3 

in. 

2 in. 

4 x 3 in « 


The above is for fine yarn. 


4 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


WOOL SORTING. 

Wool sorting means picking out 
the different grades of wool from 
the fleece, as it would not do to 
open out a fleece and cut off all 
vegetable matter and let the rest 
go, but each fleece must be looked 
over. The eyes and fingers form 
a very prominent part in sorting 
out the different grades, and can 
only be learned by months of prac- 
tical experience. Seldom two firms 
sort wool alike, as some make a 
specialty of certain grades. Some 
firms keep out all the shorts (for 
clothing) while another will let all 
the short go into their respective 
grades. 

SCOURING (OR WOOL WASHING). 

When the wool leaves the wool 
room it goes to the scouring ma- 
chine, and will loose from 25 to 60 
per cent., all depending on the 
growth and quality of the wool. 
There are many different soaps and 
ingredients on the market for ex- 
trading the dirt and grease from 
the wool without injuring the fibre. 
In scouring wool, a temperature 
from 120 0 to 125 0 degrees is suf- 
ficient, a higher temperature injures 
the wool. An excess of soap causes 
the wool to felt. The lower the 
stock the dryer it ought to be, but 
never get it bone dry as the fibre 
is apt to break in carding. 


CARDING. 

The object of carding is to open 
out all the wool and lay it straight. 
Get the wool out of the card as 
soon as possible, and to accomplish 
this keep the doffers sharp and set 
close to the cylinder but not to 
touch, do not have the workers 
closer than is necessary to do good 
work. The faster the doffer runs 
(in reason) the better it will clean 
the cylinder, providing the fancy 
is doing its work. A card will not 
do good work if the wool is exces- 
sively wet or dirty. When grind- 
ing' grind light and rapidly . 

BACK WASHING. 

This process is mostly used for 
fine and fancy worsted yarns as it 
gives the wool a whiter and better 
appearance. But up to a few years 
ago, it was said by some manu- 
facturers, that when wool was back 
washed it did not spin as good as 
unbackwashed, but that theory has 
been proved to be altogether wrong 
when using fine wool. It is not 
necessary to backwash all kinds of 
wool. 

GILLING BEFORE COMBING. 

In worsted manufacturing this 
process plays a most prominent 
part, because this is where you 
really start to get the doubling and 
even sliver, also the weight. I may 
here mention the fallers require 
great care, also the draft between 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


5 


the front and back rollers. After 
the gilling, say 3 times, the wool 
^oes to a box to be made in balls 
for the comb. 

BALLING BOX BEFORE COMBING. 

This operation (if it may be 
called an operation) is simply wind- 
ing four ends into a large ball, it 
does not draft or does it put any 
twist in the wool, therefore, all it 
does is simply run out of a can on 
to a ball for the combe. 

COMBING NOBLE COMB. 

This machine is one of the most 
complicated processes in the manu- 
facturing of worsted yarns. The 
comb has 3 circles, (2 small and 1 
large circle) which are generally 
made of brass. The large circle is 
from 48 to 60 in. in diameter ; the 
small ones are from 16 to 20 in. in 
diameter. The comb is a double 
machine as it delivers 2 ends at the 
same time. Care should be taken 
not to dab the wool too far into the 
circles. If there is any difficulty 
in making the wool enter the pins, 
it is a sign the circles need repin- 
ning, as you cannot make good 
work with blunt pins. 

To be continued. 

To obtain a dark finish on oak 
and ash, inclose in a box or closet 
with some saucers or plates of 
strong ammonia. The fumes will 
.darken the wood. 


WHAT DID THEY TEACH ? 


Before they had arithmetic, 

Or telescopes or chalk, 

Or blackboards, maps and copybooks — 
When they could not talk. 

Before Columbus came to show 
The world geography, 

What did they teach the little boys, 

Who went to school like me ? 

There wasn’t any grammar then, 

They couldn’t read or spell, 

For books were not invented yet — 

I think ’twas just as well. 

There were not any rows of dates, 

Or laws, or wars, or kings, 

Or generals, or victories, 

Or any of those things. 

There couldn’t have been much to learn; 

There wasn’t much to know. 

’Twas nice to be a little boy 
Ten thousand years ago ! 

For history had not begun, 

The world was very new, 

And in the schools, I don’t see what 
The children had to do. 

Now, always there is more to learn — 
How history does grow ! — 

And every day they find new things 
They think we ought to know. 

And if it must go on like this, 

I’m glad I live to-day, 

For boys ten thousand years from now 
Will not have time to play ! 

— Primary Education. 


A solution of bichloride of mer- 
cury is about the best material for 
taking indelible ink out of linen. 


6 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


SIMPLE LESSONS IN PHOTOGRAPHY. 

CLOUDS AND SKIES. 


If one examines a fine landscape 
having a plain white sky, devoid of 
either gradation or a semblance of 
clouds, and then turns to a dupli- 
cate print in which there is a sky 
covered in whole or part with 
clouds of beautiful form, the differ- 
ence between these two in point of 
artistic merit will be immediately 
appreciable. 

Photographers who prepare their 
pictures for exhibitions are so well 
aware of this, that in most cases 
they bestow great pains upon their 
skies, some of them overdoing it to 
the extent of reversing what ought 
to be correct position of things and 
making the landscape subordinate 
to the sky, while others are guilty 
of the bad taste of printing in one 
set of clouds on every picture. We 
have seen in one of our public ex- 
hibitions a row of landscapes by a 
photographer of repute, all. of them 
beautiful, but each possessing the 
same individual sky as its fellows. 
This is not seemly. 

One cannot always find sky 
when he or she arrives at a partic- 
ular place and finds the scene 
lighted up for photographing as if 


“ to order.” Things terrestrial 
must claim immediate attention, 
and the sky be left out in the cold. 

We shall assume that a land- 
scape negative has eventually been 
secured in which every artistic and 
technical condition has been ful- 
filled. But the sky, it is a plain 
dark grey, and detracts from the 
effect. 

What is to be done ? 

If the horizon of the subject be 
of such a nature as to render it 
easy to stop out the sky altogether, 
this might be done. China ink and 
a finely pointed camel’s hair pen- 
cil provide the means. It is not 
necessary that much more than a 
mere outline to the horizon be thus 
applied, because the mass of the 
sky may be blocked out by cover- 
ing it on the back of the negative 
with opaque paper pasted on the 
glass, or by black varnish applied 
by broad sweeps of the brush. A 
very good way is to make a print 
from the negative, cut out the sky 
portion with a knife or scissors, 
allow it to continue to darken in 
the light and affix this to the nesra- 

0 o 

tive as a mask. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


7 


The result of all this is, that we 
have obtained a well printed land- 
scape having an unmeaning plain 
white sky. A simple way of im- 
parting an even graduated tone to 
the sky consists in laying the print 
face up on any rigid board, a cover 
of a book will answer, then placing 
upon it a plate of glass so as to 
keep it flat, and placing over all a 
sheet of card or brown paper. 
Now step out into a good light and 
expose the sky to light by slowly 
pulling down the brown paper 
cover from the top of the picture 
to the horizon line. If this be 
done steadily, a beautifully gradu- 
ated sky will result, one in which 
the top is darkest, as it usually is 
in nature, lightening by impercept- 
ible degrees until the horizon is 
reached, which is left nearly white. 
This makes a very useful and even 
pretty sky. 

If the student be very skilful 
with the brush, we could recom- 
mend him, instead of blocking out 
the sky, to paint on it such clouds 
as the nature of the subject might 
demand. A safer way is to have a 
series of cloud negatives, which 
may be taken at leisure and 
retained in stock. These negatives 
may either be made on glass or 
paper. 

It will conduce greatly to the 
beauty of a sky if, while it is being 
printed in from a cloud negative, 


the method of grading already de- 
scribed be employed. 

Clouds can be readily made on 
the back of a negative by pasting 
over it a sheet of thin tissue-paper, 
and working on it with a soft plum- 
bago pencil or a crayon stump. 
Some even go the length of grind- 
ing the back of the negative with 
emery and water, in order to ensure 
a tooth for the pencil touches. 
Ground-glass varnish will answer 
the same purpose, provided it be 
hard enough to stand the friction 
of the pencil. 

A way we have often adopted 
with advantage is to make a sky 
negative on a collodion plate, strip 
the film off, and attach it to the 
landscape negative. 

If the photographer is so happi- 
ly situated as to secure a good sky 
in the landscape negative, this is, 
of course, best of all, but it often 
happens that such cannot be done, 
and hence the necessity of such 
expedients as the subsequent print- 
ing-in of clouds. 


To remove rust stains from 
nickel plate, grease the rust stains 
with oil, and after a few days rub 
thoroughly with a cloth moistened 
with ammonia. If any spots still 
remain, remove them with diluted 
hydrochloric acid and polish with 
tripoli. 


8 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


A STOCKER'S EXPLANA- 
TION OF THE STEAM 

ENGINE. 

“This ’ere furnace, gen’lmen, 
heats the ’ere water, and that ’ere 
water is in that ’ere biler; and that 
there pistern rod is moving up and 
down by the steam from this ’ere 
biler ; and them ’ere pisterns acts 
upon them rods, which turns the 
axles of the paddles, and the pad- 
dles their selves in consequence.” 
— From Pickwick Abroad , by G. 
W. M. Reynolds. 

SAVED THE VASE. 

The little son of a Manchester 
gentleman, in mischievously play- 
ing with a vase, managed, after 
several attempts to get his hand 
through the narrow neck and was 
then unable to extricate it. For 
half an hour or more the whole 
family and one or two friends did 
their best to withdraw the fist of 
the luckless offender, but in vain. 
It was a very valuable vase, and 
the father was loth to break it, but 
the existing state of affairs could 
not continue forever. At length, 
after a final attempt to draw forth 
the hand of the victim the father 
gave up in despair, but tried a last 
suggestion. 

“Open your hand!” he com- 
manded the tearful young captive, 
“and then draw it forth.” 


“I can’t open it, father,” declared 
the boy. 

“Can’t!” demanded the father. 
“ Why ?” 

“ I’ve got my penny in my hand,” 
came the astounding reply. 

“ Why, you young rascal,” 
thundered his father, “drop it at 
once!” 

The penny rattled in the bottom 
of the vase, and out came the hand. 


RHYME OF THE TIRED 

FARMER. 


A farmer was trying to plough, 

With a jackass hitched up to a cough, 
When they kicked up a terrible rough. 

Said the farmer: “ It’s hard; I allough 
I could do near as well with a sough ; 

I will rest ’neath the shade of this bough. 

“ Such driving for me is too rough, 

I’ve had of it nearly enough. 

I’ll give this old jackass a cough 
And quit, for I’m quite in a hough. 

All farming is nonsense and stough 
And ploughing is almighty tough. 

“With farming I’m glad to be through — 
My wife, she is tired of it tough. 

We’re wet with the rain and the dough 
And ploughing has made me quite blough. 

“I’ll sell out and pocket the dough, 

To the city I’ll glad enough gough, 

I’ll through down the shovel and hough, 

In Wall street my money I’ll blough. 

“My wife has contracted a cough. 

’Tis time for us both to be ough !” 

— N. Y. Sun. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


9 


HINTS FOR MERCHANTS 
TRADING WITH CHINA. 


At the recent Congress of Orient- 
alists, Professor Schegel delivered 
an address conveying some useful 
hints on European commerce with 
Eastern countries, and gave some 
examples of the mistakes made by 
merchants in sending out goods to 
China and Java. One instance he 
gave was the following : 

The Chinese are in the habit of 
boiling their rice in flatiron boilers. 

These are very thin, and they 
burn through very quickly. Some 
English firms thought it would be 
a very good thing to make these 
boilers in England and send them 
to China. Accordingly a ship-load 
was sent to Hong Kong, and were 
cheaper and stronger than the na- 
tive boilers; but after a few hun- 
dred had been sold, the Chinese 
would buy no more They refused 
to give any reason to the merchants, 
but the professor asked some of 
them, and they said to him : “Their 
boilers are much too expensive.” 
He said, “Oh, b t they are cheap- 
er.” They said, “ Oh, yes, but to 
boil them we have to use so much 
fuel. They are too thick, and be- 
fore we can get our rice boiled we 
have to spend more in the way of 
fuel than it would cost to renew 
our boilers every few months.” An- 
other merchant sent out some 


magnetic horseshoes stamped with 
the Chinese dragon, but for this 
very reason the Chinese would 
have none of them. Merchants did 
not sufficiently study the prejudices 
of the people with whom they 
wished to trade. The Chinese 
were very particular about lucky 
and unlucky colors. They liked 
English sewing needles, but would 
not buy many of them because they 
were wrapped up in black paper, 
black being an unlucky color. An- 
other man developed a very good 
trade in printed Chinese calendars, 
and the trade continued good until 
he commenced printing his cal- 
endars on green paper, when his 
trade closed. He wondered why 
until he discovered that green was 
an unlucky color. 

A MASTERLY DESCRIP- 
TION. 

Otto is a German who has his 
own trials with the English lang- 
uage, and who has found himself 
utterly unable to deal with some of 
its sounds at all. The word “Thurs- 
day” for example, he has never 
been able to pronounce so that any 
one could understand it. Having 
occasion recently to mention that 
day of the week in conversation, he 
avoided the struggle by evolving 
this masterpiece: “I vill come,” he 
said, “on — on — oh! you know — 
Tuesday after Vednesday!” 


OI 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


LOWELL CRAYON CO , 


. . . LOWELL, MASS. . . . 


MILL CRAYONS 


IN 13 COLORS AND WHITE. 


LIQUID AIR. 

EXPECTED TO SOLVE MANY PROBLEMS IN SURGERY. 


Liquid air, although still pos- 
sessing many mysterious proper- 
ties, is becoming so well understood 
as an agent in the medical and 
surgical science that it is now be- 
ing used with successful results. 
Dr. A. Campbell White shows that 
liquid air possesses remarkable 
anesthetic and specific powers, and 
by a series of experiments he proves 
that its advent in medicine and 
surgery will solve many problems 
of long standing. Speaking of the 
subject he said : 

“I am confirmed in my belief 
that liquid air is a specific for neu- 
ralgia, sciatica and such neurotic 
lesions, by experiments in which I 
have used the fluid and tested its 
results. In one case of sciatica the 


patient was suffering intense pain 
the whole length of the leg. The 
physician, who had been using the 
ordinary cauterizing treatment to 
no effect, permitted the application 
of liquid air. This was done by 
dipping a swab in the fluid and 
touching the nerve at its extremity. 
Instantly the pain left the leg. 
Other applications were made 
along the nerve to insure relief, 
and although a month has elapsed 
since the operation there has been 
no recurrence of any trouble.” 

Dr. White showed a culture tube 
in which a colony of the bacteria 
of dipththeria had been planted in 
blood serum. He then told of an 
experiment in which these bacilli 
had been put in capillary tubes 


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THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


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with sealed ends and subjected to 
liquid air for an hour. At the end 
of the time the germs appeared 
lifeless, but on being placed in an 
incubator and brought back to a 
normal temperature they were as 
lively as ever. 

“It is impossible to kill germs by 
freezing,” he went on to say, “but 
this experiment reveals a use of 
liquid air which I believe will prove 
effectual in many cases of bacterial 
diseases. In the normal body 
there are germs of all kinds, but 
their virulence is met and over- 
powered by anti-toxins which the 
system produces to combat them. 
At times, however, because of lack 
of vitality the anti-toxins cannot 
compete with their antagonists, and 
as a consequence a man ‘comes 
down’ with typhoid or diphtheria 
or consumption. At such times 
an injection of foreign anti-toxins 
into the blood often will sufficiently 
overcome the invading bacilli. 


This is the method employed at 
present. Now, the use of liquid 
air in such cases is based on the 
same hypothesis. When the fluid 
is applied to the part affected the 
bacteria are for the time being ren- 
dered inactive and thus give the 
anti toxins of the system an oppor- 
tunity to rally and repair the 
breach.” 

The doctor then showed a photo- 
graph taken of a child upon whose 
neck a large blood tumor had at- 
tained the size of a dollar. Lower 
on the body was another tumor 
even more ugly in its appearance. 
In telling of the case the doctor said: 

“Liquid air was applied to the 
tumor on the child’s back and the 
flesh healed rapidly. The other 
excrescence was treated by ordinary 
methods and has even grown 
larger. In consequence of these 
results I have great hopes for liquid 
air in the treatment of lesions and 
such inflammations of the skin.” 


DERBY & MORSE, 

9 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS • 


MIDDLE STREET 


LOWELL, MASS. 


12 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 



BEST HALF-HOSE HAVE THE 


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When asked in regard to the use 
of liquid air as an anesthetic Dr. 
White told of an experiment in 
which it was employed. 

“A boy had received a blank car- 
tridge wound in the hand, and in 
order to perform the operation the 
part was frozen by a spray of liquid 
air. Too much was applied, and 
at first the surgeon was no more 
able to cut the flesh than if it been 
so much stone. After a moment’s 
waiting the knife cut easily, inflict- 
ing no pain, the foreign particles 
were removed, and the wound care- 
fully dressed. The hand had 
healed nicely and was soon entirely 
well. 

“There is no pain in the applica- 
tion,” he continued, “ except a 
slight tingling at the very begin- 
ning. If the part frozen is sur- 


rounded by healthy tissue it returns 
to its normal condition as soon as 
the cold is removed. It has not 
the inebriating effects of such 
anesthetics as cocaine and ether, 
and where moisture is not present 
the freezing never results in morti- 
fication .” — New York Tribune. 


The sun never sets on the soil 
of the United States. When it is 
6 o’clock at Attoo Islands, Alaska, 
it is 9:36 o’clock, a. m. the next 
day on the eastern coast of Maine. 


To remove a wart, cover the skin 
around the wart with lard, apply 
over the surface of the growth one 
or two drops of strong hydrochloric 
or nitric acid ; then keep the part 
covered up until the scab separates. 


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POSITIVELY THE LOWEST PEICES IN THE CITY. 


223 MERRIMACK STREET . 


LOWELL, MASS. 



THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


13 


THE LOWELL 
TEXTILE JOURNAL. 

A Monthly Publication by Students of the Lowell Textile 
School, with papers and other valuable information by leading 
manufacturers. 

FENWICK UMPLEBY, Business Manager 


PUBLISHED MONTHLY 

AT 

No. 67 niddle Street, - Lowell, Hass. 

BY 

THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL COMPANY. 

Entered at the Post-Office at Lowell as Second 
Class Mail Matter. 

SUBSCRIPTION TERMS. 

For one year, postage paid 5 oC ‘ 

Single Copies 5 C * 

For Sale at all Newsdealers 


Advertisements must be at the Journal Office before the 
fifteenth of each month for insertion that month. 

Contributions may be sent to Editor of The Lowell 1 extile 
Journal, and will receive prompt attention. 


EDITORIAL. 


OUR NEW VOLUME. 


Two years ago The Lowell Tex- 
tile Journal made its first bow to 
the students of the Lowell Textile 
School and the manufacturers and 
mill men of the Merrimack Valley. 

Since that time it has improved 
step by step, both from a sub- 
scription standpoint and the char- 
acter of its matter. 

Entering upon the new year, we 
feel that we can congratulate our- 
selves on the liberal patronage, en- 
couragement and kindly words 
heretofore received, for which we 
are truly grateful and justly proud. 


While extending our hearty 
thanks and greeting we can give no 
better promise for the future than 
that each succeeding number will 
be a guarantee that we mean to live 
up to the appreciation so kindly ex- 
pressed by our subscribers and 
generous advertisers. 

A few of our subscribers are 
very delinquent about paying up 
their arrears. It takes money to 
run a journal. The subscription 
is but fifty cents a yeai*, barely one 
cent per week, send on your cash, 
it will help us and you can spare 
the amount. 

The management, policy and 
purpose, so far successful, will re- 
main unchanged. 

It is hoped that each student of 
the Lowell Textile School, day 
and evening, will assist in making 
the Journal a further success by 
sending in names of new sub- 
scribers and advertisers, all monies 
thus received will be placed to the 
credit of the Lowell Textile School 
Athletic Association. 

Send in your subscribers’ names, 
and don’t forget the advertisers. 
Ball season will soon be here. 

The “ theoretical ” man and the 
“ practical ” man start from oppo- 
site sides of a given path, but both 
“ get to the end all the same.” 


14 


THE LOWELL, TEXTILE JOURNAL 


X. Whittier, Treasurer and General Manager. Helen A. \\ hittier, President. W. R. B. W hittier, Agent. 

WHITTIER COTTON MILLS, Chattahoochee, Ga. 

Q-eneral OflB.ce, Lowell, Mass. 

n Single or Twisted, 2 to 200 ends, Ply, Cable Hawser, delivered on Spools, 

Gotloii Yanis, 2s to 40s s^ns, n auks , “■ 1 war,,cr bms ' concs ' 

FIRE HOSE CORDS A SPECIALTY. 


The practical man becomes a 
theoretical man when he begins to 
explain and give reasons for doing 
as he does. 

The theoretical man becomes a 
practical man when he applies the 
laws he has learned from books to 
practice and makes no mistake in 
their application. 

We have received a copy of the 
Lowell High School journal, “The 
Review,” which we beg to acknowl- 
edge. We wish to call the atten- 
tion of the students of the Lowell 
Textile School to the article, “ Pro- 
gressive Athletics,” by Frederic 
Charles Meredith. 

On Wednesday, October 25th, 
several of the students of the 
school went to examine the Per- 
ham “ single shaft ” loom, at the 
invitation of its inventor, Mr. 
Charles F. Perham. They were 
headed by Mr. Nelson and on their 


arrival were treated with great 
courtesy by Mr. Perham and his 
assistants. The looms, of which 
there are thirteen, were shown in 
operation to the great satisfaction 
of the boys. The loom is very 
simple in construction but no 
essential point is missing. Mr. 
Perham is to be congratulated on 
his success in perfecting such a 
loom. A description of the above 
will appear in next month’s issue. 

There is a mistaken idea, es- 
pecially among the people of the 
rural districts, that cotton mixed 
with wool detracts very much from 
the wearing and durable qualities 
of textile fabrics. 

This false idea may have been 
engendered in the minds of those 
people by the merchants who 
advertise their goods as, “ pure 
wool,” “free from cotton” and “not 
mixed with shoddy and cotton.” 

Such advertising gives the im- 
pression that fabrics mixed with 


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BY CORRESPONDENOE. 


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THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


15 


CHARLES GRIFFIN, 

-Ji MILL ENGINEER, •$- 

Plans and Specificalions Furnishefl. Row and Power In Rent 

2-tr> MARKET ST., Card Co. Building, LOWELL, MASS. 


cotton and so forth, are manufact- 
ured to entrap the unwary, and 
that such materials are more or 
less a fraud. 

Of course there is a wide field 
for discussion on the above subject, 
but, I do not intend to enter into 
the “ pro’s and con’s ” of low 
shoddy and other inferior raw 
stock. 

We all know that the mixing of 
two classes of material is no new 
method of manufacturing, so we 
read in the good old book, “Nor 
shall a garment mingled of linen 
and woolen come upon thee.” 

The mixing of cotton and wool 
is not new, as there is no new thing 
under the sun, but to mix the vege- 
table and animal fibres successfully 


in a fine grade of goods, of different 
colors, shades and mixes, requires 
experience and careful manipula- 
tion in the picker room. 

I think it is an acknowledged 
fact among manufacturers that a 
flannel containing from 10 to 20 
per cent, cotton is more durable, 
will give better service and is 
worth more to the wearer than it 
would be if the same amount of 
cheap wool had been mixed in, 
and the wearer can buy it several 
cents less per yard. 

The chief aim of all manufact- 
urers is to make their goods look 
like pure fine wool fabrics. 

The question at the present 
time is : How much cotton can be 
used without detriment to the gen- 



COhUMBlAlM STUDIO — 

Sittings made in Cloudy as well as Fair Weather 

• • J. POWELL • • 
PHOTOGRAPHER * 

55 Soutl? Whipple St., Liowell, JVIass. 

OUR SPECIKLTI6S, 

Bromide Crayon and Pastel Work. 

We are Unexcelled in Children’s Photos 


Telephone Connection. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


16 


Middlesex Machine Co„ 

contractors FOR IVf i 1 1 JPiping. 12 Merrimack Sq., Lowell. 
Dealers in STEAM FITTERS’ SUPPLIES. 


eral appearance ? What are the 
best methods of mixing? Which 
will be most productive of the best 
results and so forth. 

These are a few of the questions 
to be answered and the textile 
students will do well to obtain the 
information. 

It took all the wind from New 
York to give Dewey a blow' out at 
Boston. 

Then the breezes blew into the 
sails of the Columbia. 


THE CYCLISTS BET 

A cyclist’s who stopped at a vil- 
lage inn boasted about his abilities 
as a rider to such an extent that the 
landlord ventured to make a wager 
with him. “Look here, mister,” said 
the innkeeper, “ you can’t ride up 
and down this road till the church 
clock strikes four.” “Done !” said 
the cyclist. “It’s just 3.15 now,” 


Lstrts A LE JTANSER 

TjX Forrrtrty of r»fth Av«nu«.NtwYorh. 


Wwrw, 


55 PCNTRAt ^TRgcV 

PAUL 0. KABLE, Assistant. 


and the next minute he was speed- 
ing down the road. After about 
an hour’s riding the cyclist shouted 
to one of the bystanders, “I say, 
has the church clock struck four 
yet?” “No, you idiot,” was the 
blunt reply. “ Why, our church 
clock never strikes at all.” 

Rube — “ Here, Professor! What 
kind of stock is this?” 

Professor — “ Oh, that is some 
noils from some fine wool.” Where 
did you get it ?” 

Rube — “Just combed it off my 
dog’s back.” 

Husband (rushing into the room) 
— Come out, quick ! 

Wife — What’s the matter? 

The house is on fire, and we 
will be burnt to death if we hes- 
itate a moment. Run for your life! 

Yes, I’ll be out in a minute. I’ve 
got to tidy up the room a little, so 
that it will look decent when the 
firemen get here. 


Merrimac Boiler Works, 

WRIGHT STAFFORD, Proprietor, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

Steam Boilers, Kiers, Penstocks, Tanks, 
Steam Boxes, Smoke Stacks, etc. 

SOUTH LAWRENCE = = MASS 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


17 


ROBERT C ARRUTHERS, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

REEDS AND LOOM HARNESS. ALSO BURR AND LICKER-1N 

CYLINDERS FOR WOOL AND COTTON CARDS. 
telephone 654-2. Lear 250 Lawrence St., Lowell. 


A ROUGH DIAMOND. 


The other day I saw one of 
Huddersfield’s “rough diamonds” 
in the person of Mr. Henry Blai- 
mires. Mr. Blaimires is a pros- 
perous but eccentric woolen manu- 
facturer, and is noted for his quaint 
Yorkshire phraseology, or what 
might be perhaps better described, 
as “polyglotlings,” for his language 
is a curious mixture of Irish, 
Scotch, Yankee, and broad York- 
shire dialect. There are many 
good stories concerning Mr. Blai- 
mires, and the glimpse I had of 
him the other day reminded me of 
one or two, which I will endeavor 
to rescue from their local obscurity. 

Hungry Souls : A year or two 
ago Mr. Blaimires took a very ac- 
tive part in superintending the 


restoration or renovation of Lock- 
wood Church, and his zeal in the 
work was only exceeded by his 
eccentricities. On the Sunday 
that the result of his labors culmin- 
ated, Mr. Blaimires was indeed 
ubiquitous. Amongst other items 
necessary to make the re-opening 
ceremony additionally attractive, 
he had engaged “ a special choir,” 
and it was in connection with the 
“ feeding ” of the sweet singers 
that the absurdly amusing contre- 
temps I am about to relate took 
place. The “ special choir ” was 
engaged for evening service, and all 
went well for some time after the 
service began, when it suddenly 
dawned upon Mr. Blaimires that 
he had made no provision for en- 


UNION BRASS FOUNDRY, 

LIGHT AND HEAVY BRASS CASTINGS, 
Dealers in NEW and OLD METALS. 


Wortlp St., opp. Kitsop Mine Works, 


LOWELL, MASS. 


Telephone 714-6. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


IS 


OTIS ALLEN Sc SON. 

LOWELL, MASS. 

ALLEN’S STANDARD LOCK-CORNERED FILLING BOXES, 

Generally used in the Netv England Mills. 

ROVING CABS , DOFFING BOXES , BACKING CASES , AND CLOTH BOARDS. 

WRITE FOR PRICES . 


tertaining the singers. Forthwith 
he summoned his henchman, Ben 
Lawton by name, who was also, by- 
th e-way, one of the choir. 

Catering in church: “Ben,” 
cried Mr. Blaimires, “ I’ve forgotten 
to order sommat to eat for you 
singers; Ahaa mun, go dan to 
Lokied and get some boiled ham, 
or some beef and cake, and get 
some sandwicks made reight sharp.” 
Ben duly hurried off on his mission, 
but alas ! he had to return without 
having been able to fulfill it. Know- 
ing full well Mr. Blaimire’s excited 
condition and being well minded of 
his habit of giving expression to 
his feelings in the manner least 
expected, poor Ben was in a quan- 
dry, and, on arriving at the church, 
made up his mind to be very care- 
ful in breaking the news. But 
then the difficulty arose as to where 
Mr. Blaimires was to be found. 

The service was now well ad- 
vanced — in fact, I believe had 


reached the sermon stage, and all 
was quiet except the voice of the 
parson. 

An anxious ambassador : After 
carefully reconnoitring, without 
attracting the attention of the con- 
gregation — -which was very numer- 
ous — Ben at last spied the object 
of his search ; and knelt down in 
one of the aisles in the gallery! 
Quietly creeping up, under the 
shelter of the high pews, he at last 
reached his man, and then began, 
in a fittingly subdued tone, to tell 
of the result of his search for food 
for the singers. “ Mr. Blaimires,” 
whispered Ben, “ I can’t get nothier 
boiled ham nor beef.” For a mo- 
ment his sade tale evidently made 
no impression, and he repeated 
once more, in a slightly higher 
tone, when suddenly, to the con- 
sternation of poor Ben and the 
congregation, Mr. Blaimires cried 
out, at the top of his resonant voice, 
“Ben, dunnot talk to me, nother 


ABAMS & 62., 


H. R. PARKER <& CO., 


FURNITURE AND CARPETS 

174 CENTRAL ST. 


Successors to G. C. Brock, 

PRESCRIPTION - DRUGGISTS, 

Bridg-e, cor. First Street, Centralville, 
Lowell, Mass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


19 


Established 1840. Incorporated 1884. 

TALBOT BYE WOOD AND CHEMICAL CO. 
Acids, Dyewoods, Ghenpicals, 

Drugs, and Dyestuffs Generally. 


38 to 44 MIDDLE STREET, 


abaat boiled ham nor now’t else, 
cannot ta see at om praying !” 

“ My Friend the Governor.” 
Shortly after the Lockwood inci- 
dent Mr. Blaimires went to Amer- 
ica, and whilst there was the hero 
of many amusing incidents. Those 
who know him know full well the 
extraordinary and even outlandish 
means he takes in order to attain 
his purposes. For instance, before 
visiting Texas, whilst on his tour 
through the States, he gave instruc- 
tions for all letters up to a certain 
date to be addressed to him in care 
of “ The Governor of Texas,” of 
whom he knew as little as he did 
— well, say, Adam ! On reaching 
the “ Lone Star State,” he imme- 
diately drove to the residence of 
the governor and asked to see him. 
At first he failed to obtain the de- 
sired interview, but ultimately, by 
the application of a little back- 
sheesh, he succeeded in getting a 


LOWELL. MASS. 


message conveyed to His Excel- 
lency. 

“ Tell tha maister,” he said to 
the flunkey in attendance, “ ut 
Henry Blaimires, o’t firm of T. and 
H. Blaimires, Leeds Road, Hud- 
dersfield, Yorkshire, England, want 
to see him very partic’lar.” Event- 
ually he was ushered into the great 
man’s presence, and the latter, 
being a stickler in the matter of 
etiquette, was exceedingly wroth 
on learning the business of his 
visitor, which was simply to obtain 
any letters which might have ar- 
rived for him. 

“ What right had you, sir,” he 
said, “ to have your letters address- 
ed here? Your presumption is 
most unwarrantable,” etc , etc., etc. 
“ Nab, maister Governor,” said the 
irrepressible Mr. B., “ Do you 

knaw a better man nor yersen e’ 
this country ? Cos I dunnot, so I 
thowt I had best have my letters 


Wm. Forbes & Sons, | 

Salutary Engineers ana steam Filters, j 

450 ESSEX STREET, 

LAWRENCE, MASS. H 


W. H. SPALDING & CO, 

20 Middle Street. 


Art Materials 


For Textile and Drawing Schools. 


20 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


STUDY 

the points of our different machines and com- 
pare with others. 

UNDERSTAND 

the merits and you will be convinced beyond 
a doubt of their superiority. 

HOWARD & BULLOUGH 

American inaciiine Go., Ltd., Pawtucket, R. I. 



sent here.” Struck with the 
quaintness of the man, the Gov- 
ernor was overcome with amuse- 
ment, and, the ice being broken, he 
threw off all officialism, and great- 
ly enjoyed the remainder of his 
strange enterview with “ Mr. Blai- 
mires, of Huddersfield.” 

M. A. P. 


MAGIC PICTURE. 

This is the contrivance of F. 
Tschofen, of Vienna, Austria. It 
consists in an apparently blank 
piece of glazed paper or card or 
other suitable material which, on 
being rubbed over with colored 
pencils or crayons, or with colored 
powders or the like, produces pic- 
tures or words — such as answers to 
questions — visibly printed above. 

A piece of glazed paper, card, or 
other suitable material is inscribed 


FRED C. CHURCH, 

Lowell’s Leading 

Insurance Agency 

Central Blk., Rooms 49 to 54. 


with letters or words or pictures, 
preferable in outline, either drawn, 
written, or printed with a mixture 
of finely powdered chalk, water, 
and gum arabic, or of any suitable 
mixture which is capable of impart- 
ing to the said lines a rough sur- 
face. Such inscriptions will, on 
being dried, be totally, or at least 
almost, invisible, but on rubbing 
the card, etc., thus prepared with 
colored crayons, powder, etc., the 
latter will adhere to the roughened 
lines, but not to the glazed surface 
of the card, thus bringing out the 
inscription or picture. 


A REMINDER. 


Tommy — Mamma, why have 
you got papa’s hair in a locket? 

His Mother — To remind me 
that he once had some, Tommy. 
- ' - 

MISS WOOD’S SCHOOL 

OF 

Stenography and Typewriting 

Students may enter at any time. Call or send for 
Catalogue, and note testimonials from many pupils 
who have been placed in lucrative positions. 

Central Blk., 53 Central St. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


2 I 


C. E. RILEY & CO. 

281-285 Congress St., 
BOSTON, MKSS. 

Latest Improvements and Specialties. 


\ 


/ 

N 

/ 

X 

■A 

l 


UTPORTERS AND BUILDERS OF 

COTTON, 

WOOLEN, and 
WORSTED 

CARD CLOTHING, 

EGYPTIAN .COTTON, .Etc. 



OFFICE BOY. 


“Please, sir, I have come to 
apply for the position of office boy 
in your establishment. I seen 
your advertisement in this morn- 
ing’s paper.” 

Such was the manly but un- 
grammatical words uttered by little 
Willis Smith as he stood twirling 
ii is hat in his hands and looking 
up into the face of Mr. Coupons, 
the eminent financier. 

“Ah, indeed,” said the capitalist, 
kindly. “I like your frank, open 
countenance. How old are you?” 

“Twelve years next month,” re- 
plied the boy. 

“Have you any recommenda- 
tions ?” 

“No, sir, I have not. You see, 
I have never worked for anybody 
before except my father, and he 
did not appreciate my services. 
That is why I have come after this 
job.” 


“Are you willing to work for $2 
per week ?” 

“Indeed I am, sir, and glad of 
the chance.” 

“Very well. You may consider 
yourself engaged. But stay — there 
is one thing more. I want it dis- 
tinctly understood that I shall 
allow you only one grandmother 
during the season.” 

“I don’t think I quite understand 
you, sir.” 

“My other office boys have 
always had a host of relatives who 
died during the base ball season. I 
find that this interferes seriously 
with their work, so I have decided 
to restrict you to one grandmother. 
She may die whenever you please, 
but only once a year. Uo you un- 
derstand ?” 

“I do.” replied the boy coldly, 
“and I cannot accept the position 
you offer me. I will not allow my 
employer, nor no one else, to inter- 
fere in my family. 


GEO. F. ALLEN, 

HEADQUARTERS FOR 


| TEAGUE & TEAGUE, 

1 Hatters and Haberdashers. 


TrunRs, Bags and Dress Suit Gases 1 

REPAIRING A SPECIALTY. 8 

m 

Lowell, Mass. ^ 


Exclusive Novelties in Men’s Fine Shirts 
ami Neckwear. 

Complete Line of Men’s Fine Underwear 
ami controllers of the celebrated Wilson 
Hat, none better made. 

Oorner Central and Middle Streets, Lowell. 


23-27 Middle Street, 


22 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


rierrimack Wool Scouring Mills 

WOOb AND I'JOlLiS SCOURED, CARBONIZED AND NEUTRAblZED. 
THOMAS HARTLEY. •» ¥r Lawrence, Mass. 


THE RICHEST MAN IN 
THE WORLD. 


The tax statistics for 1898, just 
published in New York, give some 
idea of the amazing wealth pos- 
sessed by Mr. John D. Rockefeller, 
the Standard Oil King. He has a 
yearly income of ,£4,000,000. Mr. 
Rockefeller is expected to be a 
billionaire before he dies. He is 
worth about a third of a billion al- 
ready, and his fortune is growing 
by leaps and bounds. He admitted 
before some investigators not long 
aco that he could not tell within 
ten or a dozen million how much 
he was worth. Mr. Rockefeller is 
said to be worth more than the 
combined wealth of the Astors, 
Vanderbilts, and Goulds. Croesus 
was poor compared with this man. 

I Iis yearly income is $20,000,000, 
which works out at $1,666, 566 per 
month; $55,555 per day (including 
Sunday) and $2,316 per hour. 
John D. Rockefeller began his 


business career as a book-keeper at 
a salary of $50 a month. It is as- 
serted that O. H. Rockefeller, who 
claimed to be the coming billion- 
aire’s cousin, died of starvation in 
a wretched lodging-house in 
Chicago. He could, if he wished, 
fight a war like the recent one with 
Spain, pay all the expenses of both 
nations, all indemnities, pensions 
and damages, replace destroyed 
ships, and give the widows of the 
killed ,£1,000 each, and remain 
among the richest men in the 
world. 

There are only half a dozen na- 
tions in the world whose debts 
amount to more than a billion 
dollars. A billion dollars is three 
times as much as the total revenue 
of the United States of America 
during any ordinary year. Mr. 
Rockefeller could pay the salaries 
of all the rulers of the world and 
yet have left a larger income than 
any of them. He could give Pres- 
ident McKinley his salary of ,£10,- 


WILLIAM BARBER, 

“rM^rCoveaTAPES FOR WORSTED SPINNING FRAMES, 

Cotton Belting for Cones and Railway Heads, also Surgical Bandages. 

LOWELL, MASS. 


P. O. BOX 339. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


23 


E. M. TUCKE. PERCY PARKER. 

TUCKE <& PARKER, 

reaping ELEGTRIGAb GONTRAGT0RS 

79 MIDDLE STREET, - - LOW^ELT, BIASS. - - Telephone Connection. 


000 every day, and his remaining 
income would be 300,000 a year. 
He could easily buy a little king- 
dom of his own and have his own 
government. Mr. Rockefeller with 
his thousand million dollars would 
be able to exercise a power that 
would be tremendous for good or 
otherwise. 


"A I'A /.V PERSON ” IN LIN- 
COLN WORKHOUSE. 


The Lincoln Board of Guardians 
at their meeting on Tuesday, re- 
ceived a letter from an inmate 
named Thwaites, who said it was 
his intention to “ quit this Arcadian 
retreat.” “ I have,” he continued, 
“ literary and intellectual capabili- 
ties. Poetry is deemed by com- 
petent judges to be the highest of 
literary art ; short stories come 
next. From my fertile cranium 
emanate both poetry and short 
stories. I may require a little 
assistance by way of a start, but if 


you withhold it will make no differ- 
ence to me. When I have ob- 
tained a sufficiency for myself, I 
will do all in my power to enable 
others to do likewise. And that I 
conceive to be the whole duty of 
man. I am very proud of my 
literary ability, wherefore you will 
conclude that I am a very vain per- 
son, but what saith the preacher, 
‘O, Vanity of Vanities, all is vanity!’ 
He is right.” (Great laughter.) It 
was understood that the applicant 
would be relieved out of the chair- 
man’s fund. 


BARON ROTHSCHILD'S 
ESTA TE. 

It is probably that, owing to the 
bulk of the estate of Baron Ferdi- 
nand de Rothschild being in Aus- 
trian and other Continental securi- 
ties, the total value will never be 
revealed, but it is understood by 
those who sit- in “ the seats of the 
mighty ” to exceed twenty-five mil- 
lions sterling. 


H. H. WILDER Sc CO., 

Furnaces, Stoves, Ranges, Kitchen Furnishing Goods 

Nos. 29 and 31 MARKET STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


24 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


J. L. ROBERTSON. W. L. ROBERTSON. 

ROBERTSON <& CO., 

Crockery, Stoves, Furniture, Carpets, 

HOUSEKEEPING GOODS AND HOTEL SUPPLIES. 


For merl y 96 to 100 Cent ra l St. LOWELL, MASS. Re moved to 82 PfeSCOtt St. 


AN IRISH DUEL. 


Over in Ireland recently there 
was a duel between a man named 
Knott and one named Shott: Knott 
was shot and Shott was not: in this 
case it was better to be Shott than 
Knott. There was a rumor that 
Knott was not shot ; but Shott de- 
clares that he shot Knott; now if 
Shott shot not then how could he 
have shot Knott ; but if Shott shot 
Knott, then the shot Shott shot 
shot Knott ; and if Knott was not 
shot, then the shot Shott shot at 
Knott was not shot. Circumstan- 
tial evidence is not convincing. It 
might be made to appear at a trial 


that the shot Shott shot, shot 
Knott, or as accidents with fire- 
arms are frequent, it is possible 
that the shot Shott shot, shot Shott 
himself, when the whole affair 
would resolve itself into the origi- 
nal proposition and Shott would 
be shot and Knott would not be 
shot; some think, however, that the 
shot Shott shot, shot not Shott but 
Knott, while others are firmly of 
the opinion that the shot Knott 
shot, shot not Knott, but shot 
Shott ; anyway it is hard to tell 
who was shot and who was not. 

There are 208,749 railroad 
bridges in the United States, span- 
ning 3,2 1 3 miles. 



THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


2 5 



Tailoring Prope rly Done 

and Up=To=Date. 

The Largest Stock to Select from in Lowell. 

We also guarantee Quality, Style and Fit. 

WARE BROS., 

100 Merrimack St. 


DEWEY'S OPINION OF 
ENGLAND. 


Admiral Dewey, the hero of Ma- 
nilla, has today the ears of the 
American people, and this is what 
he is reported to have said : — 
“ After many years of wandering I 
have come to the conclusion that 
the mightiest factor in the civiliza- 
tion of the world is the imperial 
policy of England.” 

To see English and American 
Admirals throwing national bou- 
quets at one another is much more 
pleasant to endure than daggers 
and darts. May this feeling of 


goodwill continue so that we may 
have peace and contentment. He 
who prefers that the two countries 
shall live in spite and hatred of 
each other, let him, like the Cali- 
fornian centipede, get mad enough 
to sting himself to death. He de- 
serves his fate. 


SMALL BOY SEE A NS. 


I don’t want to be an angel 

O 5 

And with the angels stand; 

I’d rather be a drum-major, 

And lead the village band. 

— Chicago News 


We do the “Best” Job Printing. It cost you no more than the inferior work that you get 
of other printers. We solicit a trial order. 

E. E. BUOKLAND. C. E. PATTERSON. 

No Order too Large— No Order too Small. 

WE PRINT! _ The Buckland Printing Co. 

TYPE, PRESSES, IDEAS, NLW. 

No. 74 Middle Street ... ... LOWELL, MASS. 


26 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


JOHN DENNIS. J. NELSON DENNIS. 

JOHN DENNIS St CO., 

Press Manufacturers, either Hydraulic, Screw, or Toggle Joint. 
Hollow Plate Finishing Presses and Balers. 

Belting, Curriers’ and Roll Coverers’ Machinery. *94 Western Ave., Lowell, Mass. 


MORE IMPORTANT. 


Doctor: You’ll be on your feet 
in a week or so. Patient : On my 
feet ? But how soon will I be on 
my wheel? 


Here is a cement for broken 
china and glass which is nearly 
colorless, thus rendering the crack 
or joint almost invisible. Dissolve 
half an ounce of gum acacia in a 
wineglassful of boiling water, add 
plaster of Paris sufficient to form 
a thick paste, and apply with a 
brush to the edges of the broken 
parts. Hold the pieces carefully 
together until the cement has 
hardened sufficiently for them to 
adhere. If the article to be 
mended is broken in several pieces, 
do not attempt to cement a frag- 
ment before the previous one has 


thoroughly hardened, even if a 
badly fractured object takes several 
days to mend. 


If a few drops of common tur- 
pentine in a test tube are covered 
with 5 parts ammonia of specific 
gravity .096, the turpentine forms 
a milky emulsion and soon gelati- 
nizes. Larch, otherwise known as 
Venice turpentine, remains appar- 
ently unaffected, but if constantly 
stirred up it becomes a solid, color- 
less mass. — E. Hirschsohn. 


The Earl of Warwick, the king- 
maker, kept 30,000 men in his 
different castles, and when in Lon- 
don six oxen were daily consumed 
at breakfast. The huge oaken 
table filled almost the entire length 
of the castle hall, and at ten o’clock 


M. Steinert & Sons Co., 

New England Representative for 

STEINWAY & SONS 

And Other First-Class PIANOS. 

290 ESSEX STREET, - Lawrence, Mass. 

Largest Stock in Lawrence. Cash or Instalments. 


SOLON BARTLETT, M. D., 


Office, 106 Merrimack St., Lowell, Mass. 


Office Hours: 

Morning, 9 to 10, Afternoon 2 to 4, Evening 7 to 8. 

Office Telephone, 836-5. 

Residence, 232 Westford Street. 
Telephone, 699-3. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


27 


W. C. Ilainblett. Pres. S. 15. Puffer, Treas. 

Jas. Talcott, Selling Agent, 108-110 Franklin St., N. Y. 

CRITERION KNITTING CO.. 

Manufacturers of all kinds of 

Jersey aim Spring-Needle Underwear 

220 TANNER ST., LOWELL, MASS. 


in the morning groaned beneath 
the arreat masses of fresh and salted 
beef, poultry, fish and strangely 
concocted dishes. One dish, some- 
times introduced after each course, 
was called “a subtlety,” and con- 
sisted of curious figures made of 
jellies and confectionery to repre- 
sent men, animals and mythologi- 
cal characters. 

The self-made man was speaking. 
He said: “ My father was a raiser 
of hogs. There was a large family 
of us,” — and then his voice was 
drowned by applause. — Ex. 

To make a good sticky fly paper, 
mix by heat 3.I ounces raw linseed 
oil, 1 pound resin and add 3.^ ounces 
molasses. Apply to paper while 
warm. 

When we desire anything, our 
minds run wholly on the good cir- 
cumstances of it; when its obtained, 
our minds run wholly on the bad 
ones. — -Swift. 


W. E. HICKS . . . 

Scientific Optician and 
Eye Expert. 

106 MERRIMACK ST., LOWELL, MASS. 

Hours : 9 to 12 a. m., 2 to 5 p. m., 

7 to 9 Monday, Friday and Saturday Evenings. 


ENGLAND IS A MODEL. 


England is the only country in 
the world which possesses colonies 
and dependencies that are loyally 
attached to the mother country, 
and as we wish to govern by affec- 
tion and well-founded self-interest 
on the part of the colonists, we 
should be blind to the obvious 
teachings of experience if we did 
not carefully study, and, as far as 
we could, adapt her methods to 
meet our own case. The English 
colonial system has been built up 
by slow degrees, often as the out- 
come of hard experience arising 
from the practice of bad methods — 
methods which have been discon- 
tinued after their unfortunate re- 
sults have been discovered. That 
we shall be exempt from the conse- 
quences of similar blunders is alto- 
gether too much to hope . — Boston 
Herald. 


TIL-TON cS6 OO. 

FINE STATIONERY AND BLANK BOOKS 

Post Office Sub-Station No. 1. 

NO. 9 CENTRAL STREET. 


28 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


dopy Transfer company, 


General Baggage and 

Freight Forwarders 


When you want any teaming done, telephone 77, and it 
will be done promptly, carefully and at reasonable rates. 


OFFICE, NORTHERN DEPOT. 


LOWELL HEATING AND PLUMBING GO. 

COPPERSMITHS. 

We are prepared to do Copper Work of every description for cotton and woolen mills, chemical 
works, also Cylinders. Drying Cans, Copper Pipe and Bends. Copper repairing for cotton and woolen mills 
a specialty. 

828 and 836 MIDDLESEX STREET. 

C. A. STOTT, President. FREDERICK CONANT, Treasurer. 

THE HOWE LUMBER COMPANY, 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALERS IN 

LUMBER OF ALL KINDS AND MOULDINGS 

SOUTHERN PINE TIMBER. 

DRY HOUSE CONNECTED. DUTTON STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


Anything and Everytfyipg 

prom a Ticket to a Bound Book. 

UNION PRINTING CO., 

67 Middle Street and 128 Merrimack Street, Lowell, Mass. 



SCANIsrELL & WHOLEY, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 


STEAM BOILEHS, 


Stand Pipes, Penstocks, Tanks, 
I^iers, Steanp Boxes, Etc. 


26 to 48 Tanner Street* Lowell, Mass. 


Eor Floral Designs, Wedding Decorations, etc. 

00 to MARSHALL, 

Florist. 

Store 67 Merrimack St., Phone 604-4. 
Greenhouses 707 Stevens bt., Phone 703-2. 
LOWELL, MASS. 


When you are hungry and want a Good Lunch, 

go to Evans’ Lunch Rooms. 

( Foimerly Chase’s ) 

Our Beans served in an individual Bean Pot, are 
delicious, try them. 

Our Coffee cannot be equaled in Lowell. 


MISS E. C. GREENE, 

DRAWING and PAINTING 

Water Color, Oil, Pastels, Crayon, 
and all Branches of Art. 

Class Days : Tuesday, Friday and Saturday. 
Evening Class : Wednesday. 

Studio, 8-9 Mansur Block, Lowell. Order Work Solicited. 


MARTIN & eS„ 

Reduced Price Drug Store, 

Corner Merrimack and Central Sts., 
LOWELL, MASS. 


Lowell Textile Journal. 


A REMARKABLE LOOM. 


Lowell Man Perfects Devices Which Double the Capacity of Weaving Machinery. 



THE PER II AM LOOM. 


A. Break lever of the let-off. 

B. Crank shaft. 

C. Picking mechanism. 

D. Break for letting off warp. 


E. Picker stick, 
a. Warp tension spring, 
e. Harness cam. 


As a result of contrivances per- 
fected by a Lowell inventor, in 
what he calls the “Single Shaft” 


loom, whereby the capacity of the 
weaving machinery now in com- 
mon use is more than doubled, 



4 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL, 


Lowell bids fair to become even 
more famous than she is now in 
the textile world. Ever since men 
first began to weave cloth by pass- 
ing a shuttle backward and for- 
ward through a “shed” formed by 
the alternating threads of the 
warp, the^energies of the' inventor 
and manufacturer have been con- 
centrated to secure a swifter move- 
ment of the shuttle, and, conse- 
quently, a more rapid production 
of cloth. 

The problem before the textile 
manufacturer is to produce the 
best yard of cloth for the least out- 
lay of labor, seeking economy in 
every operation, from the prepara- 
tion of the raw material to the 
finished fabric. Now if he wishes 
to effect any saving, he looks to 
the several stages through which 
the material passes — the spinning, 
dressing, weaving and so forth. 
It is a well known fact that the 
weaving is the largest factor in the 
cost of production, it being the 
common saying that “the cost of 
weaving is one-half the cost of 
manufacture.” It necessarily fol- 
lows that any great saving in the 
weave-room materially decreases 
the cost of production. 

A progressive manufacturer will 
be on the watch for any improve- 
ment in the loom that makes in 
this direction. For many years 
the loom has remained practically 


the same. The loom of today is, 
in form, the loom of a century ago, 
with here and there minor im- 
provements which did not change 
its essential features. All do about 
the same work, and one loom has 
very little advantage over another. 
It is a most interesting fact, there- 
fore, that a new and radically dif- 
ferent loom is perfected, which not 
only yields a production, as com- 
pared with other looms, of 150 to 
200 per cent., but which is by far 
the simplest and least expensive 
loom ever devised. It is the in- 
vention of Mr. Charles F. Perham 
of Lowell. By various ingenious 
contrivances Mr. Perham has been 
able to get a speed out of his loom 
that has hitherto been utterly im- 
possible, because of the difficulty 
in giving to the shuttle a high ve- 
locity without immense losses in 
breakage and repairs. 

A glance through the shop 
where Mr. Perham has some dozen 
looms for cotton and woolen cloth 
shows such improvements made 
as are likely to revolutionize 
weaving. In these latter days, 
when Southern competition is so 
sharp, and manufacturers every- 
where are on the alert to grasp at 
devices which shall aid the opera- 
tive, the work of Mr. Perham is of 
the greatest interest. It is the 
more so also because it has passed 
the experimental stage. It has 


OUR ADVERTISERS ARE OUR SUPPORTERS . 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


5 


been submitted to the severest 
tests and has satisfactorily with- 
stood them all. Moreover, the work 
of the looms is so good as to leave 
nothing to be desired, to the 
astonishment of every one cogniz- 
ant of the difficulties supposed to 
attend the running of looms at the 
terrific speeds attained. 

Of course there were sceptics 
among the mill men when told 
that the 30-inch looms, which were 
running at 190 “picks” a minute, 
could be replaced by looms that 
would think nothing of 300 or 350 
picks in the same period. All 
manner of objections were urged, 
but all have been shown to be 
baseless by actual trial. They 
said that the warp would not stand 
it ; but it does stand it beautifully, 
owing to a very easy shedding. 
They said it might possibly do for 
cottons, but would never be appli- 
cable to woolen weaving ; but Mr. 
Perham has a wide woolen loom, 
with a shuttle throw of 138 inches, 
which runs at 165 picks with the 
greatest ease, while the highest 
speed in one of our local woolen 
mills, for instance, is only 85 picks. 
And this high speed was attained 
with the poorest quality of warps 
procurable, yet the cloth produced 
was of remarkable evenness and 
bore the closest microscopic in- 
spection. 

Such a remarkable advance in 


the possibilities of textile ma- 
chinery seems to demand the most 
serious and thoughtful considera- 
tion from all concerned. Not only 
are the speeds obtained sufficiently 
high to arrest the attention at 
once, but the loom is so con- 
structed that it has few parts, all 
readily accessible without the re- 
moval of gearing, and so simplified 
that the whole loom occupies, say 
25 per cent, less space than is now 
common in such machinery. 

Mr. Perham’s machine is called 
the “ Single Shaft” loom. It can 
weave either cotton or woolen 
fabric, the greater speed mentioned 
above being in the cotton print- 
cloth looms. As has been stated, 
the speed can be run up to 350 
picks per minute in these looms, 
which is double what the average 
loom in common use is capable of. 
It is due to several ingenious de- 
vices, among which is a greatly 
improved shuttle-box, by means of 
which the shuttle is gripped by a 
binder having a wooden guide 
piece, the grip being graduated to 
fit the requirements of the case as 
the shuttle enters the box, and 
being finally released entirely, just 
in time to allow the picker-stick to 
send the shuttle back with a 
velocity that would snap the ordi- 
nary picker like a pipe stem were 
the resistance such as the common 
binder gives. The mechanism by 


PATRONIZE OUR ADVERTISERS. 


6 


THE I DWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


which this is accomplished is very 
simple. But it obviates the chief 
difficulty in the way of speeding 
the loom, and does away entirely 
with the breaking of shuttles, 
pickers and fillings, which would 
inevitably follow the attempts to 
use such high speed in the old- 
fashioned loom. What is more to 
the point, it “works” to a nicety. 
The shuttle flies back and forth 
with the utmost ease, is not 
crushed or worn, and can be driven 
at a speed which seems well-nigh 
unlimited. The box has the added 
advantage that it guides the shut- 
tle much more completely than in 
the old looms and leaves no room 
for wobbling. It is assisted in 
stopping the shuttle by a check 
strap at the foot of the picker- 
stick, so arranged that there is a 
further safeguard against damage 
to the shuttle, picker or filling. 
In any other loom the filling would 
be pounded off and broken at the 
very first attempt to push the 
shuttle to so high a speed. 

The ingenious shuttle box re- 
ferred to above is only one of 
the improvements made by Mr. 
Perham. The whole machine is 
so simplified that it occupies, in 
the case of the print-cloth loom, 
only 36 inches, front to back, 
where the looms in common use 
occupy about 45 inches. There 
being only one shaft, the rolls car- 


rying the warp and the woven 
cloth can be placed underneath 
much farther than in the common 
loom, making a saving of valuable 
floor space. The large beam and 
cloth space effects a saving in the 
drawing-in, increases the time 
which the loom can be kept run- 
ning, and makes it possible to save 
materially by avoiding the waste 
at the ends of the warp. It also 
results in causing less stoppage to 
change warps. In connection 
with the warp beam there is a most 
effective let-off motion devised by 
Mr. Perham, whereby the varia- 
tion of tention in the threads 
causes a band-brake on the beam 
to regulate the let-off automati- 
cally. It does its work much more 
efficiently than any one of the hun- 
dreds of let-off motions now in use. 
The tension of the warp is thus 
kept uniform throughout the 
process of weaving. The cloth 
rollers are of perforated steel, and 
give better satisfaction than the 
sand rollers formerly employed. 

One of the best features of the 
loom is the entire absence of gears 
to get out of order or break. The 
harness motion is secured by a 
cam rotating on the shaft, and the 
harness works very smoothly in- 
deed. The cams all through the 
looms are well devised to avoid 
the waste motion and jarring due 
to bluntness. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


7 


A further interesting device is 
the pick-out detector. This con- 
sists of a series of light loops of 
wire along a light bar. As the 
threads of the warp go up to the 
harness they pass under these sen- 
sitive loops and any snarl in the 
thread will cause the detector to 
fly out and release the power, 
stopping the loom instantly. The 
fact that there is so little ma- 
chinery turning, owing to the sin- 
gle shaft, makes the sudden stop 
easy and free from jar, — this re- 
sult being assisted also by a very 
ingenious arrangement of the 
driving pulley. The breaks in the 
weft are cared for by the “ weft- 
fork,” which is kept stationary 
instead of oscillating. It was 
found that the oscillator did not 
work well at the high speed of 
these looms. The fork used is 
much less likely to break the fill- 
ing than those now commonly 
employed and it is very effective 
in stopping the loom at once 
in case of injury to the weft. 
A long bar passing under the 
“lay,” to which it is trussed at 
the centre, can be tightened by 
nuts at the ends, enabling the 
operator to take up any sagging 
of the “ lay ” without difficulty. 

One of the notable features of 
the loom is the fact that sudden 
variations of speed do not affect 
it at all, whereas slight variations 


1 Could 

Hardly 

Breathe 


“ I had a terrible cold and 
could hardly breathe. I then 
tried Ayer's Cherry Pectoral 
and it gave me immediate relief. 
I don't believe there is a cough 
remedy in the world anywhere 
near as good." — W. C. Layton, 
Sidell, 111 ., May 2 9, 1899. 


Cures 

Night Colds 


How will your cough be 
tonight? Worse, probably. 
For it s first a cold, then a cough, 
then bronchitis or pneumonia, 
and at last consumption. Coughs 
always tend downward. It's 
first the throat and then the 
lungs. They don’t naturally 
tend to get well. You have 
to help Nature a little. 

You can stop this downward 
tendency any time by taking 
Ayer’s Cherry Pectoral. Then 
take it tonight. You will cough 
less and sleep better, and by 
tomorrow at this time you will 
be greatly improved. 




You can get a small bottle of Ayer’s 
Cherry Pectoral, now, for 25 cents. For 
hard coughs, bronchitis, asthma, and the 
croup t the 50 cent size is better. For 
chronic cases, as consumption, and to 
keep on hand, the $1.00 size m most 
economical. 


8 


THE LOWELL, TEXTILE JOURNAL 


DANIEL GAGE, ,CE \ Z°l%,ber. 

OFFICE, ICE HOUSES, 

41 Merrimack Street. 453 Pawtucket St., Lowell and Forge Village. 


are a frequent cause of complaint 
in the looms now used in most of 
our mills. Tests with the single 
shaft loom have been made where 
the rate was varied from 8o to 320 
within a very short interval, by 
means of a variable speed regulator, 
without affecting the quality of 
the cloth produced, — a most re- 
markable showing. 

The loom must be seen fully to 
be appreciated. The saving of 
power is estimated, at the inside, 
to be one-half. It is evident that 
the loom makes an appreciable 
saving in floor space, belting 
power, warp, filling and waste. It 
is plain also that its saving in the 
line of repairs in general, and par- 
ticularly in the wear of shuttles 
and pickers, is incalculable. That 
its parts are all accessible for oil- 
ing, cleaning or repair is a feature 
not to be neglected. In fact, it is 
estimated that the Perham loom 
will require only about half as 
much oil as an ordinary loom. All 
parts at all liable to wear out are 
inexpensive and can be readily 
replaced. Finally, it must be ad- 
mitted that in the matter of speed 
it stands without a rival in the tex- 


tile world, and that it is far and 
away the most efficient, cheapest 
and simplest loom in existence, 
and seems destined to work won- 
ders in manufacturing. 

The woolen loom is, of course, 
wider, but there is the same saving 
in space from front to back. The 
gain in speed is even more aston- 
ishing in this loom, in proportion 
to the long throw of shuttle, than 
it is in the small print-cloth looms, 
the gain being more than 100 per 
cent, over the looms in vogue in 
the best woolen mills in the 
country. 

As before stated the loom is far 
past the experimental stage. It 
has proved to be practical, and 
works without any of the disadvan- 
tages which have heretofore stood 
in the way of great speed. 

Opportunities are not hard to 
get. They are spread out on 
every hand. They may not be 
what you want. But take what you 
can get. Then make the most of 
the opportunity. 

Success is not won in jumps. It 
is reached step by step. One of 
the most helpful of mottos is “do 
the next thing.” 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


9 


C. F. HATCH & CO., 

Paper Box Hanufacturers and Printers. 

Crepe, Tissues and Shelf Papers. Mount Boards and 
Material for Passepartout, Boxes for the Holiday season. 

70 CHURCH STREET , - - LOWELL , MASS. 


WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY, 


By Wm. W. CROSBY, S. B., Principal Lowell Textile School. 


Of all the inventions of the pres- 
ent day none can surpass this mar- 
vel of the 19th century. Man is 
forever striving to control by his 
force of will great undertakings; 
the greater the distance at which 
they may be situated, the better he 
is pleased, and our ideas up to this 
time have been so framed and our 
thoughts so adjusted that if there 
be a definite visible connection 
between the source of power and 
its delivery, this control of affairs at 
a distance is easily comprehended. 
Where the visible connection is 
wanting is usually the point where 
the mystery begins. 

If the re be a moving belt, a 
shaft, a lever, or some device of 


this sort between two points, al- 
though they may be reasonably 
remote, the mind compasses the 
situation readily. 

When first the telephone and 
telegraph were introduced it was 
hard to realize that without a vis- 
ible motion different sounds could 
be transferred to distances so much 
greater than was possible through 
the air. Vibrations of the air it- 
self as transmitting sound from its 
source to the ear had become fa- 
miliar. The transmission of heat 
whether by the undulatory or 
emission theory was well com- 
passed and it was known that elec- 
tricity would traverse metal ; but in 
the case of the telephone, changing 


LOWELL HEATING AND PLUMBING CO. 

COPPERSMITHS. 

We are prepared to do Copper Work of every description for cotton and woolen mills, chemical 
works, also Cylinders, Drying Cans, Copper Pipe and Bends. Copper repairing for cotton and woolen mills 
a specialty. 

828 and 836 MIDDLESEX STREET. 


IO 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


TALK THAT (MIR-* 


The Big Store is daily winning a bigger trade because it deserves 
-to. Pedigrees don’t count in business. It’s because we hammer 
down prices every day, that’s why we cut a deeper, longer, 

broader notch in our progress. 

Quality With Us Is Always the First Consideration ; this secured, we hammer down the 
prices to make them acceptable to you. 

Superb Stock of Overcoats at 40 per cent below others, $3 98 to $20. 

Suits — Endless assortment at the people’s prices— $4.98 to $23. 

Lowell One-Price Clothing Co., 72 to «S^L street> 


sound waves into electrical waves 
and the reconversion of those elec- 
trical waves into sound waves was 
a somewhat difficult step for the 
mind to grasp. Through it all, 
however, was a definite means of 
connection even though it pos- 
sessed no visible motion, but here 
we have the transmission of a me- 
chanical motion, which, suitably 
spaced by re-curring periods of 
action and rest, can be made into 
interchangeable ideas, all trans- 
mitted through space without the 
intervention of any of our precon- 
ceived methods of connection. Al- 
though the explanation is clear, 
the accomplishment of the matter 
is none the less marvelous. 

The detail of wireless telegra- 
phy is remarkably simple and the 
vital principle, the last point to be 
taken well in mind was with ref- 
erence to the so-called Hertzian 
Wave. About a quarter of a cen- 


tury ago Scientist Hertz discovered 
that the operation of a frictional 
machine, that is to say the static 
discharge, would cause a spark to 
pass between the poles of a Ley- 
den jar, in the vicinity, if the poles 
were not too much separated. 
This was ascribed by him to a 
wave which traversed the air, or j 
more correctly speaking, the ether, 
which as is well known pervades 
all space even beyond the limits of 
our atmosphere and between the 
molecules of the air, in fact all 
substances of which we know. 

These waves, not entirely dis- 
similar to the Ultra Light waves, 
are propagated through the ether 
and made to react on what is called 
a coherer. A large Ruhmkorff 
coil transforms a low tension cur- 
rent to one of high intensity and 
the static discharge is controlled 
by a telegraph key. At each dis- 
charge the Hertzian wave propa- 


Is saving time and money any object to you? 

Double Entry Bookkeeping taught by the “ personified ” method or Easy-Rapid Shorthand 
taught by the ‘‘auto alternating m and m ” method is learned in from six to ten weeks — 
some bright pupils acquire it in even much less time, at 

11/ II I I A il/l O' SCHOOL OF BUSINESS IN THE^N. E. BUSINESS UNIVERSITY, 
W # L. / Alf VI O , 10 Merrimack Square, Lowell, Mass. 

Rates of tuition are very low. No better instruction can begotten anywhere or at any price. Day and 
Evening sessions. Get the best and the cheapest and in the least time. Call or write for particulars. 

O. El. WILLIAMS, Principal.. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


I I 



DOHERTY BROTHERS, 

Manufacturers of Light and Heavy 
j Castings of Every Description. 

Paine and Saunders Streets, Lowell, Mass. 


y, 


gates through space to the coherer, 
which consists of a glass tube 
carrying wires let in at the oppo- 
site ends, extending to disks 
within a small fraction of an inch 
from one another. The space 
between the disks is filled with 
a powdered metallic substance, 
which, under ordinary conditions, 
does not carry the electrical cur- 
rent across the space, but the 
action of the Hertzian waves 
causes this powder to become a 
conductor and the current from a 
local battery is made to traverse 
from the now completed circuit 
operating a telegraph sounder at 
the station beneath. At first a 
serious trouble was felt in that 
when the metallic particles in the 
coherer had been acted upon they 
did not lose their conductivity 
until they were mechanically dis- 
turbed. This is now accomplished 
by a small tapper placed in the 
circuit, which agitates them 


slightly and causes them to fall 
apart, severing the connection 
after each action of the Hertzian 
wave. In so simple a way as this 
is the greatest marvel of the nine- 
teenth century made a reality. 
The distance from which mes- 
sages may be transmitted vary 
directly as the square of the 
height, that is to say, the coherer 
must be at a considerable distance 
above the ground, this distance 
increasing as the square while the 
linear transmission is gaining 
only as the first power. 

From the present standpoint a 
serious difficulty in case of war 
would be that the waves being 
transmitted in all directions might 
be gathered by coherers of numer- 
ous outposts of the enemy and the 
messages, though they might be 
in cipher, would be liable to dis- 
covery ; for almost no cipher code 
exists but that can be read by 
experts ; but in times of peace, 


New York and Boston Despatch Co., 

For Providence, Fall River. Newport, New Bedford, New York. 

and ADAMS EXPRESS CO,, 

For Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, South and West. 

Office, 480 3IIDDLE SEX ST., Lowell, Mass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


I 2 


BEST HALF- HOSE! HAVE! THE! 



StfAW STOCKING CO. LOWELL , MASS. SEND FOR FREE CATALOGUE. 




and these we hope will obtain for- 
ever in the future, this wireless 
telegraphy must be an incalculable 
benefit to mankind. Ships at sea 
may signal with the utmost 
facility, trains may receive and 
send messages when in motion, 
travelers in remote places may 
communicate with their friends 
and in fact innumerable benefits 
may be linked with this achieve- 
ment of Sig. Marconi. 

It may not be out of place to 
add that Prof. Dolbeare, of Tufts 
College, some years ago succeeded 
in transmitting telephonic mes- 
sages over short intervals of space 
without the interposition of 
metallic connections ; and the 
writer has had the <>ood fortune to 
witness and participate in some of 
his demonstrations, but the dis- 
tances are short, very short at 


present, though if the parallel 
between the ordinary telegraph 
and the present telephone system 
is to be repeated in this case, 
wireless telephony must soon fol- 
low and we will soon be calling up 
our friends in the most distant 
parts, even though we may not be 
subscribers to the threat “ Bell” 
system or any other, but each may 
have an instrument for himself and 
signal any friend he pleases. 

To remove a wart, cover the 
skin around the wart with lard, 
apply over the surface of the 
growth one or two drops of strong 
hydrochloric or nitric acid ; then 
keep the parts covered up until the 
scab separates. 

To advertisers: We help those 
who help us. 


E. M. TTJCKE. PERCY PARKER. 

TUCKE <& PARKER, 


bEABiNG ELEGTRIGAIi G0NTRAGT6RS 


79 MIDDLE STREET, 


LOWELL, MASS. 


Telephone Connection. 


THE HOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


13 


THE LOWELt 
TEXTILE JOURNAL. 

A Monthly Publication by Students of the Lowell Textile 
School, with papers and other valuable information by leading 
manufacturers. 

FENWICK UMPLEBY, Business Manager 


PUBLISHED MONTHLY 

AT 

No. 67 Hiddle Street, = Lowell, Hass. 

BY 

THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL COMPANY. 


Entered at the Post-Office at Lowell as Second 
Class Mail Matter. 


SUBSCRIPTION TERMS. 

For one year, postage paid 50c. 

Single Copies 5c. 

For Sale at all Newsdealers 


Advertisements must be at the Journal Office before the 
fifteenth of each mouth for insertion that month. 

Contributions may be sent to Editor of The Lowell Textile 
Journal, and willreceive prompt attention , 

EDITORIAL . 

Our advertising rates are as low 
or lower than any other journal 
published in Lowell. Are we not 
justly entitled to a share of your 
patronage ? 

Lady subscribers are in order. 
It is an established fact that the 
fair sex are making great progress 
in the art of textile designing, and 
our brother designers may rest 
assured that they have competitors 
of no inferior qualifications. 

Since our last issue we have re- 
ceived and placed on our exchange 
list The Linden Hall Echo, a 
journal published by the ladies of 
Linden Hall seminary, Lititz, Pa. 


We are sorry to have to record 
the death of Frederick E. Clarke, 
who died at his home in Lawrence 
on Tuesday morning, Nov. 7th. 
Mr. Clarke was beloved by all who 
had the pleasure of his acquaint- 
ance. The Lowell Textile School 
has lost one of its most respected 
trustees. 

Master John H. Stokes, of 
Dublin, Ireland, a little gentleman 
of only eight summers, has made 
the trip from Dublin to Boston, to 
stay with Mr. W. S. Hills, North 
Billerica. He was not the least 
sea-sick, and he became the favor- 
ite of all on board the ship Canada. 

We have but a short time to re- 
main here on earth at the longest, 
and when gone others will take our 
places. Let us take a copy from 
the life of Mr. Clarke, and let us 
leave behind an impression which 
will long be remembered. 

The Lowell Textile Journal, 
published by the pupils of the 
Lowell Textile School, presents 
the first number of its third vol- 
ume. It is a creditable publica- 
tion, but why so much copied mis- 
cellany, which is not textile news, 
when there are so many successful 
manufacturers on the board of 
trustees, any one of whom is capa- 
ble of filling a number with inter- 


14 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


X. Whittier, Treasurer and General Manager. Helen A. Whittier, President. W. R. B. Whittier, Agent. 

WHITTIER COTTON MILLS, Chattahoo c hee ,, Ga. 

Office, Lowell, 


notion Yarns, 2s 10 40s 


General Office, Lowell, Mass. 

Single or Twisted, 2 to 200 ends, Ply, Cable Hawser, delivered on Spools 
Skeins, Hanks, Creels, Balls, Beams, Warper Balls, Cones, 

Grey or Colored. 

FIRE HOSE CORDS A SPECIALTY. 


esting and valuable articles on 
manufacturing ? — Lowell Morning 
Citizen. 

The trustees of the Lowell Tex- 
tile School give much of their 
valuable time to the several duties 
and committee meetings, visiting 
the school and inspecting the vari- 
ous departments during the day 
and evening sessions. The man- 
agement of the Journal has not 
made an effort in that direction, 
knowing that the time already 
given to the school by the trustees 
is as much as their regular busi- 
ness will allow. The trouble is 
with the students and mill help. 
We have often asked the question, 
why is it that the students and 
mill overseers and operatives are 
so reticent on the exchange of 
knowledge and ideas ? 

There are so many mill men 
who are loaded down with self- 


esteem and know it all. They are 
not going to impart their knowl- 
edge for nothing, and least of all 
to the Textile School. Every man 
of intelligence, who has worked for 
a long time in any particular 
branch of the textile business, will 
have acquired valuable knowledge, 
which would be of advantage to 
others if it were not locked up in a 
selfish mind. To keep in the dark 
such knowledge, experience and 
wisdom cannot benefit them pe- 
cuniarily or otherwise, while it 
would help to remove difficulties 
which other men may meet with. 
The amateur student is often ca- 
pable of advancing ideas which the 
practical workman has never 
thought of. These ideas the ama- 
teur is afraid to advance for fear 
of being criticised by the older 
one. 

It is a friendly criticism which 
we would encourage, and ask our 
readers not to load themselves too 


Hew England College el Languages, 


THOROUGH INSTRUCTION IN 
GERMAN , FRENCH , SPANISH 

BY CORRESPONDENOE. 


Special Courses for Business Men and Women. Write for Circular. 
Fit OF . j P. KIJNZER, Fh. D., Director , 

Telephone Philips’ Building. 120 Tremont St 3 Hamilton Rlace , Boston 9 Mass 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


15 


CHKRLES GRIFFIN, 

-)|MILL ENGINEER,^ 

Plans ani Siecilicalins Furiisbed. Boom and Power to Rent. 

245 MABKET ST., Card Co. Building , LOWELL , MASS. 


heavy with self-esteem. We can 
not know everything. What we 
know well, others may know still 
better, and to prove this requires 
an exchange of knowledge and 
ideas. Endeavor to teach others 
and be taught in return. 

The Chicago Board of Educa- 
tion has made arrangements to 
to provide during the winter 
months a series of popular lectures, 
which will be delivered in the pub- 
lic schools of that city. 

The lectures will be given by 
some of the most prominent 
teachers and professors in the 
colleges and other educational 
institutions in Chicago. 

These lectures will be free to the 


public and will be a great advan- 
tage to those wishing to improve 
their education on practical econ- 
omy, geography, history, law and 
science. 

The university extension scheme 
is an all-absorbing subject, and is 
being widely debated in America 
and the continent. 

The plan of universal education 
is drawn on a very broad platform. 
It demands changes in the private 
system of collegiate and university 
education ; it will place every 
nationalty, creed and color on the 
same footing of equality. 

At the present time there are 
those who, on account of their 
conscientious religious opinions, 
are precluded from the enjoyment 



COhUMBlAfl STUDIO 

Sittings made in Cloudy as well as Fair Weather 

• • J. POWELL- • • 

& PHOTOGRAPHER 4* 

55 Soutl? Whipple St., howell, JVIass. 

OUR SPECIKLTieS, 

Bromide Crayon and Pastel Work. 

We are Unexcelled in Children’s Photos 


Telephone Connection. 



i6 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Middlesex 

CONTRACTORS FOR Mill 


Machine Co., 

F’iping. i 2 Merrimack Sq., Lowell. 


Dealers in STEAM FITTERS’ SUPPLIES. 


of a university education, honors 
and emoluments. 

The men who have undertaken 
this broadly conceived plan will 
use all the machinery and re- 
sources within their power to oblit- 
erate all traces of sectarianism, big- 
otry and intolerance. 

They propose to secure equality 
by concurrent endowment, one of 
the most rational and moral prin- 
ciples of the people of this coun- 
try, although they will not op- 
pose any private endowment of 
chairs of theology, philosophy and 
modern history. They declare 
philosophy shall not be gagged 
and modern history will be taught 
with fearless independency, with a 
single eye to accuracy and fulness. 

There never was a time when 
the need of such an institution was 
of such vital importance as at the 
present day. 

The national events of the past 
year, the present policy of the ex- 


nfcX f arwrt y Of Ftpts Av#nu*,NfwYork, 


U M P°R T Z k ^ T A i L 0 R . 


55 rEMTWAL ^TWgCT. 

PAUL O. KABLE, Assistant. 


pansionists, the advanced strides 
made in the sciences, the demand 
for higher education by the labor- 
ing classes in the trades and man- 
ufacturing industries. These are 
all serious problems which con- 
front the nation today. 

We urge that the scheme receive 
fair and generous consideration 
from the education committee, and 
the enterprising public spirited cit- 
izens of Lowell. 

A course of study, supplemented 
by a system of free lectures, would 
mean a broadening of ideas, which 
would develop the minds of our less 
educated citizens, and thus fit them 
to take interest and their rightful 
part in the great public disputa- 
tions of the times. 

The citizens of Lowell ought to 
be proud of the publication, “ The 
Review,” by the students of the 
Lowell High School. We most 
heartily congratulate the editor 


Merrimac Boiler Works, 

WRIGHT STAFFORD, Proprietor, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

Steam Boilers, Kiers, Penstocks, Tanks, 
Steam Boxes, Smoke Stacks, etc. 

SOUTH LAWRENCE - - MASS 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


17 


ROBERT C ARRUTHERS, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

REEDS AND LOOM HARNESS. ALSO BURR AND LICKER-IN 

CYLINDERS FOR WOOL AND COTTON CARDS. 
telephone 654-2. lie fir 250 Lawve/iuc St., JLowcll. 


and staff, the class of 1900 and the 
entire school on the beautiful 
Thanksgiving nuirT er. The Re- 
view is a model paper, the matter 
is original and up to date, the 
articles are timely and well written. 
The present edition is a proof of 
the thorough training the young 
people are receiving in the well 
taught schools of Lowell. 

CLASS 1 goo. 

President, C. S. Taylor. 
Vice-President, R. A. Carter 
Sec. and Treas., C. E. Curran. 
Sub-Editor, S. D. Weston. 

A. V. Brower, B. C. Collins, 

C. E. Craig, J. A. Currier, 
W,N. Hargroves, J. J, Honiker, 

H. A. Lincoln, J. G. Minge, 

F. G. Towers, J. Webb, Jr., 

H.L. Woodman, B. M. Youngman, 
L. S. Swift, H. K. Terry. 

J. E, Burnham, H. T. Ewer and 
W. F. Haskell, taking second 
year’s work. 


Art Course — Miss A. G. Walker, 
Miss Whittaker. 

Our president is fully able to fill 
his position. 

There are some men in the 
freshman class that even the 
seniors have to look up to. 

How many of the freshmen class 
know where the school library is? 

Patronize our advertisers ; they 
are worthy of your trade. 

Will the base ball team be as 
slow in organizing as the foot ball 
team was? If so they had better 
begin now. 

In case of a fire somebody as- 
serts that a wet silk handkerchief, 
tied without folding over the face, 
is a complete security against suf- 
focation by smoke ; it permits free 
breathing, and at the same time 
excludes the smoke from the 
lungs. 


UNION BRASS FOUNDRY, 


RYAN & CO. Proprietors. 

Manufacturers of 


LIGHT AND HEAVY BRASS CASTINGS, 
Dealers in NEW and OLD METALS. 


Worsen St., opp. Kitsoq Wipe Works, 


LOWELL, MASS. 


Telephone 714-5. 


1 8 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


OTIS ALLEN Sc SON. 

LOWELL, MASS. 

ALLEN'S STANDARD LOCK-CORNERED FILLING BOXES, 

Gent ‘rally used in the Neie Enyland Mills. 

norrxG CABS. BOBBING boxes, backing cases, and clo TJI BO ADDS. 

WRITE FOR PRICES. 


SUDDEN DEATH OF ONE OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE 
LOWELL TEXTILE SCHOOL 


FREDERICK E. CLARKE, 
one of the most esteemed members 
of the Board of Trustees of the 
Lowell Textile School, and one of 
the best known and respected of 
citizens of Lawrence, died sud- 
denly at his home, 30 East Haver- 
hill Street, Lawrence, at 1:10 
o’clock, Tuesday morning, Novem- 
ber 1 ith, 1899. 

Mr. Clarke was in attendance at 
the meeting of the Monday Night 
Club at the Franklin House and 
appeared in his usual good health. 
On arrival at his home he was 
taken suddenly ill. His groans 
awakened his wife, who found her 
husband conscious, but in great 
pain, and having difficulty in 
breathing. Dr. Howe was sum- 
moned, but Mr. Clarke had lapsed 


into unconsciousness. He grew 
gradually weaker and finally ex- 
pired. Dr. Howe gave heart dis- 
ease as the cause of death. 

Frederick E. Clarke was born 
in Watertown, Mass., Dec. 13, 
1834. He came to Lawrence at 
the age of 13 years. He was a 
member of the first class that 
entered the Lawrence high school. 
At the age of 17 he entered the 
employ of the Lawrence Machine 
company, where he remained two 
years. He then entered the employ 
of the Pacific mills as draughts- 
man and clerk, which position he 
left to become paymaster and book- 
keeper of the Pemberton mills in 
1858. He was in the employ of 
of the Pemberton at the time of 
the great disaster and was made 


W. H. BEAN. E. C. DUNBAR. 

BEAN & DUNBAR, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

House Finisfi, Stair Bulldirj, Stair Fosts, 

Rails and Balusters, Brackets and Columns, 

18 Western Ave. | Lowell, Mass I 755 Dutton St. 


h. re. re a re k ed re & co„ 

Successors to G. C. Brock, 

PRESCRIPTION - DRUGGISTS, 

Bridge, cor. First Street, Centralville, 
Dowell, Mass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


19 


Established 1840. Incorporated 1884 

TALBOT BYE WOOD AND CHEMICAL CO. 


Acids, Dyewoods, Cherrpicals, 

Drugs, and Dyestuffs Generally. 

38 to 44 MIDDLE STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


agent when the mill was recon- 
structed in 1861, which position 
he held until January, 1898, when 
he tendered his resignation. Mr. 
Clarke at the time of his death 
held the office of president of the 
Boston & Lowell railroad, chair- 
man of the park commission, and 
also president of the board of trade. 
He was also a member of the 
Home Market club. He was a 
member of Phoenician lodge of 
Masons, the Home club, the Amer- 
ican society of Mechanical Engi- 
neers and the New England Cot- 
ton Manufacturers’ association, of 
which he was president. A wife 
survives him. 

Governor Wolcott recently ap- 
pointed Mr. Clarke a member of 
the Buffalo exposition commission, 
representing Massachusetts. He 
was also a member of the Textile 
club, trustee of the Lowell Textile 
school and of the Boston Art club. 


In the death of Mr. Clarke the 
city of Lawrence loses one of its 
leading citizens.. Foremost in all 
matters pertaining to the city’s 
welfare was Mr. Clarke. Duty to 
his city, to his church, to his fellow 
men was his theme in life, and in 
his death an upright citizen and 
good man has gone to his reward. 

ANOTHER ~M~AYOR STORY. 

A Midland gentleman, against 
his better judgment, had been in- 
duced to accept the mayoral dig- 
nity, but very soon found that the 
demands upon his purse were be- 
yond his means, and he told his 
friends that he should resign. A 
deputation waited upon him and 
begged him to hold on, but he re- 
plied with a fine disregard of the 
number of syllables in a word : 
“ Gentlemen, a pretty Mares nest 
you’ve got me into ! But I’m go- 
ing, and you can tell you: friends 
it’s money that makes the mare 
to go! ” 


Wm. Forbes & Sons, 

Sanitary Engineers am sieam Fillets, 

450 ESSEX STREET , 

— LAWRENCE, MASS. 


W. H. SPALDING & CO., 

20 Middle Street. 

Art Materials. 


For Textile and Drawing Schools. 


20 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


STUDY 

the points of our different machines and com- 
pare with others. 

UNDERSTAND 

the merits and you will be convinced beyond 
a doubt of their superiority. 

HOWARD & BULLOUGH 

flmsrican Iflaclpe Co., Ltd., Pawtucket, 1 1. 



THE DIFFERENT RROCESSES IN MANUFACTURING WORSTED 

YARNS — Continued. 

By GEORGE FRANK, Landensberg, Pa. 


GILLING AFTER COMBING. 

After the wool leaves the comb 
it goes to a machine called a gill 
box. This machine is provided 
with front and back rollers. Be- 
tween the front and back rollers 
are placed screws, four in number, 
two on each side. As the wool 
passes through the back rollers it 
is caught by fallers. (The fallers 
are made from a piece of steel 
with holes punched through it and 
pins put in, 12 pins per inch, ac- 
cording to the quality of the wool.) 
The fallers travel on a pair of 
screws and carry the wool towards 


the front roller. The wool is then 
carried off by a pair of drawing-off 
rollers into cans 

TOP OR BALLING MACHINE. 

This machine is like the above, 
except for the drawing-off rollers. 
Instead of having rollers, a balling 
head is placed in front, which 
forms the top by travelling from 
right to left ; care should be taken 
and not have the end too tight, as 
this will make uneven places. 

DRAWING OPEN. 

There are three different kinds 
of drawing used in the manufac- 

o 


FRED C. CHURCH, 

Lowell’s Leading 

Insurance Agency 

Central Blk., Rooms 49 to 54. 


FRANK O SHAW, 

Successor to J. Whittaker. 

Special delivery and light truck- 
ing of all kinds. Orders left at 
Allens’ Trunk Store, Middle St., 
Lowell, Mass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


2 I 


C. E. RILEY & CO. 

281-285 Congress St., 
BOSTON. MRSS. 

LiteU I rti pr jvements and Specialties. 


^ ihportlrs and builders oh 

^ COTTON, 

/ WOOLEN, and 
^ WORSTED 

\ CARD CLOTHING, 

\ EGYPTIAN COTTON, Etc. 

\ 



ture of worsted yarns, namely ; 
French, Coon and Open Drawing. 

THE DOUBLE CAN GILL BOX- 

This operation is the most im- 
portant one in the drawing, as if 
the wool is not right when it leaves 
this press it can never be got right 
(unless it could be combed over 
again, causing waste, loss of time 
and double expense). The wool 
passes through a pair of fluted 
rollers, the top roller (or press 
roller) F driven by friction from 
the bottom roller and may be left 
out of all calculations. The size 
of the bottom roller is generally 
3 in. diameter. After leaving 
the back rollers the wool is caught 
by fallers. (The fallers are made 
from a piece of steel with small 
holes bored through it and pins 
put in, 18 pins per inch for fine 
wool ; there are two rows of pins, 
the first row being about i-8 inch 
shorter than the back row.) The 
fallers travel on a pair of screws 


and carry the wool toward the 
front rollers. After leaving the 
front rollers the wool is carried off 
by a pair of drawing-off rollers, 
and then into cans. The cans 
have two compartments, and when 
empty should all be the same 
weight, and not some a few ounces 
lighter or heavier than the others. 
The cans are generally weighed at 
24 pounds when empty. If you 
put 8 pounds of wool in each 
compartment, making 16 in all, 
the can will weigh 40 pounds 
when full On each gill box a 
knocker-off is run from the front 
roller, and when the front roller 
has delivered as many yards as you 
require to weigh 8 pounds net the 
machine stops automatically. If 
the can weighs 41 pounds break 
one end down from the back and 
next doff it will weigh 39 pounds. 
These two cans will make a set. 

SPINDLE GILL BOX 

The operation is much the same 


TRUNKS, BAGS AND DRESS SUIT 


TEAGUE & TEAGUE, 


A lull line Ini* the holidays. Reliable joints at / 
reasonable prices. We invite inspection. / 

G EO. F. ALLEN j 

8 


Hatters and Haberdashers. 

Exclusive Novelties in Men’s Fine Shirts 
sm ( 1 Neckwear. 

Coni pie e Line of Men’s Fine Underwear 
and controllers of the celebrated \\ ilsoii 
Hat, none better made. 

Corner Central and Middle Streets, Lowell. 


23-27 Middle Street, Lowell, Mass. 


22 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Merrimack Wool Scouring Mills 

WOOL* AND NOILS SCOURED, CARBONIZED AND NEUTRALIZED. 
THOMAS HARTLEY. -fa Lawrence, Mass. 


as can gill box, instead of the 
wool rnnning into cans it is wound 
on to bobbins, when the wool leaves 
the front roller it is then passed 
through the eye and one or two 
laps put in the arm of the flyer 
and is put on the bobbins evenly 
by means of a lifter. The lifter 
goes at the same speed all the 
time. In practical drawing a great 
responsibility rests with the over- 
seer, how he trains up the help in 
this operation, and all the others 
in the drawing. The help must 
be learned to regulate the drag of 
the bobbins. When the bobbin 
is getting full, it revolves faster 
around the spindle than when it 
does when it is empty, therefore 
causing more drag. Felt washers 
are provided, (all sizes), and if the 
bobbins are dragging too hard, a 
smaller washer will give the re- 
quired drag. To tell if the wool 
is stretched or dragged too much 
feel of the wool as it is leaving the 
front roller, before it enters the 


flyer and by a little experience you 
can feel the fibre pull one from the 
other. Care should be taken not 
to put too much twist in the wool, 
it can be regulated by changing 
the gear on the back shaft. 

FIRST DRAWING BOX, FOUR SPINDLES. 

This operation is different from 
any here mentioned as it is con- 
structed on a different plan. This 
box has no fallers, no screws and 
no drawing off rollers. As to the 
number of ends that go up at the 
back, all depend on what weight of 
roving is required. If short wool 
be used a short draft will be re- 
quired. Between the front and 
back roller, two steel carriers are 
placed with small wood carriers on 
top, the wood carriers are placed 
on top to keep the wool from 
plucking or making uneven places 
in the slubbing. The drawing 
overseer should have a little knowl- 
edge of wool as when he e:ets a 
new lot to draw it is his duty to 


WILLIAM BARBER, 

SrStnr^JAPES for worsted spinning frames. 

Cotton Belting for Cones and Railway Heads, also Surgical Bandages. 

LOWELL, MASS. 


P. O. BOX 339. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


23 


Save three profits by buying your Dress Coods 
direct of the Manufacturers .... 

BROWN &c AOKROYD, 

Manufacturersof Dry Goods, 

556 COMMON ST., ------ LAWRENCE, MASS. 


examine it and see what draft it 
will stand to obtain the best pos- 
sible results, as one-half the bad 
spins are made in the drawing 
room. No rule can be given what 
draft wool will stand, but can only 
be learned by experience. The 
next thing to watch is the twist. 
This can only be found by feeling 
at the end after it has been wound 
on the bobbin. Take about 12 
inches between the finger and 
thumb of each and pull. Ex- 
perience will teach how it should 
be hard or soft twist. 

If the twist is too hard when it 
gets in the other operation it will 
cause endless trouble to the over- 
seer and the help. The twist can 
be changed by the shaft that runs 
along the bottom of the drawing 
frame at the back. At the end of 
this shaft there is a change wheel. 
Less wheel you put on the faster 
the flyers go around. The front 
roller going at the same speed as 


it did before the change, therfore, 
the flyers going faster will put 
more twist into the slubbing. 

The front press roller varies in 
size and is never taken in calcula- 
tion as it is driven by friction from 
the bottom roller. 

The rollers are sometimes made 
of wood, with a steel axis, but 
generally they are made of iron. 
In each case the roller is covered 
with leather. (The double-covered 
rollers are always the best.) If 
the leather becomes loose upon the 
surface it must be taken out at 
once, as every revolution it makes 
it is giving uneven slubbing. 
This can easily be told by putting 
the hand upon the roller and, if 
loose, it will feel like a blister; 
stop the machine and press on the 
place you think is loose with the 
thumb. If it gives any the roller 
should be taken out and another 
one put in its place. The speed 
of the bottom roller should be 


H. H. WILDER OO., 

Furnaces, Stoves, Ranges, Kitchen Furnishing Goods 

Nos. 29 and 31 MARKET STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


24 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 



Larger School and Larger Results 
Than Ever Before. 

Best of Courses in English, 
Bookkeeping and Shorthand. 
StudentsjjAided in Securing Positions. 


from about 60 to 65 revolutions 
per minute. 

SECOND DRAWING BOX, FOUR SPINDLE 

This is much the same as the 
first spindle box, only the ends are 
4 and 5, and the slubbing is con- 
siderable smaller, caused by 4 or 5 
ends, and drafting it out The 
draft, twist, rollers and ratch should 
be watched as much as in the first 
spindle box. The ratch is the 
distance from the centre of the 
front roller to the centre of the 
back roller. — To be continued. 

Greatness of the British 
Empire. — At the present juncture, 
when the greatness of certain na- 

o 


tions is being prominently paraded, 
it is interesting to recall these 
facts. The British Empire is 
fifty three times the size of France, 
fifty-two times that of Germany, 
thn*e and a half times that of the 
United States of America, thrice 
the size of Europe, with treble the 
population of all the Russias. It 
extends over 11,000,000 square 
miles, occupies one-fifth of the 
globe, contains one-fifth of the hu- 
man race, or 350,000,000 people, 
embraces four continents, 10,000 
islands, 500 promontories, and 
2,000 rivers. It is estimated that 
the empire possesses one-third of 
the sheep of the world, one-fourth 
of the cattle and one-twelfth of the 
horses. 




THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


25 


SAMUEL KERSHAW, 

wattwu Mi Jeweir xr^r ’ 

114 CENTRAL STREET, - - LOWELL, MASS. 


2500 DOLLARS FOR A FOX 

TERRIER. 

The well known white-haired 
fox terrier Go Bang, which has 
won pretty well all before him in 
this country, bearing a record in 
this respect will, says the Field , 
change hands, Mr. G. Raper, his 
owner, having sold him to a gen- 
tleman in America. The price, 
,£500, is the largest figure given 
for a terrier of any variety, the 
next best being ^470, which Mr. 
Stephens paid Mr. Vicary for the 
smooth fox terrier Vice Regal. 

If all the year were playing holidays, 

To sport would be as tedious as to work ; 

But when they seldom come they wished- 
for come, 

And nothing pleases but rare accidents. 

— Shciktspeat e . 

Life is hardly respectable — is it? 
— if it has no generous, guaranty- 
ing task, no duties of affections, 
that constitute a necessity of ex- 
isting. — Emerson . 


COLD . 

The British Medical Journal 
says: It may not be widely known, 
as it deserves to be, that 20 grains 
of salicylic acid, given in liq. 
ammon. acet. three or four times 
a day, will so far control a common 
cold that the aching of the brow, 
eyelids, etc., and during move- 
ments of the eye, will cease in a 
few hours, while the sneezing and 
running from the nose will also 
abate, and will disappear in a few 
days, and, more fortunate still, the 
cold will pass off, and not finish 
up, as is customary, with a cough. 
It may be that it is only in persons 
tainted with rheumatism where 
we find a chill followed by such a 
train of troubles, and certain it is 
that different persons suffer in 
different ways after a chill. But for 
a very great number of people of 
fair health who are liable to take a 
common cold, it is highly desirable 
to avoid a cough, and the salicylic 
acid treatment places this in our 
power. 


HANCHETT MacFADGEN, 

Successors to Martin & Langley. 

Plumpers, Steam, Gas aim water Fitters, Sleet iron Workers, 

STOVeS HMD RKNGES. 

Fine Plumbing and Heating a Specialty. 316 & 320 Middlesex Street, Lowell, Mass. 


26 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


JOHN DENNIS. J. NELSON DENNIS. 

JOHN DENNIS St CO„ 

Press Manufacturers , either Hydraulic , Screw , or Toggle Joint . 


Hollow Plate Finishing Presses and Balers. 
Belting, Curriers’ and Roll Coverers’ Machinery. 


194 Western Ave., Lowell, Mass. 


ID. BE. WILSON & CO., 
Coppersmiths, Plumbers, Steam and Gas Fitters, 

AND SHNITHRY ENGINEERS. 

Manufacturers of Slasher Cylinders, Silk and Dresser Cylinders, Color and Dye Kettles. 

All kinds of copper work for mills. All work warranted satisfactory. 

SHOP, 379 and 28 3 DUTTON ST. Lowell, Mass. 


VV. C. HAMBLETT, Pres. S. B. PUFFER, Tres. 
JAS. TALBOT, Selling agent, 10 Franklin St., N. Y 

Criterion Knitting Co., 

Manufacturers of all kinds of 

JERSEY »» SPRING-NEEDLE UNDERWEAR 

220 Tanner St., - Lowell, Mass. 

P. A. MACKENZIE, 

Carriage Manufacturer, 

Repairing and Horse Shoeing, Rubber Tires, 
Wood and Coal. 

592 BROADWAY, Lowell, Mass. 

Telephone 691-2. 

GEO. E. BLANCHETTE, 

Practical Carriage Builder and Horse Shoeing. 

All kinds of repairing done at short notice, 
Prices resonable. 

Cor. Suffolk St. and Broadway, - Lowell. 

MEEHAN $ CO., 

Hat Manufacturers, 

HATS MADE TO ORDER. 

Also high-class repairing. 
7 Merrimack St., Lowell. Mass. 

ALDEN B. BLODGETT, 

taxidermist, 

Birds and animals of all kinds mounted to 
order. Special attention given to making Fur 
Rugs, Mounting Deer Heads, Antlers, etc. 

ROOM i, BANK BUILDING, 

Shattuck Street, Lowell, Mass. 

DENIS 0'BRIEN, 

APOTHECARY 

BRIDGE STREET, COR. SECOND, 

Lowell, - Mass. 

A. C. POLLARD, President, W. A. EASTMAN, Treasurer. 

LOWELL HOSIERY CO., 

WOMEN’S SEAMLESS FAST BLACK ffOSE, 

LOMBLL, - 7UTPCSS. 

Er. M. BURGESS, 

NEWSDEALER, 

Stationery, Confectionery, Bags, Toys, Etc. 

S CENTRAL STREET LOWELL , MASS . 

A. C. Persons. E. A, Mansur. 

JOHN TRIPP & CO., 

Manufacturing ROLL COVERERS, 

Manufacturers of all kinds of Cotts for top rolls. 
Mechanics Mills, 

DUTTON ST. LOWELL , MASS 


Lowell Textile Journal. 


LOWELL TEXTILE SCHOOL. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE DESIGNING DEPARTMENT. 


As we enter for the first time 
the textile lecture room of the 
designing department, at once we 
are struck with the neat, comfort- 
able and yet business-like appear- 
ance of the room. Everything 
suggests the subject for which the 
students take their seats. These 
desks are so arranged as to meet 
the requirements of each student, 
the box part of the desk works in a 
sloted groove, so that it can be 
moved up or down to the most con- 
venient height, while the top or lid 
can be set at any desired angle for 
the comfort and ease of the student. 

As the students take their places 
they are instantly confronted with 
two large design boards, figured, 
ruled and cut exactly like large 
sheets of 8 x 8 design or point 
paper, these design boards are 
called into use very frequently and 
every time the students meet for a 
design and analysis lecture, their 


first duty is to copy into their class 
weave books ; the weaves that are 
“ pegged ” on the large design 
board. Under and on each side of 
these design boards there are six 
slates and black boards on which 
the lecturer works out the various 
calculations and also sketches the 
sections of the different methods of 
interlacing or intersecting the nu- 
merous weaves under considera- 
tion. 

There are large design boards, 
ruled and shaded to represent 
fabrics backed with filling (weft) 
and with warp, as there are fabrics 
backed with one thread of back to 
one thread of face, and one thread 
of back to two threads of face, these 
design boards appear very puz- 
zeling and complicated to the tyro. 
Then there are boards to represent 
double cloth fabrics also three-ply 
cloths, such as fancy backed golf 
capes, matelasses, marseilles quilt- 


4 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


ings, and double makes of over- 
coatings and heavy suitings. 

In this department there are 
various makes of small hand looms 
showing a variety of fabrics and to 
demonstrate the complicated weaves 
the lecturer may be explaining. 


edge and skill necessary in manu- 
facturing and designing cotton, 
linen, worsted, woolen and silk 
fabrics, and to impart a knowledge 
of the principles underlying the 
structure and ornamentation of all 
kinds of textiles, so that a student 



“ Hand Loom ” Demonstrating Room. 


The work of this department is 
divided into, first, second and third 
year grades, thus covering a three 
years’ course of study. 

The full three years’ course is in- 
tended to thoroughly equip the stu- 
dent with all the technical knowl- 


who has satisfactorily passed 
through the full day course in this 
special department, will be qualified 
for a position as assistant designer. 

The first year grade consists of 
lectures and instruction, and prac- 
tical weaving on small hand-looms. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


5 


Subjects, the structure of woven 
goods, plan drawing or method of 
representing on design or point 
paper the effect of interlacing warp 
and filling (weft) yarns in the loom, 
classification of woven fabrics and 
the elementary “ Principles of In- 


ing on both hand and power looms. 

Subjects, the principles of textile 
designing as applied to all classes 
of single and double make fabrics 
for the cotton, worsted and woolen 
industries. 

Third year course is intended 



Oflice, Professor of Design. 


tertexture,” common to all cloths. 
Practical calculations on the weight 
of the yarns employed in making 
cotton, linen, worsted and woolen 
fabrics. 

Second year consists of lectures 
and instruction, and practical weav- 


for students who desire to study 
any particular branch of textile 
manufacture in which they may 
intend to be engaged. Special in- 
struction is given on ginghams, 
fancy cotton, sateen stripes, lenos, 
woolen and worsted dress goods> 





6" 


THE I .OWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


mantle cloths, trouserings, coatings 
and suitings. 

Each class study the analysis and 
reproduction of cotton, woolen, 
worsted, linen, silk and union fa- 
brics, comprising the following 
branches : plan of weave, sizes of 


design, such as carpets, tapestries, 
damasks, curtains, brocades, hang- 
ings, upholstery fabrics and orna- 
mented silk fabrics. 

Special attention is given to the 
methods of transferrins: designs to 
point paper, and to the schemes of 



Design Lecture Hall. 


yarn in both warp and filling (weft) 
counts of reed : width in loom ; 
weight of yarns used, etc., etc. 

There is a special course of study 
arranged to meet the requirements 
of those wishing to specialize in 
any branch of figured or decorative 


weaving suitable to their adequate 
development in the manufactured 
fabric. Students are afforded 
ample facilities for carrying out 
their studies practically in the loom, 
a portion of their time being de- 
voted to this work. 



THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


7 


THE DIFFERENT PROCESSES IN MANUFACTURING WORSTED 

YARNS— Continued. 

By GEORGE FRANK, Landenberg, Pa. 


3. Drawing or Weigh Box. 

8 Spindles. 

This operation is commonly 
called the weigh box, because every 
bobbin should be weighed and 
paired. Weighing here is a check 
on the can gill box. The empty 
bobbins should be made to all weigh 
exactly the same weight, this can 
be done by putting small strips of 
lead around the barrel to bring the 
light ones up to the required 
weight. Great care should be used 
when doing this as 1 or 2 ozs. will 
make a lot of difference in the 
spinning. If you put a few bobbins 
up a few ozs. light when it gets into 
the spinning, that is, if you are 
spinning 40 s it will probably weigh 
from 40 to 43, this will cause soft 
places in the yarn besides making 
more waste and a bad spin. 

The knocker off the front roller 
is 4 in. diameter or nearly 12 1-2 in. 
circumference ; on this roller is a 
single cut worm, driving a 1 7 wheel 
on a small shaft, another single cut 
worm at the end of this shaft driv- 
ing a 60 wheel, on this wheel is a 
hub (or a studd) for the change 


wheel. Another 60 wheel and at- 
tached to this is a small peg, and 
every revolution of this wheel stops 
the machine automatically. The 
gauge point for this is 2 1250, if you 
want to put 800 yards on a bobbin 
^ 8 00 0 = 26 wheel or more exact 26 
1-2, but as their are no 1-2 gears 
26 or 27 will do. The small wheel 
at the end of the front roller is 
called the draft wheel and this may 
be changed if the bobbins are 
coming light or heavy. (Not in 
the way with the can gill box break 
1 end down. You must keep all 
the ends up that you start with 
after leaving the can gill.) If the 
bobbins are coming lighter 1 tooth 
larger on the draft will give the 
weight required speed of front rol- 
lers from 60 to 65 revolutions per 
min. 

4. Drawing Box. 2.6 Spindle 
Boxes. 

This operation is practically the 
same as the other drawing boxes. 
The bobbins do not require weigh- 
ing as in the last operation. But 
the draft, twist and drag must be 
watched just the same. The slub- 


8 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


bing on this box will be about 2-3 
small than what came off the weigh 
box. Revolutions of front roller 
from 60 to 65. The ends up at the 
back of this box is sometimes 3 
and 4, all depending on what weight 
of roving is required. 

5. Drawing Box. 2.8 Spindle 
Intermediate. 

In this operation 3 ends at the^ 
back are generally run. The same 
points are to be watched as in the 
other drawing boxes. 

6. Drawing Box. 3.12 Spindle 

Finishers. 

This box is same as the other 
only on a smaller scale. 

7. Drawing Box. 3.30 Spindle 

Reducers. 

This box is constructed a little 
different from the others. When 
you change the twist it makes the 
roller go faster or slower, all de- 
pending on the size of wheel you 
put on. The spindle belts (or 
spindle bands) require watching as 
if some are slack they will give less 
twist than the others. The speed 
of the front rollers is never taken 
on this operation, but the speed of 
the flyers. You cannot change the 
speed of the flyers without altering 
the speed of the whole frame. The 
speed of the flyers should be from 
1,000 to 1,100 revolutions per 
minute. 


8. The Dandy Roving Frame, 
30 Spindles. 

This operation is the same as 
the reducers only on a smaller scale. 
Revolutions of flyers, 1,400 per 
minute. 

The Spinning. 

There are 3 kinds of spinning: 
ring, flyer and cap. The cap spin 
ning is mostly used in fine worsted 
manufacturing, as a larger produc- 
tion can be obtained. A cap frame 
can be driven at 7,000 revolutions 
per minute (the tube revolves, the 
spindle is stationary) while a flyer 
frame is run at full, if driven at 
3,000 revolutions per minute. The 
cap frame has two sides and are 
made with 72 spindles on a side up 
to 136 spindles as desired. The 
two most important parts in a spin- 
ning frame is the draft and twist. 

A few things that wilt cause bad 
work in a spinning room . — Front 
roller too slack, back roller too 
slack, waste on the carriers, not 
being properly oiled (such as 
couplings, joints, hangers and 
bearings), waste underneath the 
tube, waste around the tube. The 
caps being rough at the edge, caps 
not fitting the spindle properly. 
Have all the spindles set properly 
and not some higher than others. 

The cap frame if run steady, 
spindles should be oiled twice per 
day, front rollers once a day, cylin- 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


9 


der every morning. There are 3 
rows of carriers for a spinning 
frame, but in fine worsted spinning 
only 2 are used, the other row being 
taken out, the object of this is to 
get the back roller as close to the 
front roller as possible without 
touching anything as it revolves, 
therefore by taking one carrier out, 
you can get one inch nearer. Only 
single ends are put up at the back 
of a spinning frame. 

There are two kinds of twist, 
right and left. Right twist is used 
in spinning (except on special oc- 
casions), right twist is the tube re- 
volving from east to west. Left 
twist in the opposite direction. 

Twisting Machine. 

There are 3 kinds of twisting 
machine, ring, cap and flyer. The 
twisting machine differs from any 
other machine here mentioned ; 
two. three and oftimes four ends are 
twisted together. The spindles re- 
volve the opposite direction from 
the spinning. The cap twister is 
the most generally used, as a greater 
speed can be run than any other, 
7,000 revolutions is considered a 
fair average speed for a twister, 
but some people try and run more, 
but the best results can be got from 
the above revolutions. The most 
particular point -to guard against in 
the twisting is soft twist and bad 
knots, as they will cause serious 


trouble in the warp or filling as the 
case may be. Fine numbers may 
be twisted off the spinning bobbin 
from 36 s up. But when heavy 
numbers are to be twisted it is best 
to have the yarn wound on to bob- 
bins 6x5 and twisted off. 

Reeling. 

Reeling is winding the yarn on 
to a reel which is then called a 
skein. The points to watch in reel- 
ing is not to get the yarn greasy 
and tie good knots. 

SIL VER STAINS ON A GEL- 
ATINE NEGATIVE. 


BY J. V. DRAKE. 

To remove them, soak the plate 
for five minutes in clean water; 
meanwhile, make a solution of io- 
dide of potassium, 20 grains to an 
ounce of water; now put the plate 
in this solution, and let it stay for 
ten minutes. If the stain is very 
old, keep it in for half an hour. 
Now dissolve half a drachm of cy- 
anide of potassium in one ounce of 
water. Take the plate and put it 
into this, and gently rub ihe stains 
with a tuft of cotton wool, free 
from grit, until they are quite 
gone. If the stains are very old, 
make the solutions stronger, and 
soak for a longer time. 


OI 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


SIMPLE LESSONS IN PHOTOGRAPHY. 


THE SWING BACK. 

It is quite pertinent that an in- 
experienced photographer should 
inquire, what is the use of a swing 
back to a camera, seeing that it 
increases the expense, adds to the 
bulk, and that good photographs 
can be taken without it? All this 
is quite true, and yet it has certain 
uses which we shall proceed to 
indicate. 

To explain its application to 
architecture, let us suppose that a 
photographer plants his camera 
in front of a large building. On 
looking on the ground glass, he 
finds that, though the building is 
square, and otherwise unobjection- 
able, its upper portion has not 
been admitted on the ground glass 
at all. He naturally will raise the 
lens as far as the sliding front of 
the camera will admit of its being 
done; but, this proving insufficient 
to get in all the upper portion of 
the building properly only one 
course remains, namely, to point 
the camera upwards till the desired 
end has been attained. By this 
means the whole of the edifice is 
now got on the camera, the sides 
of the building, which previous to 


the tilting were vertical are now 
seen to be converoin^ like a V 
inverted. In short, the building is 
distorted, the defect being desig- 
nated as the Distortion of Con- 
vergence. 

How is this to be remedied? By 
allowing the camera to remain un- 
disturbed, but by means of the 
swinging back bringing the ground 
glass in a strictly vertical position, 
so that, in fact, it is once more 
brought into parallelism with the 
vertical plane of the building. All 
distortion has now disappeared. 

A convenient way by which the 
back may be rendered vertical, 
after the camera has once been 
placed, is to have a bit of thread 
with a small weight at the end, 
which, when hung at the edge of 
the ground glass, acts as a plum- 
met, and permits of the back being 
brought into correct position with 
speed and accuracy. 

But seeing the plate is now 
standing obliquely to the axis of 
the lens, the upper part being 
nearer the lens than the lower 
portion, it follows that both top 
and bottom cannot be equally sharp 
in focus at the same time. This 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


I I 


THE GRANITE PILE CURE , 

MANUFACTURED 11Y 

THE GRANITE FORMULA CO., 90 K , 

Has cured GOOD people in two years's time. Over 200 cured in Lowell. 

Guaranteed to cure or pay back your money. 

R. E. MAGEE, . . Treasurer and General Manager. 

o 


is most readily noticed when a 
large aperture is applied; but by 
inserting a small diaphragm the 
discrepancy is obviated, and all 
parts are practically made alike 
sharp. The distortion of con- 
vergence is more likely to be 
noticed when lenses of wide angle 
are employed, and, therefore, when 
using such instruments exceptional 
care is necessary. 

The swing back is also useful, 
and frequently necessary, in pure 
landscape work. All good land- 
scapes should, if at all possible, 
have some salient objects in the 
foreground, which may consist of 
shrubs, flowers, stones, grass, 
weeds, or any of the innumerable 
objects to be found in nature. 

Win n the view is focussed, and 
everything harmoniously arranged 
on the glass, it will be found that 
the foreground objects, which, if 
well selected, should impart such a 
charm to a picture, are hazy, 


from being more or less out of 
focus. 

This arises from their vicinity 
to the lens, contrasted with the 
greater distance at which the other 
features of the landscape are sit- 
uated, and by the law of conjugate 
foci, of which we speak in a suc- 
ceeding chapter, both cannot be 
equally sharp on a plane at right 
angles to the axis of the lens. 
Therefore, in order that the fore- 
ground objects should be brought 
into perfect sharpness without in- 
terfering with that of the distance, 
it is requisite that the ground glass 
shall be swung back in quite the 
opposite direction to that which 
was necessary in the case of archi- 
tecture. The top of the ground 
glass, on which the shrubs in the 
foreground are delineated, is now 
further from the lens than the 
bottom, the result being that both 
the foreground and the distance 
are alike sharp. 


A. J. LESTER, TEyrcOHBR OR DANCING 

Classes, Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday Evenings. 

Hall to Let, Monday, Wednesday and Friday Evenings. 

Apply at LESTER’S HALL, Prescott Street, LOWELL, MASS. 


I 2 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 



SfLAW STOCKING CO. LOWELL, MASS. SEND FOR FREE CATALOGUE. 


ON 

THE 

TOE 


It is true that by employing an 
exceedingly small diaphragm the 
same end would be attained, but to 
do so the aperture would be unnec- 
essarily reduced, which would be 
fatal to quick exposures. 

The longer the focus of the lens 
that is employed in landscape 
work, the more necessary that a 
swinging provision is made for se- 
curing the utmost sharpness of the 
foreground. 

A third use of a swing back is 
when a portrait lens of large di- 
mensions is employed in the pro- 
duction of a portrait of a sitting 
figure, especially when the camera 


is at no great distance from the 
sitter. The hands, if resting on 
the knees, together with the knees 
themselves, are, under such cir- 
cumstances, not quite so sharply 
defined as the face, necessitating a 
slight swinging of the back to 
bring them into quality as regards 
sharpness. 

Incidentally we may remark 
that, when copying an architectural 
picture that has been distorted by 
the convergence of the perpendic- 
ulars, these may be rendered quite 
rectilinear in the copy by swinging 
the back, and thus introducing 
enough distortion of an opposite 



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• • J. POWELL • • 
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55 Soutfy Wf?ipple St., Lowell, ]Mass. 

OUR SPECIALTI6S, 

Bromide Crayon and Pastel Work. 

We are Unexcelled in Children’s Photos 
Telephone Connection. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


13 


X. Whittier, Treasurer ami General Manager. Helen A. Whittier, President. XV. It. Ii. Whittier, Agent. 

WHITTIER COTTON MILLS, Chattahoochee, Ga. 

General Office, Lowell, Mass. 

__ n i f H Single or Twisted, 2 to 200 ends, Ply, Cable Hawser, delivered on Spools 

Cotton Yams, as 10 40 s ^om., n^e, ^ co„ cs , 

FIKE HOSE CORDS A SPECIALTY. 


character to counter-balance that 
of the distorted photograph which 
is being copied. The result, as 
we have hinted, is perfect rectilin- 
earity in the copy thus obtained 
from a distorted original. 

THE DIAPHRAGM. 

The diaphragm, often designated 
the stop, is an opaque plate, having 
in it an aperture of smaller dimen- 
sions than the lens. Its function 
consists in debarring the transmis- 
sion of all light except what passes 
through it, and by its position it 
can compel one or another portion 
of the lens to be instrumental in 
forming the image in the camera. 
The best part of the lens is, there- 
fore, by its agency, brought into 
use. 

The diaphragm is employed for 
a two fold purpose : it flattens the 
field by rendering the margin of 
the picture sharp at the same time 
that the centre is in good focus, 


and it gives depth of definition by 
rendering objects reasonably sharp, 
whether such objects are situated 
near to the camera or at a great 
distance. These advantages are 
obtained at the expense of illumin- 
ation. The smaller the diaphragm 
is, the greater will be the depth or 
penetration obtained. 

To illustrate these uses: let the 
camera be directed towards a wall, 
a row of houses, or a landscape, 
and focus the centre without mak- 
ing use of a diaphragm, or, if any, 
the largest one belonging to the 
lens. Examine the imasre on the 

O 

ground glass by a magnifier, and it 
will be found that the sharpness by 
which the centre is characterized 
is confined to a more or less limited 
area, beyond which indistinctness 
prevails. Now insert diaphragms 
in succession, each smaller than the 
other, and the area of sharpness 
increases until it embraces the 
whole of the plate. 



THOROUGH INSTRUCTION IN 
GERMAN, FRENCH, SP, NISH 

BY CORRESPONDENCE. 


Special Courses for Business Men and Women. Write for Circular. 
BliOF. F. KTJNZER, Fh. D ., Director , 

Telephone Philips’ Building. 120 Tremont St,, 3 Hamilton Flace 9 Boston, Mass. 


14 


THE LOWELL, TEXTILE JOURNAL 


ROBERT CARRUTHERS, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

REEDS AND LOOM HARNESS. ALSO BURR AND LICKER-IN 

CYLINDERS FOR WOOL AND COTTON CARDS. 
telephone 654-2. Hear 256 Lawrence St., Loivell. 


The use of the diagram in con- 
ferring depth or penetration may be 
shown by arranging a group in 
front of the camera in such a man- 
ner as that some shall be nearer 
than others Focus the nearest 
figure sharply, and in most cases 
it will be found that all the others 
situated behind this one will be in- 
distinct and out of focus. By pro- 
ceeding as before directed, that is, 
inserting one diaphragm after an- 
other in succession, eventually one 
will be found which will bring the 
nearest and most distant figure 
into sharpness simultaneously. This 
applies equally to landscape as to 
figures, and indicates the method 
by which distant hills and objects 
in the foreground are rendered 
equally sharp. 

We do not here imply that it is 
always advisable, or in good taste, 
to make the distance extremely 
sharp, for, on the contrary, it is 
frequently desirable that it should 


be subordinate to the leading theme 
in the composition so far as regards 
sharpness. 

In a single chromatic lens the 
stop must be placed next to the 
flat or concave side, and, with one 
exception, to the outside of the 
lens. This exception is in the case 
of the lens being of an extremely 
deep meniscus form, when it is 
often better that the convex sur- 
face shall be directed towards the 
subject. A practical outcome of 
this will be found in the case of a 
wide-angle compound, from which 
it is desired to remove one of the 
lenses in order to obtain a longer 

o 

focus, when the back lens may be 
removed, leaving the front lens 
alone in its place. But a single 
trial will determine whether this is 
the better position with any given 
combination. 

In a rapid combination the posi- 
tion for the diaphram is about mid- 
way between the lenses ; yet it is 


UNION BRASS FOUNDRY, """ ™ 


LIGHT AND HEAVY BRASS CASTINGS, 
Dealers in NEW and OLD METALS. 


WortHeq St., opp. Kitsoi) Mine Works, 


LOWELL, MASS. 


Telephone 714-5 


1 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


STUDY 

the points of our different machines and com- 
pare with others. 

UNDERSTAND 

the merits and you will be convinced beyond 
a doubt of their superiority. 

HOWARD & BULLOUGH 

flmsrlciq macfiine Co., Ltd., Pawtucket, R. I. 



sometimes attended with advantage 
that its position be shifted a little 
nearer to the front. We may here 
observe that, according to the posi- 
tion of the diaphragm in such 
lenses, so will be the flatness of the 
field on the one hand and the pro- 
duction of our freedom from linear 
distortion on the other. With por- 
trait combinations the flattest field 
is obtained when the diaphragm is 
near the front lens. 

In single landscape lenses it is 
well to have the diaphragm at the 
maximum distance from the lens — 
this ensures flatness ; but it is also 
well to have the power of bringing 
it close to the lens in order to mini- 
mise distortion when taking archi- 
tectural subjects. 

The shape of the aperture should 
invariable be circular. 


INK FOR MARKING 

BALES. 


Best gum arabic . . . . 10 lb. 

Logwood liquor, sp. gr. 1*09 . . 3 gals. 

Fustic extract 1 lb. 

Nitrate of iron solution, sp. gr. 1-37. 20 fluid ounces. 
Bichromate of potassium . . .2 1-2 ounces. 

Water q. s. 

Dissolve the gum arabic in i 
gallon of water, strain and add the 
logwood liquor, mix thoroughly, 
and let it stand twenty-four hours. 
Then stir in rapidly the bichromate, 
dissolving in 3 quarts of boiling 
water. Then add the nitrate of 
iron and fustic extract. If too 
thick for use, add lukewarm water 
until reduced to the proper con- 
sistency. 

The above directions will make, 
if carefully followed, a jet black ink 
that will leave an indelible mark 
and will dry quickly. 


OTIS ALLEN SON. 

LOWELL, MASS. 

ALLEN’S STANDARD LOCK- CORNERED FILLING BOXES, 

Generally used in the New JEnyland Mills. 

ROVING CABS, BOFFIN G BOXES, RACKING CASES, ANB CLOTH BOARBS. 

WRITE FOR PRICES . 



THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


16 


281-285 Congress St., 

BOSTON, M7TSS. 

Latest Improvements and Specialties. 




C. E. RILEY & CO. I 


IflPORTfcRS AND BUILDERS OF 

COTTON, 

WOOLEN, and 
WORSTED 

CARD CLOTHING, 

EGYPTIAN COTTON, Etc. 



If a blue black is desired, bmit 
the fustic extract, and substitute 4 
ounces of indigo extract. 

When no appliance is at hand 
for determining the specific gravity 
of the logwood and the iron liquids, 
a sufficiently near approximation 
of the strength and proportions re- 
quired may be ascertained by a 
few colorimetric trials. The I02:- 
wood liquor may be conveniently 
made by dissolving the extract in 
water, and the strength can then 
be easily regulated . — Druggists 
Circular. 

THE TINKERING CRANK . 

There is a great deal of truth in 
what the Manufacturers'' Gazette 
says about some men who never 
seem to be happy and contented 
unless they are tinkering. They 
are always watching for a chance 
to use a monkey wrench or ham. 
mer, and not only waste valuable 
time, but do more toward spoiling 
the machinery in their charge than 


years of constant wear will ever do. 
If a machine is out of order, or 
there is some part that needs tight- 
ening up or repairing, the tinkerer 
takes his monkey wrench and 
screwdriver and goes at it, regard- 
less of where or what the trouble is 
He spends an hour or two twisting 
and turning nuts and bolts, and 
when he gets tired of this amuse- 
ment concludes that everything is 
all right and starts up the machine, 
only to find that he has not im- 
proved it any by tinkering. Then 
he ^oes at it a^ain. Such men are 
not profitable workmen. The 
competent and experienced man 
never tinkers. If the machinery 
needs fixing he does not go about 
it in a haphazard manner, but looks 
it over carefully until he locates 
the trouble, and then does what is 
needed, without making a bad mat- 
ter worse by acting upon the sup- 
position that because one part is 
out of order the whole machine 
needs tinkering. 


Established 18*0. Incorporated ill4 

TALBOT DYE WOOD AND CHEMICAL CO. 
Acids, Dyewoods, Ghercpicals, 

Drugs, and Dyestuffs Generally. 

38 to 44 MIDDLE STREET, 


LOWELL, MASS. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


17 


THE LOWELL 
TEXTILE JOURNAL. 

A Monthly Publication by Students of the Lowell Textile 
School, with papers and other valuable information by leading- 
manufacturers. 

FENWICK UMPLEBY, Business Manager 
Sub Editor, S. W. WESTON. 

Secretary and Treasurer, C. E. CURRAN. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY 

AT 

No. 67 niddle Street, - Lowell, Hass. 

BY 

THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL COMPANY. 

Entered at the Post-Office at Lowell as Second 
Class Mail Matter. 

SUBSCRIPTION TERMS. 

For one year, postage paid 5 oC * 

Single Copies 5 C * 

For Sale at all Newsdealers 


\dvertisements must be at the Journal Office before the 
fifteenth of each month for insertion that month. 

Contributions may be sentto Editorof The Lowell Textile 
J ournal, and willreceive promptattention. 

EDITORIAL. 

How do you like our new dress ? 

A happy and prosperous New 
Year to all. 

It is a delight to know and do 
our duty. 

“ Red and black ” are our school 
colors. 

We thank the Shady Side Aca- 
demy News for their friendly criti- 
cisms. 

We hope that the present state 
of the trade will continue long into 
the year 1900. 


Many of the southern students 
went home to spend their Christ- 
mas vacation, and we sincerely 
hope they had a happy time. 

At the commencement of the 
year 1900, we are glad to report 
that business is brisk and that 
manufacturers and merchants are 
very busily employed. 

A man is nothing unless he is 
thorough in his work, like the actor 
who blacked himself from head to 
foot when he played the part of 
Othello. 

The college examinations are 
now near at hand, and some real 
hard and efficient work is being 
done by both day and evening 
students. 

There are a good many novelties 
this season, both in dress and cos- 
tume cloths, the latter especially 
being noted for good taste both in 
design and color. 

Compare the prices of textile 
fabrics, viz., dress goods, mantle 
cloths, coatings, suitings, etc., etc., 
displayed in the windows of our 
Lowell stores with those at Boston. 
You will find that you can save 
money by purchasing and patron- 
izing the home stores. 


iS 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


TEAGUE & TEAGUE, 
Hatters and Haberdashers. 

Exclusive Novelties in Men’s Fine Shirts 
ami Neckwear. 

Complete Line of Men’s Fine Underwear 
and controllers of the celebrated Wilson 
Hat, none better made. 

Corner Central and Middle Streets. Lowell. 


Sam. H. Thompson, Pres. Ei.isha J. Neal, Treast 

The Thompson Hardware Co 

MILL SUPPLIES, TOOLS /} ND /METALS. 

All kinds of Hardware and builders’ Supplies. 

‘£.’>4, £.50 Merrimack St., Eotccll , Mass. 


It is a great treat for us to in- 
spect the large and elegant displays 
of textile fabrics in the huge store 
windows at Boston. 

There are novelties in “Textiles” 
that should gladden the heart of 
every textile designer. 

There is no doubt that “ com- 
binations ” must be accepted as 
trade organizations of the future. 
Whether this development is tow- 
ards socialism may be questioned ; 
there can be no doubt, however, 
that it is a child of inordinate com- 
petition and is probably a step 
toward the regulation of competi- 
tion which has been the theme of 
many of our labor represent- 
atives. 

There has been great anxiety 
with regard to the expected strike 
of the cotton spinners and weavers 
associations, but we are pleased to 
notice that a strike has been averted 


by the corporations conceding the 
demands of their employees. 

We should be glad to receive 
from any manufacturer who is in- 
terested in the subject of “ Defects 
in Textile Fabrics/’ specimens of 
faulty cloth. 

If manufacturers would send us 
specimens of defects which come 
under their personal observation, 
and that they should investigate 
these defects and deposit such spe- 
cimens (together with their own 
and their superintendents notes on 
the particular defects demonstrated 
by the specimen) in the Textile 
School Museum for reference. 

In the course of time, experience 
would be gained by which the cause 
of almost all defects could be dis- 
covered, and the instruments found 
necessary for facilitating investiga- 
tions of all kinds could be gradually 
got together, and so form the nu- 


B LANK 

BOOKS 


79 Merrimack, 

1 5 and 2 1 John St. 
Lowell, Mass. 


Largest Stock in the city. 


LAMINAR FIBRE CO 


MANUFACTURERS OF 

Roving Cans, Boxes, Trucks, 

And all Forms of Mill Jteceptacles. 

, Office and Factory, Tannery Street, North Cambridge, Mass. 
| Li. I). Telephone, Arlington , 44. 


TELEPHONE 238-2. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


*9 


FRED C. CHURCH, miss wood’s school 

OF 

Lowell’s Leading Stenography and Typewriting 

I A Students may enter at any time. Call or send for Catalogue 

nsurance Agency and note testimonials from many pupils who have been placed 

^ J in luci'ativs positions. 

Central Blk., Rooms 49 to 54. Central Block, 53 Central St. 


cleus of a properly equipped tech- 
nical laboratory. 

It would have been a difficult 
matter to have estimated what con- 
sequences might have resulted if a 
strike had taken place, and we only 
hope that now the question has 
been settled, the manufacturing in- 
dustries of New England will per- 
ceive the <rreat effect their action 

O 

will have upon themselves, should 
they consider to again demand a 
further advance. 

The question has often been 
asked. What are the causes of 
defects in fabrics ? 

To go into even a small number 
of the causes would take up too 
much space ; but they may be 
divided into the following : 

(a) Those produced by unnatural 
combinations. 

(b) Those through lack of proper 
understanding between the various 


The Only First-Class 
Barber Shop in Lowell is at 

YOUNG’S, 

7, 8, 9 Hildreth Building’, 
Lowell, Mass. 


people handling the materials as to 
the different processes which they 
have to undergo. 

(c) Defects which are unavoid- 
able in the present state of imper- 
fection in machinery and human 
skill. 

id) Faults through sheer care- 
lessness of work people. 

(e) Defects which arise through 
mismanagement and mistakes of 
managers. 

o 

{/) Defts which arise through 
accident. 

( g ) Those through ignorance of 
the elements of chemistry. 

The year is divided into months, 
weeks and days. 

The year 1 A. D. commenced 
on the first day of January in the 
year 1 . 

It would take 900 years to com- 
plete the nineth hundred or cen- 
tury; the 10th century would com- 


H. re. PARKER & CO., 
Successors to G. C. Brock, 

PRESCRIPTION - DRUGGISTS, 

Bridge, cor. First Street, Oentralville, 
Lowell, Mass. 


20 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 



316 Essex St., Lawrence, Mass. 


Larger School and Larger Results 
Than Ever Before. 

Best of Courses in English, 
Bookkeeping and Shorthand. 
Students Aided in Securing Positions. 


mence on the first day of January, 
901. 

We are now living in the 1900th 
year of the 19th century, the 31st 
day of December, 1900, will be the 
last day of the 1900th year, there- 
fore closing the 19th century. 
The 20th hundred or century will 
commence on the first day of 
January igoi. 

Our coin is divided into dollars, 
dimes, cents and mills. 

10 mills x 10 cents x 10 dimes 
= 1000 mills or 1 dollar. 

Therefore 1900 cents would equal 
19 dollars. We would like to ex- 
change 1900 cents for 20 dollars. 

If there are many of our readers 


who believe that at the close of the 
year 1899 we should enter the 20th 
century, or, that when you have 
received 1899 cents it is to be equal 
to 20 dollars, we are willing to pay 
our bills on such an understanding. 

A COLONY WITHOUT 

COLONISTS. 


A French newspaper has lately 
written up the colony of Yanaon. 
Yanaon is on the Godavery, some 
distance to the north of Pondi- 
cherry. There actually is no 
French colonists residing there, 



THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


2 I 


SAMUEL KERSHAW, 



Foreign Watch Repairing a Specialty. 

NEW YEAR NOVELTIES. 


114 CENTRAL STREET, - - LOWELL, MASS. 


but no less than eight hundred 
salaried officials, including a gov- 
ernor, a chaplain, a tax collector, a 
judge, a commissaire de police, an 
officer of health and a director of 
education are engaged in looking 
after the place. It is stated that 
the few French colonists who were 
included in the 5,000 inhabitants 
of Yanaon in 1885 have migrated 
to British territory to escape from 
the tracasseries des fonctionnaires. 
Overland Mail. 

THINGS THAT ARE 

LOVELY. 


The White City of Chicago, like 
the Centennial Exposition at Phila- 
delphia, gave to hundreds of thou- 
sands of people some new ideas of 
what art and taste can do for the 
embellishment of our surroundings 
and the increase of refinement. 

There has sprung up a wide and 
growing demand for “ beauty in 


the city, in the street, in the house, 
and in the articles of daily use.” 
Schools of design have multiplied ; 
societies of arts and crafts give an- 
nual exhibitions ; artisans aspire to 
be artists ; shop-windows shine 
with fair forms and pleasing colors ; 
many things that are cheap are 
also pretty ; comeliness and com- 
fort meet in the furnishing of lowly 
homes and in the attire of common 
people. 

For helpful impulse and practical 
suggestion we are deeply indebted 
to other lands. First, to France, 
which was long foremost in all the 
modes of elegance and adornment. 
Next, to Japan, whose decoration 
of pottery, screens and kakemonos, 
or hanging pictures, has merits far 
beyond the charm of novelty. 
Finally, from England, where the 
writings of Ruskin, the fine touches 
of Walter Crane, and most of all, 
the genius of William Morris, have 
worked peruasively on the public 


H. H. WILDER Sc OO., 

Furnaces, Stoves, Ranges, Kitchen Furnishing Goods 

Nos. 29 and 31 MARKET STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


22 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Merrimack Wool Scouring Mills 

WOOL AND NOILS SCOURED, CARBONIZED AND NEUTRALIZED. 
THOMAS HARTLEY. «• Lawrence, Mass. 


mind, with an influence which is 
powerfully felt in America, espe- 
cially along the many branched 
lines of household art. 

It is easy to make too much of 
material environment as a means 
of improvement and happiness, but 
the world can never become too 
beautiful to match the possible 
dignity of its inhabitants; and the 
things that are lovely may be the 
outward signs of inward grace. 
All hail, therefore, to “the crusade 
against ugliness.'’ 

Youth's Companion. 

EXPERIMENTS EOR THE 
CHEMICAL CLASS. 

i. Draw a landscape with Indian 
ink, and paint the foliage of vege- 
tables with muriate of cobalt, and 
some of the flowers with acetate of 
cobalt and others with muriate of 
copper. When this picture is cold 
it will appear to be merely an out- 
line of a landscape or winter scene, 


but when gently warmed the trees 
and flowers will be displayed in 
their natural colors which they will 
preserve only while they continue 
warm. This may often be re- 
peated. 

2. Write upon paper with a di- 
luted solution of muriate of copper ; 
when dry it will not be visible, but 
on being warmed, the writing will 
become a beautiful yellow. 

3. Into a large glass jar, inverted 
upon a flat brick tile and contain- 
ing near its top a branch of fresh 
rosemary, or any other such shrub, 
moistened with water, introduce a 
piece of flat heated iron, on which 
place some gum benzoin in gross 
powder, the benzoic acid in conse- 
quence of the heat will be separated 
and ascend in white fumes which 
will at length condense and form a 
most beautiful appearance upon the 
leaves of the vegetables. This will 
serve as an example of sublimation. 

4. Mix a little acetate of lead 
with an equal portion of sulphate 


M. G. WIGHT X CO., - - mill sup plies. 

Design Paper and Engraving, 

MIDDLE STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


2 3 


Middlesex Machine Co„ 

CONTRACTORS FOR Mill Pip ing. 12 Merrimack Sq., Lowell. 
Dealers in STEAM FITTERS’ SUPPLIES. 


of zinc both in fine powder; stir 
them together with a piece of glass 
or wood and no chemical stain will 
be perceptible ; but if they be 
rubbed together in a mortar the 
two solids will operate upon each 
other and intimate union will take 
place and a fluid will be produced. 
If alum or Glauber salt be used in- 
stead of sulphate of zinc the ex- 
periments will be equally successful. 

5. Put a little fresh calcined 
magnesia in a teacup upon the 
hearth and suddenly pour over it 
as much concentrated sulphuric 
acid as will cover the magnesia. 
In an instant sparks will be thrown 
out, and the mixture will be com- 
pletely ignited. 

We desire to call your at- 
tention to our advertisers, and 
ask for a share of your patron- 
age to them. 


PRIZE ESS A Y'S. 


To the readers of the Textile 
Journal we offer a twenty dollar 
cash prize, for the best essay on 
each of the following subjects : 

1. Carding and Spinning, from 
the “Distaff and Spindle” to the 
“ Carding Engine and Self-acting 
Mule.” 

2. The Jacquard Machine, its 
history, construction and use. 

3. Our Export Trade, the past, 
present and future of our Textile 
Industries. 

4. On the commercial aspect of 
Textile education and the relations 
between manufacturer and mer- 
chants. 

5. Finishing of Woolens and 
Worsted, from the loom to the 
case. 

Full particulars and conditions 
will be given in February number 
of the Lowell Textile Journal. 


CHHRLES GRIFFIN, 

-?i MILL ENGINEER,^ 

Plans aid Sjecilita'MS FarnlsM. Room anil Power to Rent. 

245 MARKET ST., Card Co. Building, BO WELL, MASS’ 


24 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


UAMBLET 31 A CHINE CO., 

Successor to Duston Machine Co. 

1~7 . j nf t • • . Paper Cutters, Gas Engines, Special Machinery Built, 

engineers and Machinists^ General Jobbing. Pulleys, Shafting, Gearing, etc. 

GEO. W. HAMBLET, Prop., 30 Island St., Lawrence, Mass. 

Telephone Connection. 


LOWELL # # 

MACHINE SHOP, 




WITH ALL 


COTTON 

MACHINERY, 

THE LATEST IMPROVEMENTS. 


LOWELL, .... 31 ASS. 


DERBY & MORSE, 

« ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS- # 


MIDDLE STREET 


LOWELL, MASS. 


THE LOWELL, TEXTILE JOURNAL 


25 


JOHN DENNIS. 

JOHN D I 

Press Manufacturers 9 either 

Hollow Plate Finishing Presses and Balers. 
Belting, Curriers’ and B.oll Coverers’ Machinery. 


“ NOT personal:’ 


Y-ng-n likes to hear glass break 
in the Chemical Lab — 

There s;oes another fiftv cents. 

Ask C-v-r if nitric acid burns. 

The great W-m-n and R-ck-ds 
fight is now on, in the Lecture 
Hall. 

Does F-s-ter ever anticipate a 
funeral ? 

How many? Forty-eight picks 
by forty-eight threads. I see my 
finish. Ch, dear ! 

Why is W-s-ton always chewing 
after he has gone out for a sheet 
of drawing paper? 


J. NELSON DENNIS. 

:NNIS St OO., 

Hydraulic , Screw , or Toyyle Joint. 

194 Western Ave., Lowell, Mass. 


Have some cocoanut, “Profes- 

i> 

sor. 

L-l-n says “he cannot remem- 
ber;’ 

H-n-ly’s work goes up in smoke 

Why does P-c-y spend so much 
time near the office door? Dear 
little P-c-y. 

H-nk-r will make a first class 
tonsorial artist. 

H-g-ves. I know that — 

St-t-n has a good box of bones, 
on which he tom toms popular 
airs. 

Tap-n and H-l-y, the “ inseper- 
ables.” 

Don’t mention “Boer” in the 
weave room.” 


LOWELL CLOAK AND SUIT PARLORS. 

We carry a full line of the latest styles in Ladies’, Misses’ and Children’s 

Cloaks, Jackets, Capes, Waists, Skirts, Tailor-made Suits, etc. 

We sell for cash or easy terms of payment. 

J. II. BANKS, Proprietor, 

16 Runels’ Building', Merrimack and Canal Streets. Next Door to Temple of Design. 


26 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Lout sAjLEX AMD eh 


m 


of Fiftr\ Avtnua.NfwYork, 


'j*ipoftT£k^TAJt'Q* 




55 [~ i eki~tr/m_ Street. 

PAUL 0. KABI.E, Assistant. 


Merrimac Boiler Works, 

WRIGHT STAFFORD, Proprietor, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

Steam Boilers, Kiers, Penstocks, Tanks, 
Steam Boxes, Smoke Stacks, etc. 

| SOUTH LAWRENCE = = MASS. 


OUR EXCHANGES . 


Among our “ Exchanges,” this 
month, are many bright and inter- 
esting articles, all of which are well 
worth reading. 

The “Gates Index” contains 
many good “up-to-date” articles, 
among which the one entitled, 
‘American Dreyfuism, or Modern 
Despotism” stands prominent. 

We are proud to have the “ Shady 
Side Academy News ” on our list 
of Exchanges. 

“A Well Spent Afternoon,” 
found in the “ Distaff,” deserves 
our attention. 

The “High School Courier” 
seems to be a very promising 
paper. The men are to be con- 
gratulated on their good showing 
in football. 


“An Indian Legend,” in the 
“ Westford Observer,” is a very en- 
tertaining story. 

Full many a twist of phrase and word, 
The English tongue has got for us, 

For we always think the world is cold, 
When it makes a place too hot for us. 

Ex. 

Be sure and read Prof. W. W. 
Crosby’s article, on “Wireless Tele- 
graphy,” in the last issue of our 
Journal, if you have not already 
done so. 

Satan will play his last card on 
judgment day, but Gabriel will 
trump-et. — Ex. 

“ The World,” a paper published 
by the Topeka High School, is a 
very interesting little monthly. 

The “Orange and Biack ” de- 
votes a page to each class, besides 
containing other well written arti- 
cles. 


FRANK 0. SHAW, 

Successor to J. Whittaker. 

Special delivery and light truck- 
ing of all kinds. Orders left at 
Allens’ Trunk Store, Middle St., 
Lowell, Mass. 


A. C. Persons. E. A, Mansur. 

JOHN TRIPP & CO., 

Manufacturing ROLL COVERERS, 

Manufacturers of all kinds of Cotts for top rolls. 
Mechanics Mills, 

DUTTON ST. LOWELL . MASS, 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


27 


W. H. SPALDING & CO., 

20 Middle Street. 

Art Materials 

For Textile and Drawing Schools. 


Ueli.sle, Beaulieu § liochette, 

632 Merrimack St., Lowell, Mass. 

Pure Drugs, Medicines, Perfumery, Toilet 
and Fancy Articles. 

Physician’s Prescriptions carefully compounded. 


Read “ The Cavern of Steenfoll ” 
to be found in the December num- 
ber of the “ Shady Side Academy 
News.” 

The “ Linden Hall Echo ” is one 
of our most welcome “ exchanges.” 
We always feel much happier alter 
reading the Echo. The articles 
are well written and the young 
ladies of Linden Hall deserve great 
credit. 

The Binghampton High School 
Football team appear to be a hand- 
some set of sturdy men. The 
half-tone picture of the team is 
excellent. 


Exchanges received this month, 
(December). 

The Herald, Holyoke High 
School, Mass. 


Orange & Black, Freeport High 
School, 111. 

High School “ World,” Topeka, 
Kansas. 

Linden Hall Echo, Lititz, Pa. 

Shady Side Academy News, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

The Distaff, Girls High School, 
Boston, Mass. 

P. M. T. H. S. Chips, Providence, 

R. I. 

High School Courier, Haverhill, 
Mass. 

The Gates Index, Neligh, Neb. 

Academy Observer, Westford, 
Mass 

High School Panorama, Bing- 
hampton, N. Y. 

The Review, High School, 
Lowell, Mass. 

We extend our sincere thanks 
to all our exchanges, wishing you 
all a happy and prosperous New 
Year. 


CHAS. W. DURANT, 

DIRMDS, WATCHES AND JEWELRY. 

Central and Middle St., lowell, mass. 


Repairing, Cleansing Dress Suits for Sale 

and Pressing. and to Let. 

ARTHUR M. BERTRAND, 

(Successor to F. W. Sargent,) 

MERCHANT - TAILOR, 

24 Middle Street, Lowell, Mass. 


28 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


MEEHAN $ CO., 

Hat Manufacturers, 

HATS MADE TO ORDER. 

Also high-class repairing. 
7 Merrimack St., Lowell. Mass. 


/'. A. MACKENZIE, 

Carriage Manufacturer, 

Repairing and Horse Shoeing, Rubber Tires, 
Wood and Coal. 

592 BROADWAY, Lowell, Mass. 

Telephone 691-2. 


“FLY CHIPS.” 


Corsets a la St. Charles. 

And when they returned the 
birds had flown. 

This is a cinch. 

Br — t, from his room window 
can rubber-neck over the Central- 
ville Bridge, Lakeview Avenue, 
Bridge Street and Firs f street. 

B — r will make a good in- 
structor after he has had a little 
more time with Prof. Umpleby. 

There is an overflow class of 
the first year evening students, 
“Wednesday evenings.” 

There is some talk of a concert 
and ball by the students of the 
Textile School. 

P — s is practicing for a go with 
a slucfeer. You should see him 

Oo 

knock the bird over the chairs, 


“ I’m more to be pitied than 
censured.” 

S. E. S. — “Every time I open 
my mouth I put my foot in it.” 

Very often we notice students 
take up the Journal from the desk 
and read it and replace it ; but they 
do not put their names on the sub- 
scription list and do not assist in 
making the Journal more inter- 
esting. 

L — h junior, Second and Third 
hand Corsets are two dollars a pair. 

Talk already of Base Ball. 

Fitchburg, keep quiet; don t say 
anything about the work done on 
the wagon in the woodshed. 

M - P — looks much better. 

H — ly went to Worcester to 
see the Meteoric showers ; he was 
with , star gazing. 


GEO. E. BLANCHETTE , 

Practical Carriage Builder and Horse Shoeing. 

All kinds of repairing done at short notice, 
Prices reasonable. 

Cor. Suffolk St. and Broadway, - Lowell. 


Father John's Medicine 

Cures or it costs nothing. 

AT DRUGGISTS, 50c. and $1.00. 
CARLETON & HOVEY, Prescription Druggists 
Cor. Merrimack and Shattuck Sts., Lowell, Mass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


29 


WEDDING AND PARTY HAIR DRESSING. Richardson <& co., 


Ladies’ hair shampoo, 25c ; Electric treatment for 
falling hair with shampoo; Hair dried with hot, 
tepid or cool air; Electric facial massage, 25c; 
Medicated steam for the face; Artistic manicuring, 
25c: Children’s hair cutting, 15c. Separate parlors 
for ladies. Over twenty-live years’ experience. 

C\ IDTIM’C, 36 Central Street 

*V. I I Remember the Plaoe. 


Dealers in 

PERIODICALS AND CONFECTIONERY, 

ALSO TOBACCO AND CIGARS. 

Cross St., cor. Broadway, Lawrence, Mass. 


Did Taplin give that grand re- 
ception to commemorate the end 
of the world? 

I think he did (nit) but H — ly 
went home sick. 

One of the textiles, who went to 
see the foot ball game, between 
Harvard and Yale, miht have had 
an interesting time; for on Sunday 
when the waiter asked him what 
dnd of meat he preferred, he wand- 
eringly looked across the table, and 
said, “I guess HI have a Short 

ass of then his mind 

returned and he called fur milk. 

Of course, he’s to be pitied, not 
censu red. 


FEW H IN TS ON CALCUL- 
ATING MACHINERY 


In order to obtain a correct 
knowledge of the method of cal- 
culating the different effects of ma- 
chinery it is requisite to have a 
perfect understanding what one 


part of the machine has with an- 
other, otherwise we may make mis- 
takes by substituting drivers for 
driven. But they are wheels that 
may be called both drivers and 
drivens, as they communicate as 
much both of speed and power as 
they receive. Such wheels are 
commonly called studd wheels and 
may be left out of all calculations. 

When the machines have been 
made by different makers they will 
probably have different sorts of 
gearing. If so examine and see 
that they are all giving the right, 
draft or twist (as the case may be) 
and not some giving more and some 
less than they ought to do. First 
examine the carriers and see that 
they be right speeded. The front 
carrier should <ro a trifle slower 

o 

than the front roller, the second 
(or middle carrier) should go a little 
slower than the first carrier. The 
back carrier should go a little 
quicker than the back roller. Ex- 
amine the front and back rollers to 
see if they be the right size. 



Turning the New Leaf. 

Our New Year’s Greeting is one of satisfaction with the business 
of the past and confidence in the business of the future. We want 
every page of our business record to show the good we are doing 
and the good things we are offering. Our thoughts are for better 
things for you for 1900. See liovv we do it. 

DUCLOS, 29 c rrns reet ' 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


J. M. Spurr, 

New Century Printing. 

QUSTOH SHIRTS, 

LETTER HEADS, ETC. 


F. A. M. TORIN, 

35 Shattuck Street, Lowell, Mass. 

Lowell , Mass. 


KELLEY BROS. 

UP-TO-DATE 

Newsdealers and Stationers 

Agents for Boston Daily and Sunday Papers. 

141 Broadway, Lawrence, Mass. 


HEflT 


your Palace Queen Furnace, 

house 

withaor Palace Regent Boiler. 

Make your wife happy with a Stamford Range. 

MANCMETT & HacFADGEN, 

316-320 Middlesex St., Lowell, Mass. 

HINCHCLIFFE & WRIGLEY, 

BRASS FINISHERS AND MACHINISTS. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Steam Brass Fittings and Plumber’s Materials. 

Repairing of Valves, Faucets, Pumps, Water- 
Motors and Gas Fixtures a Specialty. . 

Market Street , ho well . Mass. 

G. T. HARMON & SON, 

DEALERS IN 

Fine = Confectionery, 

Periodicals, Cigars and Tobacco. Local, 
Boston and New Y ork Papers. 

587 Broadway, Lawrence, Mass. 

JEAN’S LAUNDRY, 

First-Class Custom Work, new improvements 
for family washing. 

Goods delivered to all parts of the city. 

369 MOODY ST. and 249 MARKET ST. 
Telephone blo-12. WILFRED JEAN, Prop. 


Carriages for Weddings, Parties, 

Funerals, and Depot Work. 

MORSE COACH CO 

Stable , 3S0 Middlesex St., 

Telephone 32. Lowell, Mass. 

JAMES PETTIGREW, 

MAO H I N I ST. 

All kinds of machinery repaired at short notice and 
at reasonable prices. Special attention given to 
Steam Engines, Steam Pumps and Printing Presses. 

27 SHATTUCK STREET, 

Lowell, Mass. Tel. Connection. 


GO TO 

WESTWOOD’S PHARMACY 

FOR YOUR 

New - Year’s - Perfumery - and - Hiomizers, 

AT CUT PRICES, 

175 Gorham St., cor. Summer St., Lowell. 

J. T. Fontaine, 

Artist photographer 

475 Merrimack St., Lowell, Mass. 


TRUNKS. BAGS AND DRESS SUIT CASES. 

A full line for the holidays. Reliable goods at 
reasonable prices. We invite inspection. 

GEO. E. ALLEN, 

23-27 Middle Str3el, Lowell, Mass. 


Mafbi e , flriisiic firemorlals. 

Granite, c 

Bronze, Fine Work a Specialty. 

CHAS. WHEELER, 

5 i Thorndike Street, - - Lowell, Hass. 

PATTEN & ROBERTS, 

Florists, 

Have removed to 8 Merrimack Sq. 

BEST LINE OF FLOWERS IN LOWELL. 


Lowell Textile Journal 



WILL NELSON, PRINCIPAL WEAVING DEPARTMENT, 



4 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


WEAVING DEPARTMENT, LOWELL TEXTILE SCHOOL, 

Will Nelson, Principal. 

A. B. Taplin, Assistant. 


The machinery in the weave It is divided into four sections : 
room covers a very wide field, and To the right as you enter the 
there need be no hesitation in say- room is Section i, this takes in the 



Section No. 1. Yarn Spooling and Warp Dressing. 


ing that no other school is equipped woolen and worsted warp prepara- 
as this one is in this particular tion. In this section we are equipped 
branch. with the latest product from the 



THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


5 


Davis and Furber machine shops, 
the regular creel, spooler, dresser 
and beamer, on which machinery 
thorough instructions is given, in 
the making of woolen and worsted 
warps, starting with a common grey 
warp, and passing through, trou- 
serings, dress goods, and golf 


T.he plain cotton loom is the first 
for consideration. This is taken 
as a basis for all succeeding in- 
struction, and instilled into the ( 
mind of the student, is the fact that 
the plain loom is the foundation on 
which to build the structures that 
are to follow, shown in Sections 



u " n "fop Loom 
The Draper co 


L-Oom 

r «OM t 

w cit Machine shop. 


Loom: 


Section No. 2. Cotton 

cloakings, thence to the drawing- 
in frames, where the system of 
drawing in, straight and cross 
draws are explained. 

From here the student passes on 
to Section 2, and this iswhere he is 
first initiated into the art of weaving. 


Weaving Department. 

3 and 4. 

It is an undoubted fact that they 
who have started at the real foun- 
dation are essentially better than 
those who have commenced with 
the later sections. To thoroughly 
understand this loom, it is divided 





6 


THE I. DWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


into parts, its principal and minor 
movements being explained seper- 
ately, and compared with move- 
ments of a similar nature on other 
looms. 

The reason why a lay is fixed in 
a certain position, and the result 
that would ensue by a change from 


dinary circumstances, with the 
remedies for the same. 

The student gradually travels, 
through twills, sateens, and on to 
ginghams. He is now nearing 
Section 3, and his interest having 
been gradually awakened by the 
development of a piece of cloth. 



[ FANCY LOOM 
F/tOM 

the Knowies Loom Works.! 


LOOMS 
FHOX THE 

Leon Wix» 


Section No. 3. Leno, Towel, Handkerchief and Fancy Weaving Department. 


that position, also the advantage 
or disadvantage of more or less 
eccentricity to the lay, and so on, 
and as a fitting climax, the fitting 
together and timing of parts, also 
the causes for a loom requiring 
fixing under ordinary or extraor- 


from the common plain to its pres- 
ent stage, he takes a deeper inter- 
est in the working of the box 
motion, which helps to bring forth 
for him a cloth of several colors. 
The motion is explained in de- 
tail, and the student is taught to 





THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


7 


understand how by the changing 
of a color from one box to another, 
he can as a result, have a piece of 
cloth that almost rivals the rainbow 
in hue. 

Section 3, which is the dobby 
department, teaches the student 
how to add a fancy figure to the 


the reducing of the number of 
chain bars required to form a pat- 
tern, how by the use of such a 
motion, 12 chain bars, pegged to a 
certain pattern, are sufficient to 
produce a fancy over-check cloth * 
of different colors almost 2 ] inches 
square. 







1 


Section 4. Jacquard and Lappett Looms, Fgured Dress Goods, Rugs and Carpets, 
colored cloth he has already ob- The weaving of lenos of almost 
tained from the gingham loom ; every known style are then brought 
first making a study of the ordin- to the attention of the student, and 
ary dobby, the construction of a it might safely be stated that more 
figured handkerchief follows, at the skill is required in the weaving of 
same time, motions are explained, lenos than any other cloth that 
that are constructed specially for is woven. After the instruction on 


8 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


lenos the student passes on to the 
making of lappet cloths, and light 
weight fancy dress goods. From 
here we pass to Section 4, which 
takes in the heavy woolen and 
worsted looms and jacquards. 

The instruction on the heavy 
looms embraces the weaving of 
cloths from an ordinary pant-piece, 
through dress goods, overcoatings, 


to the most brilliant golf cloaking. 

On the jacquards the student 
commences with the common dam- 
ask, passing through tablecloths, 
figured dress goods, figured cre- 
ponnes, jacquard lenos, and the 
weaving of carpets, which, after a 
man is clothed with the garb of 
civilization, he naturally desires for 
the beautifying of his homestead. 

Will Nelson. 


THE CARDING MACHINE AND THE ART OF CARDING. 


The education of the carding 
engineer is not by any means what 
it ought to be, nor is there that 
enterprising desire manifested to 
acquire the technical knowledge 
which the situation and urgency of 
the position demand. I believe 
that facts would bear out the state- 
ment that there is far too much 
work done in this all-important 
department of our woolen industry 
by what is commonly called “rule 
of thumb”; and if lean by this 
lecture, or by any other means, 
succeed in arousing a more devoted 
attention, and cause to be brought 
to bear upon this aspect of one of 
our staple industries more technical 
knowledge, practically applied, I 
shall feel that this effort has not 
been in vain. 


It is not my intention to give 
any lengthened account of the early 
history of carding, but to state one 
or two facts which will indicate 
the principle upon which this oper- 
ation is carried out. 

This may be accomplished by 
showing and working the hand 
cards, which form one of the oldest 
and most crude systems of carding. 
On this system, it should be ob- 
served, there is a top and a bottom 
board ; the . face of each board is 
covered with leather, fitted with 
wire teeth, which are bent at an 
angle, and sharpened at the points. 
When the two boards are shuffled, 
one backward and the other for- 
ward, there is a contact between 
the two, as the wire in the one is 
worked contrarily to the wire in 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


9 


the other. This is called in card- 
ing, “ the working contact,” and has 
the effect of straightening out the 
fibre which is placed between them. 
The method is crude and simple, 
yet it shows the principle upon 
which all carding is done. The 
next fact I wish to state is that we 
cannot have “ working contact ” 
without we have a “ stripping 
motion.” As you will at once ob- 
serve, when this board is filled with 
material which has been sufficiently 
carded, it must be stripped off in 
order to make room for fresh mat- 
erial to come on. This is called 
the “ stripping motion ” ; therefore 
the whole of the system of carding 
consists of contact and stripping. 

This is a simple and concise 
definition of the carding process ; 
but it will be known to most of you 
that this old and primitive system 
has long since been superseded by 
far more improved methods and 
machinery, combining greater facil- 
ities, and producing more perfect 
results. I he modern carding ma- 
chinery has, during the past fifty 
years, been brought to great per- 
fection, and we are now in a posi- 
tion to card any kind of materials 
which are capable of being made 
into cloth, whereas even a very few 
years ago this was not the case. 

With the principle which I have 
just laid down deeply grafted on 
the mind, we shall readily grasp 


the whole system of carding, for it 
is but working and stripping. It 
may be, and I think it is, desirable 
to say a few words on combing, and 
to point out the difference between 
carding and combing. The comb- 
ing machine lays the fibre in a 
parallel direction, combing it 
straight out lengthway of the fibre, 
whilst the drafting rollers are con- 
stantly reducing a thick sliver into a 
small yarn. The two principles here 
at work are combing and drawing. 

The fibres in the carding pro- 
cess are placed and crossed in all 
directions, overlapping and cross- 
ing each other in every conceivable 
manner. There is a great differ- 
ence in the two principles — the one 
is work and strip, the other is comb 
and draw. 

The cloths produced by the two 
processes differ very much in ap- 
pearance. The worsted cloth, 
which is made out of combed yarns, 
finishes with a natural lustre. The 
cloths made from carded yarns 
have no natural lustre, because the 
process of carding lays the fibres 
of the material crosswise, and in 
every possible direction. The sys- 
tem of combing was used very 
early in the history of this industry. 
The object, then, was to free the 
material from its entanglement by 
combing it straight out, thereby 
bringing it into a better prepared 
state for making it into yarn. 


IO 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Now, before entering into any 
description of carding machinery, 
I will give what I consider to be a 
definition of the art of good card- 
ing, and then proceed to describe 
such machinery covered with card 
clothing as will, under skilled man- 
agement, produce good and satis- 
factory results. 

The carding machine consists of 
a number of large cylinders and 
small rollers, which turn over the 
material, and pass it on from one 
roller to another. This process is 
continued until the material gets 
through the whole length of the 
machine. Now the art of good 
carding is the use of suitable knowl- 
edge, applied to the carding ma- 
chine, in such a manner as will 
enable each roller or cylinder to 
turn over the material and convey 
it forward, without retaining in it. 
self any portion of it, but to give 
up to the next roller all the fibrous 
material which comes to it. This 
careful adjustment of one roller to 
another is what is commonly called 
“setting.” The contact must be 
as close as possible, but not so as 
to interfere with or damage the 
working point of the card, which 
would be disastrous to good card- 
ing, but to straighten out the -ma- 
terial so as to cause the various 
staples to be so worked and blend- 
ed together as to cause each fibre 
to lose its identity in the whole ; 


thereby giving an evenness of staple 
and cleansing the material from 
grit and dirt, so necessary and es- 
sential for producing a sound and 
smooth yarn. Of course in order 
to card satisfactorily we must have 
suitable machinery, adjusted ; to 
proper speeds, suitable card cloth- 
ing, good tools to work with, a 
well-educated and skilled foreman 
to manage ; but the soundest theory 
in this, as in all industries, is to 
have the best machinery, the best 
skill, the best clothing, the best 
tools, good wages, and the best re- 
sults. I desire on these points to 
give no uncertain sound, as I feel 
most warmly on this aspect of my 
subject, having in my experience 
seen much good material spoiled, 
faulty cloth made and masters 
ruined, in consequence of bad 
carding, which can never be made 
up for in any after-process. Good 
carding is one of the strong points 
which enables us to compete suc- 
cessfully against our foreign com- 
petitors. for here I do contend that 
we are in advance of our foreign 
rivals. We must have both quan- 
tity and quality, and get out the 
machinery all that is capable of 
doing, so that our cloths may be 
good and cheap. The carding ma- 
chine is not supposed to be a mix- 
ing or blending machine ; in order 
to have perfect carding it is necess- 
ary that all the various materials 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


I I 


that are to be made into cloth 
should be fully mixed and well 
blended in the preparatory process, 
which should be done in the blend- 
ing room previous to its being 
brought to the carding machine. 
This remark I would emphasize, as 
I fear there is not that painstaking 
work given to the materials when 
in the blending room, which is 
really necessary for obtaining the 
best results afterwards. 

Now, speaking of various styles 
of carding machines is a very diffi- 
cult matter, as neither theory nor 
opinion can be allowed to take the 
place of practical experience. The 
various materials which have to be 
passed through the carding ma. 
chine, for the purpose of being 
made into cloth, vary so much in 
quality and length of staple that it 
is practically impossible to arrange 
a machine suitable in every respect 
to meet the constantly changing 
requirements arising out of the 
changes in fashion, in price, and as 
the result of the general advance- 
ment of education. 

I know it is the custom in some 
manufactories to card on the same 
machines all kinds of qualities, 
from low English wool,- strong 
cross bred wool, fine Saxony, super- 
fine wool, and mixed mungo blends. 
This is certainly not the way to 
obtain the best results, as the card- 
ing on the same machines of course, 


strong, rough materials, totally un- 
fits the cards for doing good work 
on finer materials. Adaptability 
must be considered if we are to be 
successful in our carding depart- 
ments. 

HEARD IN THE COTTON 

ROOM. 


Rustic, in front of card, “ Is that 
absorbent cotton.” 

Pointing to fly-frame, “ Is that a 
Crompton & Knowles Loom ? 

“ Is this wool or cotton ? ” 


“ What does a mule do ? ” 


Pitching pennies or “ Crack-a- 
loo ” is becoming very popular. 

B. M. P. & L. B. C. are winners. 


Fitchburg says the cotton room 
fine scales are hoodooed. 


“ Who is Youngone ? ” 

Rip. 

“Mary, I hope you took good 
care of my animals while I was 
away ? ” 

“ Indeed I did, ma’am ; only once 
I forgot to feed the cat.” 

“ I hope she didn’t suffer ? ” 

“ Oh, no, indeed, ma’am. She 
ate the canary and the parrot.” 


12 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


A DOUBLE EXPOSURE. 

By FENWICK UMPLEBY. 


During my visit to Europe last the exception is that the front is 
summer, I was asked by a friend to overgrown with variegated (white 
take a photograph of his house and green) English Ivy. The 
and family. Of course, like all other owner was very much pleased with 
amateur photographers ; I at once the arrangements made as to the 


1 



Double Exposure, 

complied with the request, and 
straightway prepared the slides and 
camera. 

The house does not differ much 
from_others; in the same locality, 


by Fenwick Umpleby. 

positions and poses of himself, 
wife and children, also of his farm 
servants and horses. I was care- 
ful in all particulars as to point of 
view, and time of exposure. The 



THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


13 


slide is properly numbered and 
particulars entered in exposure 
book. All is ready, exposure is 
made and cap replaced on lens. 
The plate is supposed to be care- 
fully packed, along with dozens of 
others to be developed when I get 
back to the United States. 

Among other pictures that I 
hoped would turn out good, was 
the photograph of a faithful old 
horse. I had arranged this picture 
to be a typical scene of an English 
farm yard. 

On the right is the old-fashioned 
wheel-house adjoining the barn and 
stables, to the left is a green lane 
with its edges of fences of haw- 
thorn and apple trees. The back- 
ground is the stack yard with its 
ricks of hay and barley, oats and 
wheat, and in the foreground are 
dozens of hens and chickens. My 
particular aim was to make the 
faithful animal the main object in 
the picture (a fact realized later). 
The light was excellent for a snap 
shot, it took no little time to wait 
the favorable moment to have 
horse, boy and chickens in suitable 
positions to make a picture. How- 
ever, “All things come to those who 
wait,” my time came, click went the 
shutter and the trick was done. 
When I returned home my friends 
wished to see scenes of their child- 
hood, and as I had spent much 
time and thought in arranging the 


two pictures mentioned above, I 
looked for them, but could not find 
them as marked in my book, but 
came across a slide without any 
number or particulars marked out. 
Feeling anxious as to this number- 
less slide, I set to work and pre- 
pared my developer. The plate 
was placed in developer and the 
rocking commences, presently I 
saw a black object appearing in the 
centre of the plate, so I felt satis- 
fied with the way the development 
was progressing, the shadows are 
coming up nicely, the outline of a 
horse was perfectly visible, ah, yes, 
that is my brother’s favorite nag ! 
Good ! look ! look what is coming 
now? a house! there was no house 
near when I took my brother’s 
horse — what can it be ? I cannot 
call to mind any view like this one. 

I now hurry and rush develop- 
ment and fixing bath, now let me 
see what have I got, well ! well ! a 
horse as large as a house, a chicken 
as large as a six year old child, but 
who is the man ? ah, my friend, 
Wheatley. 

My two special pictures on one 
plate, the detail is good of each 
picture. 

Moral: You cannot be too care- 
ful when returning slide to plate 
holder, “ there’s many a slip,” be- 
tween Camera and the Subject, 
and never count your chickens be- 
fore development. 


14 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Are you thinking of buying 

A FILM CAMERA? 

If so, call and see the 

TOURIST HAWKEYE. 

A. H. SANBORN & CO. t 

53 Central St., Lowell, Mass. 


FAULKNER MANUFACTURING COMPA NY, 

Woolen Manufacturers, 

North Billerica, Mass. 
68 Franklin St., Boston, Mass. 


AFRICAN STORY OF THE INVENTION OF THE LOOM. 


Miss Mary Kingsley, in her 
book, “Travels in West Africa,” 
relates an interesting story taken 
from an Eboe, but which she as- 
serts is practical 1) the same as can 
be found among all the cloth- 
makinof tribes in West Africa. 
The story states : “ In the old times 
there was a man who was a great 
hunter; but he had a bad wife, and 
when he made medicine to put on 
his spear, she rr.ade medicine 
against his spear, but he krew 
nothing of this thing, and went out 
after bush cow. 

“ By and by' he found a big bush 
cow, and threw his spear at it, but 
the bush cow came on, and drove 
its hoi ns through his thigh, so the 
man crept home, and lay in his 
house very sick, and the watch doc- 
tor found out w'hich of his wives 
had witched the spear, and they 
killed her, and for many days the 
man could not go out hunting.” 


As he lay in this w'eak state he 
occupied himself in watching a 
spider making a net on a bush, 
and came to the conclusion that 
had he made a trap by interlacing 
material after the structure of the 
spider’s web, and placed this in the 
forest, he w'ould not have been 
gored by the bush cow'. After a 
time his efforts to make a net by 
bush rope succeeded, and one day 
he made such a fine net that his 
wfife said, “ This is a cloth, it is 
better than our cloth, because when 
the rain gets to it, it does not 
shrivel. Make me a cloth like this, 
and then I will beat it wfith a mallet 
and wear it.” He made several 
trials, but his cloth v'as not satis- 
factory, and he said, “ Yet the 
spider gets a shape in his cloth. 
I will go and ask him again this 
thing.” And he went to the spider 
and took him another offering, and 
said, “Oh, my lord, teach me more 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


15 


New England College of Languages, 


THOROUGH INSTRUCTION IN 
GERMAN, FRENCH, SPANISH 

BY CORRESPONDENCE. 


Special Courses for Business Men and Women. Write for Circular. 
PROF. P. KUNZER, Ph. D., Director, 

Telephone Philips’ Building. 120 Tremont St., 3 Hamilton Place, Doston, Mass. 


things.” Having watched the in- 
dustrious insect spin his web, and 
lay the fibres at right angles with 
each other, he observed that the 
spider made his net on sticks, and 
following out this idea he fixed the 
strings of his fine bush rope on to 
the bush, and made a much more 
satisfactory cloth. By degrees he 
learned that it was not necessary 
to have a large number, but only a 
few sticks, which he used as a 
frame, on which his nets were 
formed. Practicing in this way his 
wife, after a time, enquired, “Why 
do you make the stuff for me with 
that bush rope ? Why do you 
not make it with something finer?” 
Again he went to the spider with 
offerings, and sought further instruc- 
tion, learning on this occasion that 
the spider spun the fibre with 
which he constructed his net. Re- 
turning home, and thinking upon 
this matter, he said, “ That there 
are trees, and there are bush ropes, 


thick bush rope and thin bush rope, 
and then there is grass which is 
thinner still, and he took the grass 
and tried to make a net with it,” 
and at last gained the approval of 
his wife, who said, “ This is good 
cloth.” The conclusion of the 
whole matter is that “it is good for 
a man to be a gr .at hunter, and it 
is good for a man to please women. 
This is the origin of the cloth 
loom.” 

What suggested weaving ? Afri- 
can and European ideas evidently 
differ materially from each other 
on this interesting subject. Still it 
is very probable that in the early 
stages of civilization, the elements 
of weaving were suggested by natu- 
ral phenomena. As Professor 
Ratzel observes in “ The History 
of Mankind,” the invention of the 
way to manufacture clothing 
whether in the form of stuffs or 
beaten bark is surely natural ” (that 
is, charactistic of uncivilized races) 


THE LOWELL CLOAK AND SUIT STORE 


is the place for ladies to trade, if they want TO SAVE money, we are selling and will continue to sell our goods 
below cost until the balance of our entire stock of Ladies’, Misses’ and Clildren’s 

Cloaks, Jackets, Gapes, Furs, Tailor-made Suits, Waisis, Skirls, 


etc., is sold. Give us a call if you want rare bargains. 

16 MERRIMACK SQUARE, next to Temple of Design. 


J. H, BANKS, Prop. 


i6 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


STEAM BOILERS Mjiiit 

SCANNELL Sc WHOL EY, 

Lowell, Mass. 


“ but yet rich in results.” This 
may be correct, but the develop- 
ment must have been exceedingly 
tardy, hence even at the present 
day the ideas of weaving amongst 
the West Africans are most crude. 
No doubt the primary type of cloth- 
ing consisted of the bark of trees. 
It is well known that in the case 
of the Polynesian races tapa, which 
can be obtained in quantities with- 
out much trouble, is still used for 
this purpose, being prepared by 
beating and then formed into 
various shaped garments. In 
course of time, the art of plaiting, 
which might have been suggested 
by such phenomena as referred to 
in Miss Kingsley’s story, would be 
practiced and would lead by a long 
and toilsome road to weaving. 

A curious feature about the loom 
of the East, and also of all partially 
civilized peoples, is the lack of 
heald shafts or heddles. The con- 
struction of these, by whatever 


genius devised, forms the first step 
in the developement of weaving 
mechanism. So long as no me- 
chanical means had been discovered 
for opening the warp, weaving 
necessarily consisted of interlacing 
the picks of weft with the warp 
threads manually — almost thread- 
ing the weft yarn — and, therefore, 
the work closely resembled that of 
plaiting in its more advanced 
forms. When once a means so 
simple as that of heald shafts had 
been contrived for operating the 
threads of warp, it is easy to under- 
stand how mechanism could be 
invented for regulating their move- 
ment, and, therefore, of varying the 
form of the pattern produced. 


Pat — “ Three cheers for Ireland.” 
John Bull (scorfully) — “ Three 
cheers for h-11.” 

Pat — “ That’s roight ; iv’ry mon 
fur his own counthry.” 


Has few parts, large warp beam, requires but little 
power, runs rapidly, has an excellent Harness Motion 
and is easy on the warp. Moral : — Equip your mill with 
the Perham Loom, and have the^ BEST, 

CHARLES F. PERHAM, 

Lowell, Mass. 



THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


THE LOWELL 
TEXTILE JOURNAL. 

A Monthly Publication b,y Students of the Lowell Textil e 
School, with papers and other valuable information by leading 
manufacturers. 

FENWICK UMPLEBY, Business Manager 
Sub Editor, S. W. WESTON. 

Secretary and Treasurer, C. E. CURRAN. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY 

AT 

No. 67 fliddle Street, = Lowell, flass. 

BY 

THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL COMPANY. 

Entered at the Post-Office at Lowell as Second 
Class Mail Matter. 


SUBSCRIPTION TERMS. 

For one year, postage paid 5 oc - 

Single Copies . 5 c. 

For Sale at all Newsdealers 


Advertisements must be at the Journal Office before the 
fifteenth of each month for insertion that month. 

Contributions may be sentto Editorof The Lowell Textile 
Journal, and willreceive prompt attention . 


EDITORIAL. 


General W. F. Draper, a good 
name, and can be commended to 
the textile industries as the one to 
be endorsed for nomination on the 
republican ticket for the vice-pres- 
idency. 

Encouraging reports from all 
branches of the textile industries. 
Do not be over confident, and in 
these days of success and enthu- 
siasm, do not forget the year 1893 
with all its lessons. 

One of our Trustees, Hon. Fred- 
erick Lawton, has been honored by 
Gov. Crane, with the appointment 


'7 

to the vacancy caused by the res- 
ignation of Judge Lilley of the 
Superior Court. 

Last Spring, when the city of 
Lowell appropriated the money for 
the school, it was with the under- 
standing that there should be 
representatives from the city and 
from some labor organization on 
the Board of Trustees. Mr. Law- 
ton represented the school at city 
hall, and therefore to see the affair 
th rough, spoke to the Trades and 
Labor Council with reference to 
the completion of the matter which 
will need the sanction of the lesis- 
lature ; as it was too late for last 
year’s session, the matter is to come 
up now. 

With the January issue we sent 
out a large number of unpaid sub- 
scription bills, from which we have 
received many very kind and favor- 
able responses, to all of which we 
extend thanks. As there are yet 
many remaining unpaid, we res- 
pectfully ask of all having such in 
their possession to give the same 
their early attention ; the amount 
is honestly due ; as all subscriptions 
are payable in advance, and we 
need the money to use in the 
business. 

A very general misapprehension 
seems to exist among the students 


i8 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


BEST HALF-hOSE HAVE THE 



SflAW STOCKING CO. LOWELL, MASS. SEND FOE FREE CATALOGUE. 


of Textile Schools, as to their duties 
and the object of their scholarships. 
Nine out of ten consider that the 
entire object of their novitiate is to 
acquire a knowledge of the use of 
the numerous machines required in a 
cotton, woolen or worsted mill, and 
that, when they have learned to 
start up a card, spinning frame, 
mule and loom, and run the same 
while so many pounds of sliver, 
yarn and cloth has been carded, 
spun and woven, and facility in 
their handling, and that with this 
acquirement their trade is learned, 
and their apprenticeship ended ; 
thus we have so many young men 


who, instead of being masters of 
their profession, have their profes- 
sion for their masters. 

There are hundreds of young 
men who can run a machine and 
get the highest possible production 
from it, they stand by the machine 
day after day, weeks, months and 
years, and yet what do they know ? 

The student who can run the 
several machines only under the 
direction of an instructor or over- 
seer, has not attained to the 
mastery of his business. The tex- 
tile student must learn the why 
and wherefore of every operation, 
not only must he know how to 



COLUMBIAN STUDIO — 

Sittings made in Cloudy as well as Fair Weather 

• • J. POWELL • • 
PHOTOGRAPHER 4* 

55 Soutf? Whipple St., Liowell, JVIass. 

OUR SPECIALTI6S, 

Bromide Crayon and Pastel Work. 

We are Unexcelled in Children’s Photos 


Telephone Connection. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


19 


N. Whittier, Treasurer and General Manager. Helen A. Whittier, President. W. It. It. Whittier, Agent. 

WHITTIER COTTON MILLS, cx.tt.h.p.h.., a.. 


Goiion Yams, 2s 10 40s 


Q-eneral Office, Lowell, Mass. 

Single or Twisted, 2 to 200 ends, Ply, Cable Hawser, delivered on Spools 
Skeins, Hanks, Creels, Balls, Beams, Warper Balls, Cones, 

Grey or Colored. 


FIRE HOSE CORDS A SPECIALTY'. 


work a machine, but must under- 
stand the raw materials, cotton, 
wool, linen, silk, etc., etc., and un- 
less he does, he will be all his life- 
long a slave to the contingencies 
demanded in a textile factory. 

It is not to be supposed that every 
student is cut out for a textile 
manufacturer, chemist and dyer, or 
that they can all be treasurers, 
agents and superintendents, but it 
is possible for a student to be com- 
petent and qualified, by his ac- 
quired knowledge for the position, 
even if he does not possess the na- 
tural capabilities to be a leader and 
director, and the man who is not 
competent in the detail of the de- 
partments in any given manufac- 
tory is not fit to be a leader or di- 
rector. Not every skilful workman 
can manage the affairs of a mill, or 
direct a body of men, but he under- 
stands, as well as those who can, 
what is necessary to be done, and 
how it should be done. 


Character is to the working man 
what wealth is to his employer, it 
is to him capital, his stock in trade, 
and upon its marketable value de- 
pends his success or failure. 

There is truth in the adage “ that 
which is well begun is already half 
done,” but it is also true that that 
which is half done will prove a fail- 
ure unless it is wholly done. The 
last half of a good thing is quite as 
important as the first half, and it 
is often harder to keep on and 
finish a work than it is to begin it. 
It takes two halves to make a whole 
in any sphere. 

A free and enlightened Republic 
fighti ng an uncivilized and op- 
pressed people, that’s “Christianity.” 
Two Christian nations spilling each 
other’s blood and making thousands 
of widows and orphans, causing 
grief and misery, taking the only 
means of support from hundreds of 


FRANK PARKER, 

rianufacturer of 

Steel : and : Brass : Bound : Bobbins : and : Spools. 

LOWELL, MASS. 


20 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


ROBERT CARRUTHERS, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

REEDS AND LOOM HARNESS. ALSO BURR AND LICKER-IN 

CYLINDERS FOR WOOL AND COTTON CARDS. 
telephone 654 - 2 . Ltenv 25G Lawrence St., Lowell. 


dear mothers, that’s “ Civilization.” 
Two athletes who are perfectly 
trained to withstand each other’s 
strength and blows, who are con- 
testing each other’s prowess, who 
are hurting none but themselves, 
that’s “ Brutality.” 

On Wednesday, the ioth of Jan- 
uary, the class of 1900 accompanied 
Professor Nelson to the factory of 
the J. S. Jaques Shuttle Co , where 
they were shown around and all 
the processes of making a shuttle, 
from the drying of the wood to the 
finished article. This is all done 
by special machinery and the fin- 
ished shuttle shows that it is well 
adapted to its work and is. 


THE 

incaiuiBSCBiit Enclosed lire Lamp 

is the most attractive lamp ever offered 
the merchant for artificial lighting. It 
gives a light pleasing to the eye, per- 
fectly suited for the display of all class- 
es of material; quick to illuminate and 
easy to extinguish. 

Add to these qualities its 
Extreme Cheapness, 

there is nothing to prevent every mer- 
chant in the CITY OF LOWELL from 
availing himself of the opportunity to 
have installed the 

ONE PERFECT LIGHT. 

LOWELL 

Electric Light Company, 

LOWELL, MKSS. 



THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


2 I 


STUDY 

the points of our different machines and com- 
pare with others. 

UNDERSTAND 

the merits and you will be convinced beyond 
a doubt of their superiority. 

HOWARD & BULLOUGH 

American machine Co., Ltd., Pawtucket, 1 1. 



SIMPLE LESSONS IN PHOTOGRAPHY. 

THE FOCUS OF LENSES— BACK FOCUS— EQUIVALENT FOCUS. 


The above terms are not only 
puzzling to inexperienced photo- 
graphers, but are sometimes trouble- 
some to those who have practiced 
the art sufficiently long to be en- 
abled to take good pictures. 

Broadly speaking, the focus of a 
lens is that place at which rays 
transmitted through it are made to 
converge to a point. But this ex- 
planation does not cover all the 
ground. 

The term back focus is an en- 
tirely misleading and unscientific 
one, and is useful for only one pur- 


pose, namely, to afford camera 
makers an idea as to what lens will 
suit a certain extension of camera ; 
but, as applied to any of the com- 
binations in use, it is absolutely 
meaningless as regards their focus. 
It is merely a mechanical term, 
signifying that, when any object is 
in focus on the ground glass of the 
camera, this glass screen will be so 
many inches from the inner end of 
the lens mount. In one instance, 
only does the back focus convey a 
correct idea of the real focus. This 
is when the objective is a single 


OTIS ALLEN Sc SON. 

LOWELL, MASS. 

ALLEN’S STANDARD LOCK-CORNERED FILLING BOXES, 

Generally used in the New England Mills. 

JtOVING CABS, DOFFING BOXES, BACKING CASES, AND CLOTH BO ADDS. 

WRITE FOR PRICES . 


22 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


C. E. RILEY & CO. | 

281-285 Congress St., j!| 

BOSTON. 7vr?rss. 

Latest Improvements and Specialties. \ 


IHPORTERS AND BUILDERS OF 

COTTON, 

WOOLEN, and 
WORSTED 

CARD CLOTHING, 

EGYPTIAN COTTON, Etc. 



landscape, one of plano-convex 
form, and in such a case the focus 
is the distance between the back 
or convex surface and the ground 
glass. 

It would serve a much more use* 
ful purpose if opticians, instead of 
speaking of their lenses having 
such or such a back focus (which, 
as we have stated, means nothing), 
would give the distance between 
the face of the flange and the 
ground glass, and speak of it as the 
“ flange focus.” This, although 
optically absurd, would at least 
possess the merit of affording a 
ready means whereby any lens in 
particular would be adapted for 
use with any definite camera. 

Equivalent focus implies a cer- 
tain something to which it is equi- 
valent. It is so termed from an 
image formed by it equalling in 
dimensions that made by a single 
lens, such as a spectacle glass. 
Now, let an image be formed on 


the ground glass by means of such 
a glass, and the size of the image — 
which may be a house, or a portion 
of a house, or even a couple of 
trees situated apart from each other 
— is a factor in ascertaining the 
focus of any combination of lenses. 
No matter if the back focus of the 
combination be, say, five inches, 
and the distance between the 
ground glass and the simple lens, 
which gives an image on the 
ground glass the same size as the 
other, be six or seven inches, the 
equivalent focus of the combina- 
tion is precisely flat, neither more 
nor less, of the simple spectacle 
glass, which gives an image the 
same size as that obtained by the 
compound lens. 

In most lenses of the so-called 
rapid class the “ equivalent ” focus 
is the distance (approximately) be- 
tween the place where the stops 
are inserted and the ground glass, 
and this place is (approximately) 


Gl SMUTS SONS, 


Builders of 


Graniteyille. 

Mass, 


Wool Washing Machines, Wool Dryers, Wool 
Waste, and Rag Dusters, Duplex Bur Pickers, 
Waste Cards, etc. Write for information con- 
cerning our new automatic Cotton Dryer. 


Union Brass Foundry , 

JOHN RYAN & CO. Proprietors. 

Manufacturers of LIGHT AN1) HEAVY CASTINGS, 
Dealers in NEW AND OLD METALS. 


women st., opp. Kitson macpine Works, 


TELEPHONE 714-5 


LOWELL, MASS. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


23 


LAMINAR FIBRE CO 


MANUFACTURERS OF 

Roving Gags, Boxes, Trucks, 

And all Forms of Mill Iteceptacles. 

Office and Factory, Tannery Street, North Cambridge, Mas?. 
L. D. Telephone, A rlington , 44. 


BLANK 

BOOKS 


UWLEB’S 


79 Merrimack, 

1 5 and 2 1 John St. 
Lowell, Mass. 


Largest Stock in the city. 

TELEPHONE 288-2. 


the optical centre of the combina- 
tion. An intelligent reader will, 
from the foregoing, deduce the 
meaning of the word “ equivalent,” 
and will know that it simply means 
the focus of a single lens, which 
forms an image the same size as 
one of a compound nature. 

Having explained so much, we 
now come to the question of as- 
certaining by other means .the 
equivalent focus of any combina- 
tion. Seeing that this series of ar- 
ticles is intended for the inexper- 
ienced photographers, we desire to 
make it as simple as possible, and 
shall avoid describing complex 
methods. 

Place the camera in a window, 
and point it to a well-lighted scene 
at a distance. Focus the object, 
and note that there is a tree, a 
chimney, or a church spire at one 
side, the right of the ground glass, 
and an equally well-marked object 


on the opposite side, the left. With 
a pair of compasses measure the 
distance apart of such objects, or 
with a pencil mark their position 
on the ground glass. Now remove 
the lenses from the tube by un- 
screwing them, and insert a very 
small stop; a bit of card with a 
hole punctured in it by a thick pin 
will suffice. It matters not at what 
part of the lens mount this punc- 
tured card is inserted ; indeed, it 
will serve the purpose equally well if 
the lens mount is removed al together 
and the card is placed over the 
flange in the camera front. Now, 
with a fearge focussing cloth thrown 
over the camera and the head, slide 
the ground glass in or out until the 
feeble image formed by the pinhole 
corresponds in dimensions with the 
markings on the ground glass 
previously made when the lens was 
in its place. Measure carefully the 
distance between the card and the 
ground glass, and such distance is 
the equivalent focus of the lens 
that was employed in making this 
experiment. 


Sam. H. Thompson, Pres. 


Elisha J . Neal, Treas. 


The Thompson Hardware Co., 

MILL SUPPLIES, TOOLS /\ND PETALS. 

All kinds of Hardware and Builders’ Supplies. 

254 f 256 Merrimack St., Lotvell, Mass. 


TEAGUE & TEAGUE, 
Hatters and Haberdashers. 

Exclusive Novelties in Men’s Fine Shirts 
and Neckwear. 

Complete Line of Men’s Fine Underwear 
and controllers of the celebrated Wilson 
Hat, none better made. 

Corner Central and Middle Streets, Lowell. 


24 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


H. R. PARKRR & OO., 
Successors to G. C. Brock, 

PRESCRIPTION - DRUGGISTS, 

Bridge, cor. First Street, Central ville, 
Lowell, Mass. 


The Only First-Class 
Barber Shop in Lowell is at 

YOUNG'S, 

7, 8, 9 Hildreth Building, 
Lowell, Mass. 


PRIZE ESSAYS. 


ONE HUNDRED DOLLARS IN PRIZuS. 


To the readers of the Textile 
Journal we offer twenty dollars in 
cash prizes, for the best essay on 
each of the following subjects : 

1 Carding and Spinning, from 
the “ Distaff and Spindle ” to the 
“ Carding Engine and Self-Acting 
Mule.” 

2 ‘-The Jacquard Machine, its 
history, construction and usfe.” 

3 “ Our Export Trade,” the past, 
present and future of our Textile 
industries. 

4 On the commercial aspect of 
Textile education and the relations 
between manufacturer and mer- 
chants. 

5. Finishing of woolens and 
worsteds, from the loom to the case. 


CONDITIONS. 

1 All essays must be entirely 
original. 

2 Writing, spelling and gram- 
mar must not be considered in 
writing upon these articles. We 
are not looking for eloquence, but 
for practical information on the 
subjects mentioned. 

3 The prizes will be awarded 
strictly upon their merits as prac- 
tical studies on each of the subjects, 
and the name and reputation of 
the writer will carry absolutely no 
weight whatever. 

4 All manuscripts must be sent 
at the writer’s risk 

5 The name of writer must not 
be placed upon the manuscript, 
each one beinq numbered by us 

O J 

for the purpose of identification. 

6 Essays may be sent in anytime 
from the present date to the first 
day of June, 1900, inclusive. 


ARE YOU AFTER BARGAINS? 


Clothing, Cloaks and Millinery. 


-LADIES’ CLOAKS, SKIRTS, SUITS aili HILLINERT, also BENT’S aid 

; fl[ nmiTTIJn best styles and quality for lowest possible prices. We make a specialty of making to 
uLUlnlliu. your order, all kinds of suits, jackets and waists 



LOWELL CO-OP. SUPPLY CO., 


44 Bridge Street, Merrrimack Square, Lowell, Mass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


25 


A. J. LESTER, T , EH _ CHER DHNciNC 

Classes, Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday Evenings 
Hall to Let, Monday, Wednesday and Friday Evenings. 

Apply at LESTER’S HALL, Prescott Street, - LOWELL, MASS. 


7 After all the essays have been 
published the prizes will be award- 
ed by vote of the readers of the 
Lowell Textile Journal, who will be 
asked to vote on the respective 
merits without knowing the name 
of the writer. 

8 The writer of the article re- 
ceiving the lrigcst number of votes, 
will receive a prize of $10. To the 
writer of the article receiving the 
next higest number of votes, the 
second prize of $7, will be paid. 
To the writer receiving the third 
highest number of votes, the third 
prize of $3, will be paid. 

9 The names of the three suc- 
cessful writers will then be pub- 
lished. 

10 Each manuscript must men- 
tion the number of words it con- 
tains, which is limited to six thou- 
sand. 

1 1 Postage or express charges 
must be fully prepaid. 

12 It is recommended that the 
manuscript be legibly written on 


one side of the paper, the size of 
the paper not larger than 8 x 1 1 
inches. 

13 As no manuscript will be 
considered that does not comply 
with the above conditions, it is 
urged that the writers will prepare 
their papers strictly in accordance 
with these rules. 

Editor, 

Lowell Textile Journal. 

EARLY PRINTING IN AM- 
ERICA. 

BY A. DE F. 

Th first press in North Amer- 
ica, according to the best record 
we can find, was established at the 
city of Mexico in or about the year 
1600. The first press worked in 
the American colonies was ‘ set 
up" at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
in 1629. This press was secured 
through contributions from person- 
al friends of the Rev. Jesse Glover 
in Amsterdam and England, who 
had the interests of religion and 


H. H. WILDER <S6 OO., 

Furnaces, Stoves, Ranges, Kitchen Furnishing Goods 

Nos. 29 and 31 MARKET STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


26 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


LgumALMimmamM 




Foi-rr«r-l y of Fifth Avonu«.N«wVorh 


f J»pOJ{T£k^JVlJLQR 


55 r CNTRAL *1 TKCCT, 


PAUL 0. KABI.E, Assistant. 


BIGELOW & JORDAN, 

Imporlers, manufacturers, Puliisttsrs 

ART PHOTOGRAPHS 

Designers and Makers of Artistic Picture Frames. 

28 Summer St- and 43 Bromfield St., Boston. 


learning at heart. But Glover died 
on his passage to the new world, 
and so, perhaps, an honorable and 
historical that might have other- 
wise have enshrined his name 
among the pioneers of our early 
printers was lost. Stephen Day 
has the honor of being the first 
printer, and in recognition of this 
position he received a grant of 
three hundred acres of land from 
the government. 

Pennsylvania was the second 
colony to encourage the art of 
printing. William Bradford went 
to Pennsylvania with William Penn, 
in 1 686, and established a printing 
press in the city of Philadelphia. 
F'rom here, in 1692, Mr. Bradford 
was induced to locate and establish 
a printing press in New York. He 
received £ 40 per annum and the 
privilege of printing on his own 
account. Previous to this time 
there had been no printing done 
in the Province of New York, and 


from this date the history of print- 
ing begins its record in our city. 
What a marvelous stride the art 
has made in this period of time ! 
The first issue from Bradford’s 
press was a proclamation bearing 
the date of 1692. 

It was nearly a century after a 
printing press had been set up in 
New England, before one would be 
tolerated in Virginia. The South- 
ern colonists nad no printing done 
among them until the year 1727. 

There was a printing press. 


At Cambridge, Mass. 1629 

At Philadelphia, Penn. 1686 

At New York, N. Y. 1692 

At New London, Conn. 1709 

At Annapolis, Md. 1726 

At Williamsburg, Va. 1729 

At Charleston, S. C. 1730 

At Newport, R. I. 1 732 

At Woodbridge, N. J. 1752 

At Newlern, N. C. 1755 

At Portsmouth, N. H. 1756 

At Savannah, Ga. 1762 


Smoke 
W. H. I. 
Hayes 


Old Hundred Cigar 


MILD, SWEET AND FRAGRANT. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


2 7 


SAMUEL KERSHAW, 

WaiciunaKer and J^. 7rrtrr » 

114 CENTRAL STREET, - - LOWELL, MASS. 


The first printing press estab- 
lished in the Northwest Territory 
was worked by William Maxwell, 
at Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1793, while 
the first printing executed west of 
the Mississippi River was done at 
St Louis, in 1808, by Jacob Hinkle. 
There had been a printing press in 
Kentucky, in the year 1 786 ; and 
there was one in Tennessee, in 
1793; in Michigan, in 1809; in 
Mississippi, in 1810. Louisiana 
had a press immediately after her 
possession by the United States. 

Printing was done in Canada 
before the separation of the Ame- 
rican colonies from the mother 
country. Halifax had a press in 
1751, and Quebec boasted of a 
printing office in 1764. 

To Boston belongs the honor of 
the first newspaper, in 1604, and 
yet in one hundred years and more 
from that date there were but five 
newspapers in the United States, 
while in the next hundred years, 


i. e., 1825, there were about 600. — 
American Art Printer. 


Brown — Jones declared that his 
wife was like an open book to him. 

Hicks — That’s it exactly. He 
can’t shut her up 

“ If I cayn’t gits a libin by far 
means, den I mus by fowl,” said 
Sambo, as he lifted the Squire’s 
yellow leghorn from the roost. 

One of the students informs us 
that “ Towzer ” has obtained a good 
position and a hair cut. We won- 
der which will benefit him the 
most. 

Mr. Justjoined — " What on earth 
are you trying to do ? ” 

Mrs. Justjoined — “ I was reading 
about cooking by electricity, so I 
hung the chops on the electric bell 
and I’ve been pushing the button 
for half an hour, but it doesn’t 
seem to work.” — Ex. 


Merrimack Wool Scouring Mills 

WOOL* ARD ROILS SCOURED, CARBORIZED ARD REUTRAUIZED. 

■a «• 


THOMAS HARTLEY. 


Lawrence, Mass. 


28 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


CHRRLES GRIFFIN, 

MILL ENGINEER, fc- 

Plans art Specitieaiims FuniisM. Room art Power t« Real. 

MAMKET ST., Card Co. IUulding, LOWELL, MASS. 


NOT PERSONAL. 


Clog, buck and wing dancing is 
much in vogue in the halls at pre- 
sent. 

We all like to call Dick, “ Pro- 
fessor.” 

Skating at Lakeview is a great 
attraction, but there are others. 

Wanted, by the 2nd year class 
in dyeing, a stenographer or a re- 
cording phonograph from 1 1 to 1 
on Thursdays. 

The freshmen drafters are be* 
coming very proficient — in throw- 
ing chalk. 

The Textile boys are good 
waiters, to judge from the oft re- 
peated," I’ve waited, Honey, waited 
long for you.” 

It is the fashion for Germans to 
believe themselves living in the 
twentieth century. Of course our 
German class thinks, so too. “Nicht 
Wall rr.” 

Lost, strayed or stolen, — A cer- 
tain ball to be given by the stu- 
dents of the Lowell Textile School. 
Information as to its whereabouts 
gladly received by B-l-w-n., Chem. 
Lab. 


The design room has become a 
place for target practice. K-r can 
hit it most every time now. 

Hurry and put in your applica- 
tion to join the “ Boo Boo Club.” 
Cigars and hot chocolate for active 
members are the fees. Address 
all letters to the corresponding 
secretary, H-l-y. 

H-r-s. I can run a railroad 
head. 

The minstrel team, Barr, Strat- 
ton, and Kerr. 

Lawrence High “ Base Ball,” the 
first to challenge Lowell Textile. 

Nothing like Cuttle fish for 
catching the small frog. 

o o 

Tap — Don’t you know there’s a 
deadly microbe in tobacco? 

I lly — "Course,” I know. “That’s 
what bites my tongue when I smoke 
a stump.” 

P-r-cy says he dors not have to 
hang around the office door. He 
always goes inside. 

W— s-tn and T-y-or are good 
bed testers. Ask Har-g-ves. 

Poor L-ch admires Statues. Oh ! 
it’s alive ! 


M. G. WIGHT l CO, ' ' mill supplies. 

Design Paper and Engraving, 

MIDDLE STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


2 9 


E. M. Tucke. Percy Parker. 

TUCKE Sc PHRKER, 

I EflDIHG F LECTR1CAL H ONTRACTORS. 

79 Middle Street, - Lowel!, Mass. - Telephone Connection. 


OUR EXCHANGES. 

Each month adds a few more ex- 
changes to our already large list. 

This is most encouraging, for it 
means that our own paper is be- 
coming more and more widely dis- 
tributed. 

We thank all our friends for their 
kind suggestions and hope to profit 
by them. 

It gives us the greatest pleasure 
to mention at least a few of the 
many articles and papers that have 
attracted our attention during the 
last month. 

The pen and ink headings to 
the articles in the “Panorama” 
add much to the attractiveness of 
the paper. 

We are all very much interested 
in what the “ Lounger ” has to say 
about life at the Boston Tech. 

The “ Gates Index ” for Decem- 
ber gives us an amusing story in 
Brigham’s Initiation. 


We are much pleased to see that 
this issue of the “ High School 
Courier ” has be^n enlarged. If 
some more attractive cover could 
be designed, the outward appear- 
ance at least would be greatly im- 
proved. 

A very well written article ap- 
pears in the “ Cue ” as “ Patty,” a 
tale of Valley Forge/ 

There is a good deal of taste 
shown in the design for the cover 
to the December “ Herald.” 

The editorials in the “ Distaff ” 
are exceptionally well written as 
are also several of the articles.. 

All editors of college, school or 
class papers will confer a kindness 
to the Amateur Publication Ex. 
Bureau by copying this insertion 
and sending a copy of their paper 
to the Amateur Publication Bureau, 
Terre Haute, Indiana. — Ex. 

Labor troubles in Lowell are 
very rare. 


THOS. McNamara, 740 Lawrence St. DUNCAN IHcNAEB, Manager. 

WAMES1T MACH I IN E CO.. 


ENGINEERS AND MACHINISTS. 

All Kinds of Machine Work. - Engine Work a Specialty . 
OPP. CARTRIDGE CO, TELEPHONE 646-2. 


30 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


TRY A HOME REMEDY. 

The Granite Pile Cure 

is a home cure made in Lowell. It will cure you or 
return your money. Made by the 

GRANITE FORMULA CO. 

R. E. MAGEE, Treasurer and General Manager. 
Office, 90 Prescott Street, Room 1, LOWELL, MASS. 


CHAS. W. DURANT, 

OIRMDS, WATCHES AND JEWELRY. 

Central and Middle St., lowell, mass. 


Father John's Medicine 

Cures or it costs nothing. 

AT DRUGGISTS, 50c. and $ 1 .00. 

CAKLETON & HOYEY, Prescription Druggists 
Cor. Merrimack and Shattuck Sts., Lowell, Mass. 


HINCHCLIFFE & WRIGLEY, 

BRASS FINISHERS AND MACHINISTS. 

manufacturers of 

Steam Brass Fitting3 and Plumber’s Materials. 

Repairing of Valves, Faucets, Pumps, Water- 
Motors and Gas Fixtures a Specialty. . 

245 Market Street , Lowell , Mass. 


See our $5.00 Dress Suit Cases. 

P. F. DEVINEI, 

Maker and Repairer of 

Trunks and Leather Goods 

88 Merrimack St., Lowell, and 410 Essex St., Lawrence. 


JEAN’S LAUNDRY, 

First-Class Custom Work, new improvements 
for family washing. 

Goods delivered to all parts of the city. 

369 MOODY ST. and 249 MARKET ST. 
Telephone 815-12. WILFRED JEAN, Prop. 


New Century Printi ng. 

LETTER HEADS, ETC~ 

F. A. M. TOBIN, 

Lowell , Mass. 

W. c. HAMBLETT, Pres S. B. PUFFER, Treas. 
JAS. TALBOT, Selling Agent, 10 Franklin St., X. Y. 

Criterion Knitting Co. 

Manufacturers of e11 kinds of 

JERSEY “SPRING-NEEDLE UNDERWEAR 

220 Tanner Street, Lowell, Mass. 


STICKNEY & A US TIN, 
Architects, 

BOSTON AND LOWELL, MASS. 


GO TO 

WESTWOOD’S PHARMACY 

FOR YOUR 

Hew - Year’s - Perfumenj - arid - Atomizers, 

AT CUT PRICES, 

175 Gorham St., cor. Summer St., Lowell. 


J. T. Fontaine, 

Artist photographer 


475 Merrimack St., Lowell, Mass. 

Marble - Hriislic jnemorials, 

Granite, i 

Bronze, Fine Work a Specialty. 

CHAS. WHEELER, 

51 Thorndike Street, = - Lowell, Hass. 


FRANK O. SHAW, 

Successor to J. Whittaker. 

Special delivery and light truck- 
ing of all kinds Orders left at 
Allens’ Trunk Store, Middle St., 
or joi Hall St., Lowell, Mass. 


PATTEN & ROBERTS, 

Florists, 

Have removed to 8 Merrimack Sq. 


BEST LINE OF FLOWERS IN LOWELL. 


Lowell Textile Journal 


MURAL DECORATION AT THE PUBLIC LIBRARY, 

LOWELL, MASS. 

By VESPER LINCOLN GEORGE. 


Two lunettes measuring 8 1-2 
feet in length by 5 feet in heighth 
have recently been placed in the 
Lowell Public Library, through 
the generosity of Mr. Joseph A. 
Coram, a prominent citizen of 
Lowell. The panels represent re- 
spectively “ The Art of Printing ” 
and the “Textile Industry.” The 
first panel, the Art of Printing, 
represents Gutenberg in his print- 
ing office receiving a nobleman and 
his wife, to whom he is describing 
the then new invention which was 
to take such a prominent part in 
the distribution of knowledge 
and future education of the world. 
The press in this picture is an ac- 
curate representation of the one 
used by Gutenberg and at present 
preserved in one of the museums 
of Europe. 

Inasmuch as Lowell is famed for 
its textile, industries, it was thought 


appropriate that the second panel 
should be emblematic of that in- 
dustry, and represents the different 
departments of the manufacture 
of textile fabric. The middle fig- 
ure in the composition is a young 
woman sitting at a loom weaving a 
design in a piece of cloth. The 
figure at the left representing the 
artistic side of the industry holds 
a tablet and pencil. At the right 
of the composition is a female fig- 
ure sitting with distaff and spindle 
and suggests spinning ; behind, the 
figure of a man with colored liquids 
carries out the idea of the dyeing 
process. 

The period chosen as being pos- 
sibly the most picturesque was the 
fifteenth century ; all the costumes 
and accessories in the painting are 
from that period. The artist has 
taken great pains to make every 
part mechanically as well as artis. 


4 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


tically correct. It may be of in- 
terest to those who have a knowl- 
edge of weaving to know what dif- 
ficulties had to be overcome to 
determine what kind of a loom 
was used in the period represented. 

It was desirous to have the figure 
at the loom weaving a design. In 
order to do this it was necessary 
to have the mechanical qualities of 
the loom of such a nature that 


what might be determined embroid- 
ery and weaving. To represent a 
design even as simple as the one 
figured upon this cloth, provided 
harnesses were used, it would re- 
quire a hundred or more, which 
would be impracticable; besides 
this, the only drawing of a loom 
of the fifteenth century that it was 
possible to find, was a sketch by 
Holbein, which, while it undoubt- 



the design would not be an im- 
possible feature to its construction. 
The design chosen was taken from 
a piece of cloth woven in the fif- 
teenth century and preserved in 
the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 
As the Jacquard loom was, of 
course, unknown at the period, the 
design must have been woven 
either bv the use of a multitude of 
harnesses or by a combination of 


edly gave the general appearance 
of a loom, did not explain its me- 
chanical action, but which, never- 
theless, contained not more than 
three harness. Fora time it seemed 
impossible to solve so difficult a 
problem and the Boston Public 
Library and the Lowell Public 
Library were searched in vain for 
light on the matter. At last we 
came upon the following quotation 


THE LOWELL, TEXTILE JOURNAL 


from “ History and Principles of 
Weaving” by Barlow, and deter- 
mined to use it as the basis upon 
which to construct our loom . “The 
pattern drawn upon paper is placed 
below the warp, and ranged along 
the track of the woof are a number 
of cut threads equal to the flowers 
or parts of the design intended to 
be made, and then with two small 
pointed instruments they draw each 


the shuttle in the manner above 
described, observing each time to 
pass the thread between a greater 
or less number of the threads of 
the warp in proportion to the size 
of the design to be formed.” 

In carrying out these composi- 
tions the purpose has been to make 
them decorations, that is paintings 
of a nature to keep them in the 
spirit of what such paintingsshould 
be, a part of the wall, and asymbolic 



of these threads between as many 
threads of the warp as may be 
equal to the width of the figure to 
be formed. When all the threads 
have been brought between the 
warp they are drawn close by a 
track of the lay. The shuttle is 
then passed through the shed and 
the woof having been driven home, 
the shuttle is returned. The oper- 
ation is repeated with the lay and 


mural treatment of a significant 
subject, containing as much mean- 
ing as possible. 

So besides telling the story they 
are in a way an open book replete 
with suggestions of the history of 
the two subjects. 

For this reason the borders of 
each contain, in one case the de- 
partments of literature represented 
by the library, in the other the 
name of men prominent in the ad- 
vancement of the textile industry. 



6 


THE I. O WELL, TEXTILE JOURNAL 


. 

DIRECTION OF MOTION. 


Wm. W. Crosby, Principal, Lowell Textile School. 


In naming the direction of a 
given motion there must, of course, 
be assumed some, datum point, 
line, plane or combination of one 
or more of the three. If you' wish 
to express the linear velocity or 
speed of a railroad train, you do so 
by stating the number of miles the 
train recedes from a given point, 
in, or beside the track, in an hour; 
but the same numerical quantity 
might equally well express the 
speed with which the train ap- 
proaches some other point beyond. 
This leads us to define our motion 
not merely for velocity but also for 
direction ; this we may name to 
the right or to the left, we mean- 
while standing beside the track ; 
if another person be facing us 
across the track the train which 
has gone to our right will have 
gone to his left ; thus we see that 
in naming such a motion, one part- 
icular point must be chosen as 
the reference point. 

This same principle must be 
borne in mind when naming the 
direction of rotation of a shaft ; for 
a given shaft running in a fixed 
direction will be named differently 


by persons facing one another, 
standing at its opposite ends. Mo- 
tions upward, to the right, right 
handed “ with the sun,” “ clock- 
wise,” or with the hands of the 
watch are considered as positive 
(plus) and are affected with the + 
sign; motions downward, to the 
left, left handed, “against the sun,” 
“ counter clockwise ” or against the 
hands of the watch are considered 
negative (minus) and are affected 
with the — sign. In this way we 
can fix exactly the various motions 
with which we may wish to deal, 
and their magnitudes. A right 
handed screw is defined as one 
with threads so cut that when it is 
held pointing away from the ob- 
server and turned in the direction 
of the hands of the watch it will 
enter the nut; if such a screw be 
viewed from the side, the direction 
of the threads is upward to the 
right. 

In naming the twist of yarns 
there seems to be considerable in 
definiteness and confusion ; for one 
person may say the twist should 
be named to correspond with the 
screw where the direction of the 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


7 


fibre in the yarn is the same as the 
screw threads ; another says that 
the direction of the spindle which 
spins the yarn should be the cri- 
terion ; again it is said that the 
twist should have the same name 
as the motion which produces it, 
named looking toward that end of 
the strand where the twist is 
applied. If you twist two strands 
of yarn together, turning right 
handed while another person holds 
the other end stationary the result- 
ant strand will be right twist ; if 
now the other person twists his 
end right handed as he views it, 
more twist will be put in ; if while 
you turn right handed he turns 
left handed, as he views it, the yarn 
will merely revolve and no twist 
will be put in. It will be noticed 
that the direction of the strands in 
a bit of yarn with right twist as 
named above, is directly opposite 
to the threads of a right handed 
screw. This would seem to cause 
some confusion as in the case of 
those who name the twist from its 
correspondence to the right or left 
handed screws ; but we can find 
some element of logic in this for 
the word twist is essentially a verb 
and when we have named a certain 
strand as having right twist, we 
have named it to correspond to the 
motion that produces it, but the 
word screw is primarily a noun, the 
verb being a secondary idea and 


that is named with reference to the 
use of the article itself. 

To sum up then, right twist as 
applied to yarns, is that twist which 
is produced by turning the end of 
the yarn which is toward you, the 
other fastened to a distant point, 
in the direction of the hands of a 
watch as the watch is held in front 
of the turning strand, its face being 
toward the observer. 

Just why that part of the body 
which is toward the south when 
one is facing east should have been 
called “right,” I cannot say, unless, 
other than that it should have some 
name, it were because it is usually 
the stronger and abler of the two ; 
but the fact remains that it is so 
named and we must adapt our- 
selves to it. 

“ A thing is never too often 
repeated which is never sufficiently 
learned.” 

“When found, make a note of.” 

“ Lean not on a reed.” 

“ Great talkers are little doers.” 

“ No gain in dealing with a 
villain.” 

“ Difficulties give way to dili- 
gence.” 

“ Silence gives consent.” 

“ Study in your course of life to 
do the greatest amount of good.” 

“ Remember that labor is one of 
the conditions of our existence.” 


8 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


DESIGNING OF COLORED AND FANCY WEAVE FABRICS. 

COTTON, WOOLEN AND WORSTED. 

By FENWICK UMPLEBY. 


If by the above term we are to 
understand that the designing 
means to originate new weaves, 
then we are afraid there are not 
many designers at the present day. 
The designers of today, especially 
the younger members of the craft, 
have got all their weaves without 
having had the trouble to originate 
them Of course, it is necessary 
that he should be well acquainted 
with the different kinds of weaves 
connected with his branch of 
trade. All designers are supposed 
to be familiar with the plain cotton 
weave, prunella twill, cassimere 
twill, basket weave, sateens, cork- 
screw twills, fancy diagonals, warp 
and filling cord weaves, etc., etc., 
and the best uses to which they 
may be applied. 

The designer must also know 
how to combine two or more 
weaves in the best manner possible 
so as not to have any large breaks 
or floats where the weaves unite; 
he must also know how to put a 
back or lining on all patterns re- 
quiring it, for sometimes patterns 


that have a large run on light 
weight fabrics are wanted in the 
heavy weight or winter season’s 
good', and vice versa. 

Here, we would say that, what 
may seem an easy task to some 
designers, will in due time prove 
a very difficult affair to the novice. 
What we refer to is the statement 
made by some designers that, “any 
piece of cloth whatever, which has 
got a back on, can be dup'icated 
in the light weight fabrics by sim- 
ply taking the back off” 

This statement is not correct, of 
course we know it can be done in 
a great many cases, but there are 
some instances where the designer 
cannot do it and have a perfect 
single cloth fabric. 

A designer should know how to 
combine his colors well, that being 
the case, he should be allowed to 
have some voice in the selection of 
colors for his work, even if he has 
nothing to'do with the mixing of 
lots. We think it will pay any 
designer to read Chevreul’s work 
on colors. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


9 


Color applied to clothing fabrics 
require very different treatment 
from that applied to carpets, room 
decorations, paintings and large 
floral and geometrical designs, 
vvherecolor is used in comparatively 
large masses. The same laws hold 
good, but the textile designer is 
more subject to optical delusions, 
because the eye cannot separate 
the small particles of color, informs 
of lines, spots, threads, and fibres ; 
they consequently act upon the 
color nerves of the eye and make 
colors appear which they are not ; 
example: The well known adver- 
tisement of looking at a red spot 
and afterwards seeing the compli- 
mentary color. We must therefore 
take color as it appears and not as 
it is. 

Before going into detail it is ne- 
cessary to clearly define the mean- 
ing of certain words used in speak- 
ing of color and color theory. 
There are several color theories : 
ist, red, blue, green ; 2nd, red, 
blue, yellow; 3rd, red, orange, 
yellow, green, blue and violet. Tbe 
first is the theory of light, the sec- 
ond, of pigments, the third, of the 
solar spectrum. Gray, there are 
two mixtures which are designated 
as gray or grey. 

Gray is a mingling of colors in 
such proportion as would form 
white by using colored light, but 
which give a gray mixture by using 


colored wools, threads, or pigments. 

Grey is generally understood to 
be a mixture of black and white, 
giving the mixtures known to the 
trade as Oxford and Cambridge -* 
mixtures. 

Harmonies of analogous and 
contrasting colors in the primary, 
secondary and tertiary groups, may 
be divided into two parts. 

ist. In the light colors of large 
and small designs, either stripes or 
checks, and with or without over- 
checks or striping. 

2nd. By separation with dark 
colors in large or small designs, 
either stripes or checks, and with 
or without overchecks or striping. 

The guiding principle in the 
blending of colors in the light por- 
tion of the design should be the 
same as blending colored wool to 
make yarn. The various colored 
threads being contiguous, appear 
to the eye as one solid color, the 
hue of each colored thread giving 
its hue to the whole. Therefore, 
keep the hue of the whole combin- 
ation good by toning down any 
hue which is too prominent, by a 
thread containing some of its com- 
plimentary color, so as to produce 
a grayish hue, soft and pleasing, 
with a delicate hue according to 
the predominance of the red, 
yellow, or blue, either in the prin- 
cipal light color of the tertiary 
group, or in the bright colors of 


IO 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


the primary or secondary groups. 
Gray is a different color to combine 
until you analyse the color. The 
white of gray is never pure, but 
always a little yellow, treat it as a 
very pale yellow, and then you can 
easily find good shades for small or 
large overcheckings and combin- 
ation. Larcre designs are much 
easier to color than small, in many 
cases shades which look well in a 
large design are bad in a small 
design, notably in harmonies of 
contrast of complimentary hues. 

The reason of this is that in 
small designs the light shades, the 
dark shades, and the bright shades 
blend together and hurt each other. 

To be continued. 


BLEACHING OF WOOLEN 

FABRICS. 

In decolorizing woolen fabrics 
two agents are commonly em- 
ployed. These are sulphurous 
acid and hydrogen peroxide. The 
use of these two substances is by 
no means a modern innovation. 
Indeed, the first goes back as far 
as the Christian era, and the sec- 
ond almost as far, certainly to the 
time that the cloth was laid out in 
the air and bleached with natural 
agents- 

In the natural method of bleach 
ing it is commonly supposed that 
the element which accomplishes 


the decolorizing of the fabric re- 
sides in the sun’s rays. But chem- 
ical research has shown that this 
is erroneous. A substance called 
ozone has been separated from the 
atmosphere, and it has been de- 
monstrated that this is the element 
which has to do mainly with the 
bleaching process. This substance 
is always present to some extent 
in country air at all times, and it is 
a fact that cloth exposed to the 
bleaching action of country air is 
always more perfectly withened 
than when it is exposed in the 
closer, more confined atmosphere 
of cities or towns. To facilitate 
matters, then, it has been the aim 
of chemists to obtain this element 
in quantities sufficiently large to 
enable manufacturers to do their 
bleaching in less time and at less 
expense. As yet the use of perox- 
ide of hydrogen cannot be said to 
be as common as it might be, but 
it is steadily growing in favor. 
This is but natural, since it gives 
a purer white upon wool than sul- 
phurous acid, and one which is 
more permanent and clear. The 
great obstacle to its more extended 
use as a bleaching agent is the fact 
that it has not yet been produced 
on such a scale as to bring its price 
within the range of economy. 

In using hydrogen peroxide, it is 
necessary to apply a little ammonia, 
and this has the effect of neutraliz- 


THE LOWELL. TEXTILE JOURNAL 


ing the acid which is always pre- 
sent. This acid is employed in 
the manufacture of the agent and 
is left with it in order to keep it 
from spoiling, which it is sure to 
do when left in its natural condi- 
tion. The goods to be bleached 
are passed through the solution of 
peroxide, slightly wrung and gradu- 
ally dried. This is sufficient in 
many cases, but where the condi- 
tion of the wool requires it, it may 
be necessary to repeat the process 
two or three times before the de- 
sired whiteness is attained. 

The second method employed in 
bleach in or woolens is that in which 

o 

sulphurous acid is the agent, and 
it is probably the most common of 
all. The operation is undergone 
in a compartment constructed for 
the purpose called a stove or oven. 
The material used is brick or stone, 
lined with wood, and in the lining 
all nail heads, hooks, etc., are care- 
fully concealed. The reason for 
this is that, by the action of the 
gases disengaged during the pro- 
cess upon the iron, sulphate of iron 
is formed, which drops upon the 
cloth and makes a spot that cannot 
be removed. 

The woolens to be bleached by 
this process must first be thor- 
oughly scoured, after which they 
are soaped with a neutral white 
soap. The whizzing must be as 
complete and perfect as possible, so 


1 1 

that no loose water shall remain in 
the folds or creases of the cloth to 
prevent the uniform action of the 
gases upon all parts of the cloth 
alike. When thus prepared the 
cloth is hung in the bleach house 
or oven and there an amount of 
roll sulphur equal to about one- 
tenth of the weight of the goods is 
placed in an irod vessel and set on 
fire by means of a red hot iron. 
The doors are closed, and over this 
the cloth is allowed to hang for 
several hours. The goods quickly 
absorb the gases, and the coloring 
matter is gradually neutralized. 
After the time necessary, which 
will vary, of course, with the nature 
of the goops, has elapsed, the cloth 
is removed, washed, and dried. 
There is usually an odor present 
in goods thus treated, which arises 
from the fact that all traces of the 
acid have not been thoroughly re- 
moved. It is difficult to do away 
with this altogether, yet, where 
bleached yarns are to be woven 
with colored, unless they are re- 
moved there is sure to be an evil 
effect upon all colors which come 
in contact with the white. The 
acid may be removed by first wash- 
ing as clean as possible in pure 
w'ater, and then running the cloth 
through a dilute solution of hy- 
drogen peroxide. The sulphurous 
acid is thus connected with sul- 
phuric acid and easily passes off. 


12 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


The third method adopted in 
woolen bleaching is known as liquid 
bleaching, but as a process is con- 
fined more especially to loose wools 
than to the woolen fabric. It is 
valuable as a process for bleaching 
loose wools, because it is less diffi- 
cult to manipulate loose wools in 
liquid than in the other way, but it 
is not so powerful a bleaching agent 
as the gas, nor is the process alto- 
gether satisfactory in other ways. 

The actual bleaching process is 
due in every case to the destruction 
of the yellow coloring matter natur- 
ally inherent in the wool. This 
destruction is brought about by 
means of the chemical action of 
the agent employed. But is has to 
be admitted that in no case is the 
reduction of this matter complete 
or permanent ; since frequent wash- 
ing in an alkaline solution has the 
effect of counteracting the influence 
of the bleaching agent, and restor- 
ing again the original yellow of the 
wool. This effect is noticeable in 
flannel underwear or blankets, 
which, though pure and white when 
they are taken from the store, soon 
begin to color up as they are ex- 
posed to the alkaline action of the 
soap used in washing. 


W PRINTING TINTS. 

Mr. E. E. Wright gives in typo 
(N. Z.) the following hints on the 


subject of tints — their method of 
use and their harmonies. By the 
term “ tint ” is understood a con- 
siderable surface of color applied 
to the paper as a ground work to 
the whole or portion of the job, to 
bring out some prominent feature 
in the design. 

Tints may be divided into two 
classes: i, warm, such as salmon, 

orange, or reddish purple. 2, cool, 
such as drab, gray, etc. Where a 
considerable portion of the job is 
to be tinted, and bright colors are 
to be used for the lettering, it is 
always safest to use a tint in which 
the primary colors do not appear. 
For instance, drab, gray, or slate 
produce a very good effect when 
used with almost any shade of red 
or green ; but should the lettering 
be of black, blue, or any cold dark 
color the tints should be warm — 
say orange, pink or lavender. 

To obtain the greatest advan- 
tage from the use of any tint, its 
margin or edge must be clearly 
defined by a positive color, and 
where two tints meet, they should 
be divided by a darker line, which 
gives a finish to the job. 

The tints most generally used, 
and which give a pleasing appear- 
ance to the work, are drab, blue, 
brown, lilac, pink, lemon and green ; 
but with a little study an endless 
number of tints and shades can be 
Continued on page 15. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


13 


F>. 7X. St F>. HHLL, 

Manutacture and Repair 

Roving, Twister and Spinning Flyers, 

ALSO SPINDLES, STEEL CAPS AND TUBES. 

Write for Estimates. Lawrence, Hass. 

JOHN DENNIS. J. NELSON DENNIS. 

JOHN DENNIS St GO., 


Press Manufacturers , either 

Hollow Plate Finishing Presses and Balers. 
Belting, Curriers’ and Roll Coverers’ Machinery. 


Hydraulic , Screw, or Toggle Joint . 

194 Western Ave., Lowell, Mass 


MASON SAFETY TREAD. 

A non-slipping device for stairs and sidewalk lights. Factory on Perry St., Lowell, Mass. 

American Mason Safety Tread Co., 40 Wat BosTON, mass. 


LOWELL HEATING AND PLUMBING CO. 

COPPERSMITHS. 

We are prepared to do Copper Work of every description for cotton and woolen mills, chemical 
works, also Cylinders, Drying Cans, Copper Pipe and Bends. Copper repairing for cotton and woolen mills 
a specialty. 

828 and 836 MIDDLESEX STREET. 

THOM AS H . OO N NELL, 

CONTRACTOR , 

Room 5 flarble Bank Building, 

Cor. rierrimack and John Streets, LOWELL, HASS. 


Established 1827. Formerly Brabrook’s 

DONOiZHN HHRNESS OO.. 

Manufacturer of and Dealer in 

HARNESSES, HORSE FURNISHINGS /\nd CARRIAGE COODS. 

Turf goods a specialty. Everything for Horse and Carriage. Large and complete line of Harnesses 
always in stock All kinds of repairing receives prompt attention. 

1FAREBOOMS , SI* Market St., Lowell, 3Iass. Tel. 08S-4. 



KNOWLES' SCALE WORKS. 

Manufacturers of 

SC9LE5 9110 WEIGHING WHINES, 

For any purpose. 

Experts to repair and test any make 
of scales . . . 



FLETCHER ST. 


Lowell, Hass, 


14 THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Are you thinking of buying 

A FILM CAMERA? 

If so, call and see the 

TOURIST HAWKEYE. 

A. H. SANBORN & CO., 

53 Central St., Lowell, Mass. 

FAULKNER MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

Woolen Manufacturers, 

North Billerica, Mass. 

68 Franklin St., Boston, Mass. 

First Class Cooking Stoves 

Sold on Instalment Plan. Also set 
up and rented at a low rate per 
year, piping included. 

LOWELL GAS LIGHT CO. 

WEDDING AND PARTY HAIR DRESSING. 

Ladies’ hair shampoo, 25c ; Electric treatment for 
falling hair with shampoo; Hair dried with hot, 
tepid or cool air; Electric facial massage, 25c; 
Medicated steam for the face; Artistic manicuring, 
25c; Children’s hair cutting, 15c. Separate parlors 
for ladies. Over twenty-live years' experience. 

36 Central Street. 
* 11^1 9 Remember the Plaoe. 

Talking Machines . . . 

All makes and styles from $3.00 to $100. Twenty thousand 
records to select from. Everything up-to-date. Cash or credit. 

RING'S MUSIO STORE, 

133-135-137 Merrimack Street, - - LOWELL, MASS. 

GOOD i 

BICYCLES | 

CHEAP. j 

Telephone... ) 

| Incandescent Gas Lanips, fllanties, Chintneys ana Shades 

J BICYCLE REPAIRING AND SUNDRIES. 

GEORGE H. BACH ELDER, 

110 Middlesex Street, - - - Lowell, Mass 

Wolf High Art O | E Fu,Ier Truss Fram e 

Sold by RUTLHND St SAAITH, 

195 Middlesex Street , Lowell , Mass. 

TELEPHONE 653-5. We Want Your Repairing. 

THE CRYSTAL CAFE... 

Dinner, 11.30 till 3 o’clock. Oysters and Shell Fish. 

Orders Cooked a specialty. Lunches of all kinds. 

140 Worthen Street. JAMES VV. GRADY, Prop. 


T ICKETS TO PARIS EXPOSITION , on all the Best Lines. 


Hotel Accommodations Reserved in Advance. 

Tickets to Bermuda, Jamaica, Cuba and Florida at the Lowest Prices. 

LEEDS', 5 Bridge St., Lowell, Mass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


*5 


New Eiigiaim College ot Languages, 


THOROUGH INSTRUCTION IN 
GERMAN, FRENCH, SPANISH 

BY CORRESPONDENCE . 


Special Courses for Business Men and Women. Write for Circular. 
rjiOF. r. K UNZEll, J’h. D., Director, 

Telephone Philips’ Building. 120 Tremont St,, 3 Hamilton l’lace, Doston, 3Iass • 


Continued from page 12. 
produced. In working more than 
one tint in a job, care must be 
taken that the colors are in har- 
mony, and that they are not too 
strong. The following, in pairs of 
triplets, produce a good effect : 
blue and pink; pink and green; 
sage-green and brownish yellow, or 
buff ; buff and greenish blue ; buff 
and lavender; pink, sky-blue, and 
pea-green (this is a combination 
that looks well, but requires careful 
working) ; buff and light blue ; 
buff, pink and sky-blue, etc. These 
colors are for tints only, not for 
lettering. The choice of tints 
should be regulated by the positive 
colors used in the job, and some 
practice is required before the ap- 
pearance of the finished work can 
be judged before the whole of the 
colors are brought together. 

One way by which some idea 
may be gained before hand is to 


obtain sheets of paper of the prim- 
ary colors, cut them into strips of 
suitable length and width, take a 
full sheet of tinted paper, and place 
the primaries on it, one or two at a 
time, and repeat the experiment 
with various tints. By this means, 
or by the use of water colors, the 
compositor or machinist can obtain 
a very good idea of the effect to be 
produced. 

Tint work is at present so very 
little used in typography in these 
colonies that few offices keep a 
stock of tint inks on hand; but 
with the assistance of flake white, 
or even of ordinary varnish, and 
the colored inks to be found in 
every well furnished office, excel- 
lent, tints can be produced. In 
working tints it is only necessary 
to keep enough color on the rollers 
to give a solid impression. If too 
much is used, the colors of the next 
impression will be rough and ragged. 



This School is located on the TOP 
FLOOR of the Central Building. Our 
Shorthand system is the easiest to learn, 
because there are no positions to be 
thought of. 

G. C. CANNON, Lawrence, Mass. 


i6 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


STEAM BOILERS 

SCANNELL & W H O LEV, 

Lowell, Mass. 


Green is one of the most service- 
able of tints. It is a secondary 
color, a combination of blue and 
yellow, and tints may be prepared 
either by diluting a green ink or 
combining blues and yellow in 
various proportions. By the latter 
method, an endless variety of tints 
may be produced from brilliant 
emerald to those uncertain but 
beautiful shades which are neither 
blue nor green. 

Drab is a cold tint; and is gener- 
ally used for shadows. White, with 
a very little black, and perhaps a 
minute quantity of blue, will pro- 
duce this color. 

Blue is a useful tint, and may be 
diluted with white to any extent 
required. With the addition of a 
little yellow the peculiar tint known 
as “ peacock blue ” may be obtained. 

Browns may be made from brown 
inks, or in a great variety of ways 
by combinations of red and black 
with yellow or orange. 


Lilac, lavender, and violet may 
be made by mixing red, blue and 
white in various proportions. 

Pink is produced by mixing 
white and rosine. For a perma- 
nent color use carmine. 

The unlimited variety of tints 
and shades to be produced by com- 
binations of colors in various pro- 
portions is illustrated in the case 
of dress fabrics, and many of the 
choicest fashionable tints could be 
imitated by the art printer, who 
would find it to his advantage to ex- 
periment in that direction. All tints 
dry lighter than they appear when 
freshly printed, and should there- 
fore be worked slightly darker than 
they are intended to be. Wherever 
possible they should be tested in 
juxtaposition with the colors used 
in the text of the job. 

“ Courage is that quality of the 
mind which makes us forget how 
afraid we are.” 


He Perham Loom 


Has few parts, large warp beam, requires but little 
power, runs rapidly, has an excellent Harness Motion 
and is easy on the warp. Moral Equip your mill with 
the Perham Loom, and have the BEST, 


CHARLES F. PERHAM, 

Lowell, Mass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


17 


THE LOWELL 
TEXTILE JOURNAL. 

A Monthly Publication by Students of the Lowell Textile 
School, with papers and other valuable information by leading 
manufacturers. 

FENWICK UMPLEBY, Business Manager. 
Sub Editor, S. W. WESTON. 

k Secretary and Treasurer, C. E. CURRAN. 


PUBLISHED MONTHLY 

AT 

No. 67 niddle Street, = Lowell, Hass 

BY 

THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL COMPANY. 


Entered at the Post-Office at Lowell as Second 
Class Mail Matter. 

SUBSCRIPTION TERMS. 

For one year, postage paid 5 oC - 

Single Copies • 5 C 

For Sale at all Newsdealers 


Vdvertisements must be at the Journal Office before the 
fifteenth of each month for insertion that month. 

C mtributions may be sent to Editorof The Lowell Textile 
Journal, and will receive prompt attention . 


EDITORIAL. 


Vesper Lincoln George, the 
artist who painted the mural de- 
coration for the public li rary, des- 
cribed elsewhere in this issue, is a 
Boston man by birth and residence, 
who pursued his art studies both 
in this country and Europe. 

For two years he worked in the 
Julian Academy at Paris', under 
the noted teachers and famous 
painters Jules Lefebvre and Ben- 
jamin Constant, and while there 
won a prize in a concour for draw- 
ing.. 

Since his return to this country 
he has been steadily advancing 
along his chosen lines of work, and 


among other positions that he 
holds, is that of principal of the 
art department of the Lowell 
Textile School and teacher of 
decoration and design at the Mass. 
State Normal School in Boston. 

It would be gratifying to us if 
those communicating with this 
office would look at or understand 
us in the sense as meant. 

We are continually receiving in- 
quires from persons who are not 
on our subscription list, asking if 
we will give them such and such 
information, and if we would do so 
they would be obliged, and remit 
for a year’s subscription to the 
Textile Journal. 

Now this may all sound well 
enough without giving it a mo- 
ments thought, but look at it in a 
conscientious business manner and 
see the position it places us in. 

Often these inquiries contain 
samples which the writer wants to 
know how they are wove and all 
other information for making them, 
while others will ask how to im- 
prove the looks and “ feel ” of a 
certain class of goods which they 
are making; and still others desire 
to know if they were subscribers 
and students of the Te tile School 
if we could get them a situation. 
Thus we could enumerate dozens 
of such style of communications 
were we disposed, and space per- 


i8 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


b e: s t half-hose: have: the: 



SflAW STOCKING CO. LOWELL, MASS. SEND FOR FREE CATALOGUE . 


mitted, and none of which contain 
as much as the two-cent stamp for 
reply. 

The writers of these inquiries 
mean well, but they don’t stop to 
think that to answer such inquiries 
requires time, and “ time is money.” 
They don’t stop to think that while 
their individual postage amounts 
only to a few cents, ours runs up 
into dollars, or while they commu- 
nicate to us as one party, we have 
scores to respond to just like them- 
selves. 

We ask all into whose hands 
this may fall, to look at this matter 
in a just manner and see if we are 


unreasonable ; believing that we 
are not, we shall in future pay no 
attention to such communications 
unless they are paid up subscribers. 
Please, bear this in mind, and if 
you are not already a subscriber, 
remit us a year’s subscription and 
become one at once. It is only 
fifty cents a year. 

Miss Villette Burchard was a 
student in the art department at 
the Lowell Textile School. 

The good derived from writing 
is obtained simply from the fact 
of making one study and originate. 



Ar? Interesting Room . . . 

Our Reception Room is always open to the 
public. Is filled with artistic portraits of 
people you know, you should see them. 

CARBON AND PLATINO, IN COLOR, 

Charming and Imperishable. 

Platinotypes and other novelties of the year. 


COLiUMBIAN studio, 

55 Soutl? Whipple St., Lowell, Mass. 

Take the Lawrence Street Car. Visitors Welcome. 

Telephone Connection. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


19 

\V. R. B. Whittier, Agent. 


N. Whittier, Treasurer and General Manager. Helen A. Whittier, President. 

WHITTIER COTTON MILLS, Chattahoochee, Ga. 

General Office, Lowell, Mass. 

Single or Twisted, 2 to 200 ends, Ply, Cable Hawser, delivered on Spools 
Skeins, Hanks, Creels, Balls, Beams, Warper Balls, Cones, 

Grey or Colored. Fire Nose Cords a Specialty. 


coiioti Yams, 2$ 10 40s 


ARE YOU AFTER BARGAINS? 

Clothing, Cloaks and Millinery. 

"'LADIES’ CLOAK, SKIRTS, SUITS and MILLINERY, also GENT’S and 

m ! Hi flTOTMP best styles and quality for lowest possible prices. We make a specialty of inakiny 
uLUlIllnlJj to your order , all kinds of suits, jackets and waists. 

LOWELL CO-OP. SUPPLY CO., 

44 Bridge Street. Near Merrimack Square. Lowell, Mass. 

10. LET. WILSON <35 CO., 

CoppersmiiHs, PiumQars, Steam and das Filters, sanitary Engineers. 

Manufacturers of Slashers Cylinders, Silk and Dresser Cylinders, Color 
and Dye Kettles. All kinds of Copper work for Mills. All work 
warranted satisfactory. 

Shop: 279 and 283 Dutton Street, . , . LOWELL, MASS. 


THE LOWELL CLOAK AND SUIT STORE 

is the place for ladies to trade, if they want TO SAVE money, we are selling and will continue to sell our goods 
below cost until the balance of our entire stock of Ladies’, Misses’ and Clildren’s 


Gloafrs, Jackets, Gapes, Furs, Tailor-made Suits, Waists, Skirts 


etc., is sold. Give us a call if yon want rare oargains. 

16 MERRIMACK SQUARE, next to Temple of Design. 


J. H. BANKS. Prop. 


LAMINAR FIBRE CO 


MANUFACTURERS OF 

Roving Cans, Boxes, Trucks, 

And all Portns of Mill Receptacles . 

Office and Factory, Tannery Street, North Cambridge, Mass. 
L. D. Telephone, Arlington ,44. 




79 Merrimack, 

1 5 and 2 1 John St. 
Lowell, Mass. 


Largest Stock in the city. 

Telephone 238-2. 


FRANK PARKER, 

Hanufacturer of 

Steel : and : Brass : Bound : Bobbins : and : Spools, 

LOWELL, MASS. 


20 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


ROBERT OARRUTHERS, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

REEDS AND LOOM HARNESS. ALSO BURR AND LICKER-IN 

CYLINDERS FOR WOOL AND COTTON CARDS. 
telephone 654 - 2 . Hear 2o<> Lawrence St., Lowell , Mass. 


Deliberation is one of the char- 
acteristics of competence. The 
thoroughly competent workman 
knows he is master of his calling, 
and this knowledge gives him a 
degreeof self assurance thatinspires 
the confidence of his superiors. 
When a competent manufacturer 
receives a sample of goods to im- 
itate or make changes therein, he 
does not rush with mad haste to a 
set of formulas and calculations. 
He examines the sample deliber- 
ately and critically, determines 
what features are to be brought 
out, and what is to be the quality 
of the snoods. He then considers 
what stock in the mill is the best 
suited for it, and makes a sort of 
mental photograph of the goods as 


they will appear when finished. 
All this takes but a few moments 
of time to the competent workman, 
and is strictly in the line of econ- 
omy. After he has determined 
what to do and how to do it, the 
rest of his work is all plain sailing. 

The picking out of the weave 
and finding the number of threads 
and picks per inch is not cloth an- 
alysis, it is only a preliminary, and 
this part of the work can be left 
for the assistant to perform. 

Mr. \Y. M. Hastings was the 
first dav student registered at the 
Lowell Textile School, and was 
the founder of the Lowell Textile 
Journal. 



A Good Point 


About dealing with a responsible firm is that 
you are sure that everything is as represented. 

We deal in coal that has been carefully 
mined, is thoroughly screened and absolutely 
free from dirt and clinkers. 

We also carry a large line of Masons’ 
Supplies. 


E. A. WILSON & CO. f 


4 Merrimack Sq. 


7oo Broadway. 



THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


2 I 


STUDY 

the points of our different machines and com- 
pare with others. 

UNDERSTAND 

the merits and you will be convinced beyond 
a doubt of their superiority. 

HOWARD & BULLOUGH 

American Hiscfiine Co., Ltd., Pawtucket, 1 1. 



Doing first-class ; no complaints, 
no use growling. Never say die. 

A great deal of talent is lost to 
the world for the want of a little 
courage. Every day sends to their 
graves a number of obscure men, 
who have only remained obscure 
because their timidity has prevent- 
ed them from making a first effort. 

On the 30th day of January, 
1900, the marriage of Miss Villette 
Burchard, daughter of Mrs. Ed- 
mund B. Conant, to Mr. Walter 
Maxwell Hastings of West New- 
ton, Mass , was quietly solemnized 
at St. Anne’s Church, Lowell, 
Mass. Rev. A. St. John Chambre, 
D. D. officiating;. 


PRIZE ESSAYS. 

ONE HUNDRED DOLLA.ES IN FRIZES. 

To the readers of the Textile 
Journal we offer twenty dollars in 
cash prizes, for the best essay on 
each of the following subjects : 

1 Carding and Spinning, from 
the “ Distaff and Spindle ” to the 
“ Carding Engine and Self-Acting 
Mule.” 

2 “ The Jacquard Machine, its 
history, construction and use.” 

3 “Our Export Trade,” the past, 
present and future of our Textile 
industries. 

4 On the commercial aspect of 
Textile education and the relations 
between manufacturer and mer- 
chants. 

5 Finishing of woolens and 
worsteds, from the loom to the case. 


OTIS ALLEN 3c SON. 

LOWELL , MASS . 

ALLEN’S STANDARD LOCK-CORNERED FILLING BOXES, 


Generally used in the Neiv England Mills. 

MOVING CABS. DOFEING BOXES , BACKING CASES , AND CLOTH BO AMDS. 

WRITE FOR PRICES. 


22 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


C. E. RILEY & CO. 

281*285 Congress St., 
BOSTON. MHSS. 

Latest Improvements and Specialties. 


CONDITIONS. 

1 All essays must be entirely 
original. 

2 Writing, spelling and gram- 
mar must not be considered in 
writing upon these articles. We 
are not looking for eloquence, but 
for practical information on the 
subjects mentioned. 

3 The prizes will be awarded 
strictly upon their merits as prac- 
tical studies on each of the subjects, 
and the name and reputation of 
the writer will carry absolutely no 
weight whatever. 

o 

4 All manuscripts must be sent 
at the writers risk. 

5 The name of writer must not 
be placed upon the manuscript, 
each one being numbered by us 
for the purpose of identification. 

6 Essays may be sent in anytime 
from the present date to the first 
day of June, 1900, inclusive. 

7 After all the essays have been 
published the prizes will be award- 
ed by vote of the readers of the 
Lowell Textile Journal, who will be 
asked to vote on the respective 
merits without knowing the name 
of the writer. 


V IflPORTERS AND BUILDERS OF 

k 

& COTTON, 
jp WOOLEN, and 
y WORSTED 

p CARD CLOTHING, 

\ EGYPTIAN COTTON, Etc. 

8 The writer of the article re- 
ceiving the highest number of votes, 
will receive a prize of $10. To the 
writer of the article receiving the 
next highest number of votes, the 
second prize of $7, will be paid. 
To the writer receiving the third 
highest number of votes, the third 
prize of $3, will be paid. 

9 The names of the three suc- 
cessful writers will then be pub- 
lished. 

10 Each manuscript must men- 
tion the number of words it con- 
tains, which is limited to six thou- 
sand. 

1 1 Postage or express charges 
must be fully prepaid. 

12 It is recommended that the 
manuscript be legibly written on 
one side of the paper, the size of 
the paper not larger than 8x11 
inches. 

13 As no manuscript will be 
considered that does not comply 
with the above conditions, it is 
urged that the writers will prepare 
their papers strictly in accordance 
with these rules. 

Editor, 

Lowell Textile Journal. 



CA SAWS SONS,” 16 ’ 

Builders of 

Wool Washing Machines, Wool Dryers, Wool 
Waste, and Rag Dusters, Duplex Bur Pickers, 
Waste Cards, etc. Write for information con- 
cerning our new automatic Cotton Dryer. 


Union Brass Foundry, 

JOHN RYAN & CO. Proprietors. 

Manufacturers of LIGHT ANI) HEAVY CASTINGS, 
Dealers in NEW AND OLD M ETA LS. 

Wormen l\„ opp. Kilson iracpine Woiks, 

LOWELL, MAiS. 

TELEPHONE 714-5 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


23 


EVAN ARTHUR LEIGH. 

Plait Bros. & Co. cotton, woolen ana worsted iHaciieiy, 

Syke’s Card Clothing for Cotton. Critchley’s Card Clothing for Wooien 
and Worsted. Dransfield’s Grinding Machinery, and Emery filleting kept 
in stock, and other mill supplies. 

:tr> and :$<> masox buildixo, iiostox, mass. 


SIMPLE LESSONS IN PHOTOGRAPHY. 

CONJUGATE FOCI. 


Not even the most inexperienced 
photographer can have examined 
the image on the ground glass of 
the camera without observing that 
when a distant object is in sharp 
focus a near one is not so, and vice 
versa; or, if there be a small party 
in a garden, and one person is 
seated at a distance of six feet, and 
another at ten times such distance, 
that a sharp focus of either of them 
is obtained at the expense of the 
other. Why is this ? 

If a camera be directed to an in- 
dividual seated in front, the lens 
will form a miniature reversed im- 
mage of such individual in the air. 


This image will not be seen un- 
less the rays of light were inter- 
cepted at the focus by some dia- 
phanous body, such as a small 
column of smoke, in the midst of 
which the figure would be seen in 
apparent solidity of a certain kind. 
If, instead of smoke, the imasre was 
received upon a sheet of ground 
glass, it would be obvious that, 
where this glass intersected any 
special portion of the image in air, 
such part only would be seen 
depicted in the highest degree of 
sharpness. 

What we are seeking here to es- 
tablish, is that there is a relation 


Sam. H. Thompson, Pres. Elisha J. NEAL,Treas. 

The Thompson Hardware Co., 


TEAGUE & TEAGUE, 

Hatters and Haberdashers 


Columbia, Hartford & Storm Bicycles, 

BICYCLE SUPPLIES. 

254, 256 Merrimack St., Eoivell , Mass. 


Exclusive Novelties in Men’s Fine Shirts 
and Neckwear. 

Complete Line of Men’s Fine Underwear 
and controllers of the celebrated Wilscn 
Hat, none better made. 

Corner Central and Middle Streets. Lowell. 


24 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


H. R. PARKER & CO., 
Successors to G. C. Brock, 

PRESCRIPTION - DRUGGISTS, 

Bridg-e, cor. First Street, Centralville, 
Lowell, Mass. 


between the varying distances from 
the lens of objects in front of it, 
and the corresponding parts of the 
image behind the lens. This re- 
lation is a conjugate one, and is 
known as conjugate focus. There 
are, therefore, two conjugates : the 
object in front of the lens, or an- 
terior conjugate, and the point be- 
hind, in which the rays from such 
object cross, in which the ground 
glass must be placed in order to 
see the image sharply, or the post- 
erior conjugate. In proportion as 
the object in front is brought closer 
to the lens, so does the posterior 
conjugate, or, briefly, the focus, 
recede from it or become length- 
ened, so that in this relation a lens 
has no definitely fixed position of 
focus at all — this being dependent 
entirely upon the distance away of 
the anterior conjugate, or object 
that is being focussed. 


The Only First-Class 
Barber Shop in Lowell is at 

YOUNG’S, 

7, S, 9 Hildreth Building', 
Lowell, Mass. 

A knowledge of the subject of 
conjugate foci is useful under 
many circumstances, more espe- 
cially in copying. And in this 
connection we may say that, if a 
picture is to be copied its own size, 
the anterior and posterior foci will 
be similar, and that each of these 
will be equal to the solar or equiv- 
alent focus of the lens doubled. 
Thus, for example, if a lens of ten 
inches is to be employed, that is, 
one which would produce a focus 
of a distant object at ten inches, 
by bringing the object — which, in 
this case, is the picture that is to 
be copied — sufficiently near to form 
on the ground glass an image the 
size of the original, it will be found 
that this condition of equality of 
dimensions can only be secured 
when the object is twice the equiv- 
alent focus in front of the lens, and 
the ground glass precisely the 


W. T. S. BARTLETT, 


Hardware 

Paint, 



Mill 

Supplies. 


MECHANICS' AND CARPENTERS' TOOLS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

653-659 Merrimack Street. LOWELL, MASS. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


^5 


1 L xl 3LJ> Ij ET JH /( (J II 1 CO., Succe ssors to Dustin M achin e Co. 

ENQINEER-S mo MACHINISTS. 

Paper Cutters, Special Machinery Built, Repairing attended to promptly, Pulleys, Shafting, Gears, Etc. 

GEO. W. H AM B LETT, Pro r. 

Tel. Connection. 30 Island Street, Lawrence, flass. 


same distance behind it. Hence, 
to make a copy of a picture with a 
lens of ten inches focus, the dis- 
tance between the focal centre of 
the lens and the ground glass must 
be twenty inches, the picture being 
at a like distance in front. A 
copying camera to reproduce a 
transparency from a negative 
would, therefore, for such a lens 
require to be forty inches in length. 

To produce an enlargement any 
number of times greater than the 
negative, what is required to know 
is the distance the lens must be 
from the negative on the one hand, 
and from the sensitive surface on 
the other. In order to ascertain 
this proceed as follows: 

The equivalent focus of the lens 
being known, and the number of 
times the enlargement is to exceed 
the negative in size being deter- 
mined upon, add one to that num- 
ber, and then multiply it by the 
focus of the lens that is to be em- 


ployed ; the quotient is the distance 
at which the sensitive sheet or 
ground glass must be from ihe 
lens, measuring from the centre of 
the combination) To ascertain 
the distance at which the negative 
or object to be enlarged must be 
placed from the lens, divide the 
product in the above computation 
(the distance between the lens and 
the sensitive sheet) by the number 
of times of enlargement ; the quo- 
tient gives the distance required. 

To ascertain the distance that 
the negative must be from the 
sensitive sheet — or, in other words, 
the distance between the conjugate 
foci — it is only necessary to add 
together the two products of the 
former calculation, and the sum of 
the addition is the length required. 

All the Lowell mills are running 
on full time and some of them over- 
time. 


H. H. WILDER OO., 

Furnaces, Stoves, Ranges, Kitchen Furnishing Goods 

Nos. 29 and 31 MARKET STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


26 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Le Aj-exajxp mm 




Forfr»«rly of FVft* Av®OuQ.N«wYo«*k. 


! JMpQJ{T£k^TAJLQR 




55 reKTTRAL Street. 

PAUL 0. KABLE, Assistant. 


MISS WOOD’S SCHOOL 

OF 

Stenography and Typewriting 

Students may enter at any time. Call or send for Catalogue 
and note testimonials from many pupils who have been placed 
in lucrative positio s. 

Central Block, 53 Central St. 


LOCAL NEWS. 


— Every one interested should 
see the Perham Loom. 

— Brady for cheap suits. 

— We have pleasure to testify 
that the Ralston Health Shoe is 
easy for the feet, comfortable to 
walk in, and good to look upon. 

— Curtin will dress your hair in 
great style previous to going to a 
dance. 

— Candies, cigars and other good 
things at Martin’s. 

— H. H. Parker, corner First 
and Bridge Sts., will be happy if 
the Centralville boys will give him 
his due share of their patronage. 

— Beware of the tailor who ad- 
vertised in the Journal and did not 
pay his add, give your patronage 
to honest and fair dealing mer- 
chants. 

— After the theatre and ball, you 
can get an excellent oyster supper 
at the Crystal Cafe. 


— The Journal is one of the best 
and cheapest advertising mediums 
in Lowell. We guarantee a dis- 
tribution of one thousand each 
month. 

— Leeds, the ticket agent for all 
parts of the world, will be glad to 
have you call for information, if 
you are going on a long journey, 
by rail or a voyage across the ocean. 

^-The Old Hundred is a favor- 
ite, so is W. H. I. H. 

— Blank books and all school 
supplies may be had at Lawler’s, 
the stationer. 

— There is a brilliant display of 
bicycles at H. B. Shattuck & Son. 
It is a treat to hear something new 
from the phonograph. You can 
hear the latest songs and music at 
30 Prescott street, Lowell, Mass. 

— We are always pleased to go 
into the beautiful store of Teague 
and Teague. Mr. Frank Teague 
gives us such a cordial welcome, 
that it is nearly impossible to leave 


ES' Old Hundred Cigar 

MILD, SWEET AND FRAGRANT. 


t 


J 


THE T '"'WELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


27 


SAMUEL KERSHAW. 

wstclyufllBr snfl Jbwbibi, ^ 3 ^ 6ms 

114 CENTRAL STREET, - - LOWELL, 31 A SS. 


without purchasing some of the 
elegant wares that are displayed in 
tempting array. 

— Did you ever meet John 
Powell, the photographer, at his 
studio, South Whipple street ? If 
not do so, he is a regular picnic. 

— Young, the barber. Up-to- 
date and fashionable. 

— Louis Alexander has a mag- 
nificient show. Cheviots, Tweeds, 
Worsteds and every class of new 
fabrics for men’s wear. 

— Since taking our watch to 
Durant’s for repairs, it has always 
kept us on time to school and never 
too late to leave at night. 

— The latest photographs from 
Lothrop and Cunningham’s are 
works of art. 

— The Tourist Hawkeye Camera 
is a little gem, call on A. H. San- 
born and see it. 

— Have your trunks moved by 
Frank O. Shaw. 


NOT PERSONAL. 


Mac — I never discuss right and 
left twist for fear that I will get 
twisted myself. 

Student — Do you get twisted to 
the right or to the left? 

H-n-l-y and L-c-h Welterweights 
are willing to meet all comers who 
can make a satisfactory deposit for 
the Lecture Room championship. 

Wisdom, I can’t keep track of 
my boys. 

“ Shiners ” are now popular, and 
“ Crack-aloo ” is on the wane. 

Great scot. The young one’s 
having his leg pulled. 

Say, Professor, are all those 
green pegs blue ? 

Wisdom. — When Professor is 
out, I represent him. 

Visitor — Oh, do you? Well, 
then he’s darned easily represented. 


Merrimack Wool Scouring Mills 

WOOL! NOILS SCOURED, CARBONIZED AND NEUTRALIZED. 


THOMAS HARTLEY. 


■»- — te* 


Lawrence, Mass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


2 S 

CHARLES GRIFFIN, 

-)i MILL ENGINEER, |(- 

Plas anil Sgeciflca'iois FnriisM. Rim anil Power to Rent, 

24Z MARKET ST., Curd Co. Building, LOWELL, MASS. 


The freshmen are slow. Spring 
month, no team. 

NOT LOST BUT DEAD. 


IN MEMORY OF TIIE 

Lowell Textile School Ball , 

Which died for the want of support. 


What was P-k-ns doing to miss 
the last car from Nashua? 

On a wet Sunday night, don't 

j o 

stay with your best girl too long, 
you may get left. 

Dynamics Thermo or dynamo 
Therrnics, 

Is the subject we all loved best, 
Just attend our crowded lectures 
And learn that this is a horrid 
jest. 

They say “ Wisdom ” is awfully 
swell-headed. Forget it. 

The Chemical Ball dyed a dead 
black. 


How much does a pound of 
cotton weigh ? 

They say some of the faces made 
in the Glove contests match the 
heads to which they are affixed. 

Time up. Next round. 

We welcome A. G. W-k-r to 
designing class. 

Who was struck by lightning 
in the Cotton Roo m ? 

L-c-h was astounded when Pvg- 
malion returned to life. 

From Ministrel Shows to box- 
in o'. What next ? 

o 

St-r-n was struck on top from 
above, how did it happen ? 

What fairy tales we hear in the 
designing room, Elephant’s breath, 
London smoke. 

K. T. believes himself in St. 
Anne's Sisterhood. 

How about the base-ball team, 
boys ? To be or not to be ? 


M. G. WIGHT S CO., - - mill supplies. 

Design Paper and Engraving, 

MIDDLE STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


2 9 


E. M. Tucke. Percy Parker. 

TUCKE X PHRKER, 

I EflDING F LECTRIGAL C ONTRACTORS. 

' 79 Middle Street, - Lowell, Mass. - Telephone Connection. 


OUR EXCHANGES. 

Tell our advertisers that you 
saw their advertisement in the 
“ Textile Journal.” 

COUNTING TIIE COST. 

Here follows an example of the 
alertness of the commercial mind: 

A shrewd business man was 
being driven in a crowded thorough- 
fare, when his horses took fright 
and ran away. He called to his 
coachman : 

“ Can you stop them ? ” 

“ No,” replied the man. 

Then,” said the other, “ run 
them into something cheap” — 
Youth's Companion. 

This is little Dick’s description 
of his first flash of lightning and 
first clap of thunder : “O mamma, 
I saw an angel go into heaven and 
bang the door after it. — Youth's 
Companion. 

The “ Cue ” for January, contains 
an interesting article on “ Amateur 
Journalism.” 


Student — “ How is it, doctor 
that I always take cold in my 
head ?” 

Doctor — “ It is a well-known 
principle sir, that a cold is most 
likely to settle in the weakest 
part.” — Ex. 

Tommy — “ Pa, what’s the Board 
of Education ?” 

His father — “ When I went to 
school it was a pine shingle.” — Ex. 

“The Distaff ” is always wel- 
come with its interesting stories. 

We are glad to receive “ The 
Greylock Echo ” with its bright 
stories. 

“ Orange and Black ” is one of 
our best exchanges. We wish to 
congratulate them on their good 
taste. 

The “ Panorama ” is an espe- 
cially bright and interesting paper. 

Judge — “ Why did you steal this 
man’s purse?” 

Prisoner — “ I thought the change 
might do me good.” — Ex. 


THOriAS ncNAHARA, 740 Lawrence St. DUNCAN MacNABB, nanager. 

iflZRMESIT MACHINE CO.. 


ENGINEERS AND MACHINISTS. 

All Kinds of Machine Work. - Knyine Work a Specialty. 
OPP. CARTRIDGE CO. TELEPHONE 646-2. 


T i ; [■: LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


30 


TRY A HOME REMEDY. 

The Granite Pile Cure 

i* a home cure made in Lowell. It will cure you or 
return your money. Made by the 

GRANITE FORMULA CO. 

R. E. MAGEE, Treasurer and General Manager 
Office, {*> Prescott Street, Room 1, LOWELL, MA>>. 

REPAIRING 

We make a specialty of repairing line Watches 
Prices right and workmanship guaranteed. 

CHAS. W. DURANT, 

Central and Middle St ., lowell, mass 


Father John's Medicine 

Cures or it costs nothing. 

AT DRUGGISTS, 50c. and $1.00. 

CARLETON & HOVEY, Prescription Druggists. 
Cor. Merrimack and Shattuck Sis., Lowell , Mass. 

J. C. .MARTEL, 

Dealer in 

BOOTS - AND - SHOES , 

Also wholesale dealer in Leather, Nails and Cement. 

14 Prescott St., Lowell, Mass. 

Three doors from car waiting room* 


New Century Printi ng. 

LETTER HEADS, ETc7 

F. A. M. TORINj 

Lowell , Mass. 

w c. HAM r.LETT, Pres S B PUFFER, Treas. 
JAS. TALBOT, Selling Agent, 10 Franklin St., NT Y. 

Criterion Knitting Co., 

Manufacturers of e 11 kinds of 

JERSEY “SPRING-NEEDLE UNDERWEAR 

220 Tanner Street, Lowell, Mass. 

Repairins, Cleansing Dress Suits for Sale 

and Pressing. an d to Let. 

ARTHUR M. BERTRAND, 

Successor to F. W. Sargent. 
MERCHAXT - TAILOR. 

24 Middle Street, - Lowell, Mass. 

WILLIAMS, The Optician, 

Gives Entire Satisfaction. 

Have your Eyes Looked after by Him, 

308 MERRIMACK STREET, 

Lowell, - - Mass. 


See our $5.00 Dress Suit Cases, 

P. F. DEVINE, 

Maker and Repairer of 

Trunks and Leather Goods 



Fontaine, 

^RTIST PHOTOGRAPHER 


Merrimack St., Lowell, and 410 Essex St., Lawrence. 

OSGOODS KILL-KOFF CANDY, 

Only 5 cents a Package. 

Made of Roots and FTerb*. For Coughs, Colds. 
Hoarsene*.-. Throat Irritation, etc. 

Prepared and sold by C. C. OSGOOD, M.D. 
Apothecary, = nerrimack Street, corner Suffolk 

ESTABLISHED IN 1S31. 


4 75 Merrimack St.. Lowell, Mass. 

Marble, fl r (j S |j C [HfiniOllalS, 

Granite, 

Bronze, Fine Work a Specialty. 

CHAS. WHEELER, 

51 Thorndike Street, - - Lowell, flass. 


FRANK O. SHAW, 

Successor to J. Whittaker. 

Special delivery and light truck- 
ing of all kinds Orders left at 
Allens’ Trunk Store, Middle St., 
or 101 Hall St., Lowell, Mass. 


Savoy Theatre, 


Now Open, Playing High 
Class Vaudeville. 


Frank G. Mack and Chas. Dempsey, Mgrs. 


Catering Especially to Ladies and Children. 

POPULAR PRICES, 10, 20, 30 CENTS* 

Matinees daily 'except on M ndays) 2.30, Evenings, 8.15. 


Lowell Textile Journal 


HAND LOOM DEPT. OF THE LOWELL TEXTILE SCHOOL. 



No. 1. Hand Warp Dressing and Chain Building. 

This is a branch of the Design- ing frames, and hand looms, thus 
ing Department, and is thoroughly making it complete for dressing, 
equipped with dressing and draw- beaming, drawing in and weav- 



4 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


ing, thereby enabling the student 
to acquire a thorough knowledge 
of the various processes the yarn is 
subjected to before being woven. 
This department is divided into 
three sections. Section number 
one shows a view of the dressing 


this is then put into a chain-like 
form and taken to the beaming 
frame where it is stretched out to 
its full length between two stands, 
one of which is fixed to the floor 
while the other is movable. It 
is next spread out by placing a 



No. 2. Drawing-in and Yarn Department. 


frames at which the art of hand- 
dressing is explained, commencing 
with the setting up of the patterns, 
picking the lease, placing the yarn 
on the pins, and passing around 
as many of these as is necessary to 
obtain the required length of warp, 


certain number of ends into a dent 
of a certain sized reed, or comb 
made expressly for this purpose, 
the warp is then drawn through 
this comb onto the warp beam 
which is placed in the movable 
stand, this stand is allowed to slide 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


5 


along the floor as the warp is being 
wound onto the beam. 

Section number two shows a 
view of the yarn boxes where all 
the different colors and qualities of 
yarn are kept, including woolen, 
worsted, mohair, cotton and fancy 


drawing in of straight, cross and 
point drafts is explained. Having 
thus drawn the warp through the 
heddles and reed it is ready for the 
loom. 

Section number three shows a 
view of the hand looms which range 



No. 3. Hand Loom Weaving. Jacquard Looms, Looking East. 


twist yarns, at the rear is a hand- 
winder on which the yarn is re- 
wound from the large bobbins onto 
the small bobbins used in the hand 
loom shuttles. In front of the 
yarn boxes are the drawing in 
stands at which the process of 


from a plain two harness loom up 
to a 32 harness dobby, and from a 
208 hook up to a 612 hook jac- 
quard machine. These looms have 
a reed space of 15 in. and have from 
three to four drop boxes on each 
end of lay which makes them 


6 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


specially adapted for experimental 
purposes as well as to familiarize 
the student with the elements of 
weaving, including the tieing up of 
the harnesses to their proper po- 
sition to allow the formation of a 
good shed which is one of the 


which he wishes to produce, this 
consists of placing an exact copy of 
the weave on design paper onto a 
series of cards, or chain bars which 
are laced or linked together and 
placed in the loom. As there are 
several different makes of these 



No. 4. Hand Loom Weaving Department, Looking West. 


most important points to aim at in 
starting up a loom as it is often 
the origin of many causes, as well 
as making imperfections in the 
cloth. Having thus obtained a 
desirable shed the student will next 
build the chain for the design 


hand looms and of which the hooks 
work directly opposite to one an- 
other, the chain must be built to 
suit the loom for which it is made. 
Having successfully completed the 
chain and placed it in the loom, this 
is set into operation by making 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


7 


use of hand and foot power, the 
latter being applied to what is 
termed shedding while the former 
is applied to the movements of 
picking and beating up. This is re- 
peated until there is a sufficient 
quantity of cloth woven to show 


figured dress goods, marseilles 
quilting, pique, shirtings, vestings 
and cloakings, these are all original 
designs worked out by the students 
and are products of the harness 
looms. Following come the jac- 
quard looms, of which two are tied 



No. 5. General View, Hand Loom Department. 


the full effect of the design. As 
we pass through this department it 
will be noticed that each loom con- 
tains a different design or class of 
goods, commencing with a plain 
gingham, and passing through 
plaids, checks, trouserings, suitings, 


up with centre border, and in which 
handkerchiefs are being woven 
consisting of mercerized cotton 
warp and silk filling, the remaining 
jacquard looms are tied up straight 
across, and are weaving crepon 
dress goods and figured double 
plain. 


A. J. Pradel. 





8 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


A TEXTILE UNIVERSITY. 

LOWELL SCHOOL MAY IN TIME COME TO THAT. 


Some day, perhaps, the person 
who steps off the train at Lowell 
and asks his way to the Lowell 
Textile School may have a regula- 
tion mill building on the riverside 
pointed out to him. The friends 
of the school hope so. But at 
present the stranger is left to single 
out the “ school ” from a number of 
uninteresting mercantile and manu- 
facturing establishments in Middle 
street, a noisy, day-thronged way 
one block back of Merrimack 
street, the main thoroughfare. The 
building, like others in the neigh- 
borhood, presents more or less of 
that vacant expression common 
to many where manufacturing is 
carried on or where machinery 
forms the bulk of the contents; 
and the visitor may find his path 
down the sidewalk obstructed here 
and there by packing cases waiting 
to be shipped : but on the marble 
tablet of the vestibule is a sign 
that allows no mistaking the school. 
If the visitor has patience to climb 
through the two stories occupied 
by offices or private mercantile es- 
tablishments, he will find himself 
by the time he reaches the third 


floor in the proper precincts of in- 
struction. 

In view of all that has been said 
at the Sta e House recently about 
the need of a new building for this 
the first textile school to be estab- 
lished in the State, it is interesting 
to see how the school is fixed for 
room at present. It is in an ordi- 
nary manufacturing building, it 
must be remembered, and the 
rooms availa le are only such as 
are usually found in that type 
of building. Then, too, spread 
around as they are over the three 
upper floors, the services of a guide 
are almost imperative if a stranger 
wishes to reach a particular room. 

Cotton-spinning and class-rooms 
take up the chief space on the top 
floor, and the cotton-room is the 
most interesting of the grou a. As 
one enters, at first glance it looks 
like a room in a big mill, except 
for the fact that machines of wide- 
ly varying types are found in the 
same comparatively restricted quar- 
ters ; but then, at the left of the 
entrance, it is seen that one corner 
has been set off for class instruc- 
tion. Twenty or thirty chairs are 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


9 


ranged in front of blackboards and 
charts on which are diagrams and 
figures. These, so Mr. Humphrey, 
the instructor, explains, are the 
transcripts of parts of the big cot- 
ton machines in the rear, or tech- 
nical out-lines of the processes 
which the cotton goes through in 
his department. For in this room, 
small as it is, there is all the high- 
grade machinery needed to take 
the cotton from the very field and 
turn it out in finished yarn. To 
be sure, the cotton gin itself is 
seldom used, but it is there, and is 
used often enough to enable the 
students to understand its work 
and to know when it is done well 
or ill. But there is hardly more 
than a narrow passage between any 
of the machines, and little chance 
to take a class near enough so that 
all individuals may profit by a dem- 
onstration. Foi; it is easy to see 
that for purposes of instruction the 
requirements as to grouping and 
spacing of machines are different 
from those in a mill, where the 
machine has merely to be worked 
and not “ shown off ” before groups 
of earnest inquirers whose relative 
standing among their fellows may 
depend on seeing every motion. 

There used to be a large lecture 
room on the opposite side of the 
corridor on this floor, but a third of 
it, at the rear, has been partitioned 
off as a chemical lecture-room, the 


side nearest the windows has been 
filled in with the drawing tables 
used by the designers and draughts- 
men, and part of the other side is 
taken up for materials. There are 
four class-rooms on this floor, how- 
ever, much like the smaller rooms 
of a high school building. 

One of these, of especial in- 
terest, is that of Professor Umple- 
by, who has charge of the textile 
design and fabric structure. Ev- 
erywhere are what may be called 
the skeletons for designs, crossed 
lines representing the warp and 
woof of fabric. They are painted 
on the blackboard, and the pro- 
fessor can at any moment give to 
his class a brief idea of a fabric de- 
sign by dotting those little squares 
with white or red or green or any 
other color. A non-technical man 
can make little of it at all but 
dots or squares of color, but to the 
weaver or student it means a certain 
number of threads of varying color 
over or under — “up” or “down” 
as they say — on the loom, and a 
weaver could follow such a design, 
as a pattern, as easily as an expert 
needle-woman can follow borrowed 
directions for crocheting. A large 
frame, full of holes extending in 
vertical and horizontal lines, stands 
at one side of the room. This al- 
lows a more permanent way of 
registering a design, by setting in 
pegs with colored tops. 


IO 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Down stairs, one flight, the 
whole floor is given over to the in- 
teresting power-looms of various 
patterns and to the woolen and 
worsted spinning. Patterns of va- 
rious sorts may be seen on the 
looms, from the simplest cotton 
fabric up to complicated patterns 
of dress goods and carpets. The 
offices of administration are at the 
front of the building here, but they 
would be considered small for an 
ordinary high school, One office, 
for Principal YV. \Y. Crosby, an 
Institute of Technology man and 
professor of mechanics, as well as 
executive head of the school, is 
wide enough for no more than a 
desk and chair. Leading to this 
is a similar room for stenographer 
and clerk, not much larger, which 
opens directly from the corridor. 

It is on a half of the third floor 
that the school has one room full 
of hand-looms, a necessary feature 
of textile instruction, its chemical 
laboratory and dye department. 
The latter is yet undeveloped to a 
large extent, for it has but scant 
quarters, though in time it is ex- 
pected to be an important feature. 

These two floors and a half are 
what the school has had to use 
during its three years of active 
existence. It has some $60,000 
worth of machinery, given by the 
manufacturers, and its officers state 
that more machinery, for other 


lines of instruction, could be se- 
cured if there were room for it. 
What they hope for from the Leg- 
islature is an appropriation suffi- 
cient to enable the trustees to erect 
a new building specially adapted to 
the uses of the school. Land is 
practically assured from a friend, 
and the location would probably 
be near the river. If this appro- 
priation is allowed, the intention 
seems to be to put up a long, low 
mill building, allowing the classes 
to receive their instruction in space 
provided in reserved spaces in each 
room where there are machines. 
Later, an administration building 
could be constructed as a kind of 
head house for this typical mill. 

New Bedford took a part of its 
original textile school appropria- 
tion for the erection of a building, 
but this was not considered advis- 
able when the Lowell school was 
started, because it was not known 
what the requirements would be. 
The latter school has had the ad- 
vantage of Lowell’s experience. 
There is a movement on foot to 
start a textile school at Lawrence, 
but many of the Lawrence man- 
ufacturers are deeply interested in 
the Lowell school, and are in favor 
of having one good school for the 
district rather than to divide forces. 
There are those, even, who talk of 
making the Lowell school in time 
a sort of university for the textile 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


TRY A HOME REMEDY. 

The Granite Pile Cure 

is a home cure made in Lowell. It will cure von or 
return your money. Made by the 

GRANITE FORMULA CO. 

It. E. MAGEE, Treasurer and General Manager. 
Olllce, 90 Prescott Street , Room 1, LOWELL, MASS. 

interests, or general head, of which 
the later schools may be branches. 
In other words, the main features 
of textile instruction would in that 
event be given at the Lowell 


1 1 

Are you thinking of buying 

A FILM CAMERA? 

If so, call and see the 

TOURIST HAWKEYE. 

A. H. SANBORN & CO., 

53 Central St., Lowell, Mass. 

school, while the schools in other 
cities would specialize on certain 
kinds of instruction in which their 
localities are most interested. But 
that is a problem of the future. — 
Boston Evening Transcript. 


MY ADVENTURE WITH A BULL. 

‘ By W. INGLES ROGERS. 


Having nothing new this year 
in the way of practical hints or 
ideas, I think the best thing I can 
do is to relate a little experience I 
had recently with a prize bull, es- 
pecially as it may prove beneficial 
to others in a like predicament. 
My anticipations on learning the 
nature of my commission were not 
of the pleasantest, for I remem- 
bered that bulls, as a rule, have a 
decided antipathy to artists of all 
kinds. And this was a prize bull. 
Would the antipathy be greater, 


I wondered ? Professional pride, 
however, and a lurking desire for 
the “ root of all evil,” spurred me 
on to duty, and, seizing my accou- 
trements, I started bravely off to 
face the foe. 

I found him, together with his 
proprietor, in an enclosure adjoin- 
ing the house, impatiently awaiting 
my arrival. A few moments were 
spent in reconnoitering, and then 
I boldly entered the arena, feeling 
very much like a toreador at a 
Spanish bull-fight. I contrived to 


He Great Success o( me Lowell Co-operative Supply Go. 

While being in New York we bought out a stock of Ladies* Tailor-Made Suits , Jackets and Seperate 
Skirts Handsomely Embroidered, and a lot of Silk Waists, which has been made up by a well 
known New York Manufacturer for a Boston house but failed to take same for financial discount. Same 
will be displayed at our Lowell store, 44 Bridge St., and be sold at about 50c on the dollar their actual value. 


LOWELL CO-OP. SUPPLY CO., 

44 Bridge Street. ’ Nwl1 ' Merrimack Square. Lowell, Mass. 


I 2 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Wolf High Art CYCLES. Fuller Truss Frame 

Sold by RUTLHND St S7VtITH, 

195 Middlesex Street , Lowell, Mass, 

TELEPHONE 653-5. We Want Your Repairing. 


get my camera fairly into position 
without attracting the bulls atten- 
tion, but the advent of the focus- 
sing cloth was the signal for the 
hostilities to commence. My bo- 
vine friend first regarded it with 
curiosity, which, however, soon 
deepened into suspicion ; and then, 
not feeling satisfied as to mv inten- 
tions, thought it prudent to make 
a closer investigation, which move- 
ment caused me to retreat, as much 
from fear as from the desire to 
keep in focus. 

To an attacking party the re- 
treating enemy is always an en- 
couraging sight, and the spectacle 
of my receding figure must have 
seriously interfered with my oppo- 
nent’s peace of mind; for he now 
entered fully into the spirit of the 
thing, and followed up the chase 
with so much alacrity that I felt it 
would be a “toss up” as to which 
of us would first reach the bound- 
ary of the enclosure. 

On came the enemy, and on 


sped I, oblivious of everything 
save the fact that, instead of fo- 
cussing the bull, the bull had de- 
cidedly focussed me, and I should 
require a very “ long extension ” in 
order to get successfully out of his 
“ field of view.” At this moment a 
happy thought struck me. 

I would resort to stratagem. 
Dropping my camera, and running 
a few paces to the right to preserve 
it from possible injury, I grasped 
the focussing cloth by two of its 
corners, and, holding it in front of 
me, waited anxiously for the ap- 
proach of the enemy. He came, 
and when within a few yards of me 
he lowered his head for the att ck. 
This was just what I w’as waiting 
for. With a quick movement, 1 
jumped forward, and dexterously 
impaled the cloth on the sharp 
points of the monster’s horns; 
then, dodging quickly behind him, 
snatched up my camera, and made 
off in the opposite direction. 

The scene that followed was 
comical in the extreme. A veri- 

Continued on j)age 15. 


C.G.SlGE|irSSO|IS, Gra ir’ 

Builders of 

Wool Washing Machines, Wool Dryers, Wool 
Waste, and Rag Dusters, Duplex Bur Pickers, 
Waste Cards, etc. Write for information con- 
cerning our new automatic Cotton Dryer. 


W. H. BAGSHAW, 

Manufacturer of 

Machine Wool Combs, 

j ii Wilson St. - Lowell, Mass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


13 


JOHN DENNIS. 


J. NELSON DENNIS. 


JOHN DENNIS St CO., 

Press Manufacturers , either Hydraulic , Screw, or Toggle Joint. 


Hollow Plate Finishing Tresses and Balers. 
Belting, Carriers’ and B.oll Coverers’ Machinery. 


194 Western Ave., Lowell, Mass. 


SOLON BARTL 


M. D., 


Office, 106 Merrimack Street, Lowell, Mass. 

Office Hours: 

Morning, 9 to 10. Afternoon, 2 to 4. 

Evenings, 7 to 8. 


Office Telephone, 836-5. 

RESIDENCE, 232 WESTFORD STREET. 


Telephone, 273-3. 


ENVOY, RIPVOI F=- c: FRONTENAC, 
RECORD ..==.S HALLADAY. 

Samples now ready for Inspection at 

C. IT. BMERSONT^S, 


229 Middlesex Street, 


LOWELL, MASS. 


LOWELL HEATING AND PLUMBING CO. 

C OJPJPJE It SMITHS. 

We are prepared to do Copper Work of every description for cotton and woolen mills, chemical 
works, also Cylinders, Drying Cans, Copper Pipe and Bends. Copper repairing for cotton and woolen mills 
a specialty. 

828 and 836 MIDDLESEX STREET. 


Lowell Crayon Co.,. 


...LOWELL, Ax ASS. 


MILL CHAYOpS, 


V. MANUFACTURERS OF . . .^ / 

IN THIRTEEN COLORS KND WHITE, 

SEEDS! SEEDS! 

Everything for Lawn and Garden. Catalogues Free 

Will be Mailed to Any Address. 

BARTLETT &c DOW, 

I 210 CENTRAL STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


J. T. ADAMS, 


Manufacturer of all kinds of 



TOOTHED CYLINDERS 
and TOOTHED WIRE 

For Cotton and Woolen Cards. 

46 Leverett Street., .*. Lowell, Mass. 



H 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


FAULKNER MANUFACTURING COMPA NY, 

Woolen Manufacturers, 

North Billerica, Mass. 
68 Franklin St., Boston, Mass. 

GET YOUR CLOTHING 
made by ... . 

NICKEBSOIT, 

32 Hildreth Building*, 

And you are sure of getting the 
best style and materials. 


Establiohed 1831 . . . 

H HRRY RHYNES, 

JEWELER. 

DIAMONDS, WATCHES, SILVERWARE, OPTICAL GOODS. 

Repairing a Specialty. 

69 Central Street, Lowell, Mass. 


PARKER GOAL anb WOOD 00. 

KILN -DRIED BOBBIN WOOD. 

COAL OF ALL KINDS, 

Office, 20 Prescott Street. *.* Telephone 39-4. 


GOOD 

BICYCLES 

CHEAP. 
Telephone. . . 


incandescent Gas Lamps, fTlanties, ctiitnneys and snades 

BICYCLE REPAIRING AND SUNDRIES. 

GEIORGE H. BACHELDER, 

110 Middlesex Street, - - - Lowell, Mass. 


MESSRS. W. P. BRAZER & CO.. The Reliable Athletic Outfitters, 

CENTRAL, corner market streets, 

Carry a carefully selected and complete stock of flannel suits, sweaters and every 
requisite for base ball, golf, tennis and cycling. Reasonable rates and honorable treat- 
ment of patrons have contributed much to the success of this enterprising firm. 

THE CRYSTAL CAFE . . . 

Dinner, 11.30 till 3 o’clock. Oysters and Shell Fish. 

Orders Cooked a specialty. Lunches of all kinds. 

140 Worthen Street. JAMES W. GRADY, Prop. 

T ICKETS TO PARIS EXPOSITION , on all the Best Lines. 

Hotel Accommodations Reserved in Advance. 

Tickets to Bermuda, Jamaica, Cuba and Florida at the Lowest Prices. 

LEEDS’, 5 Bridge St., Lowell, Mass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


15 


Hew England College of Languages, 


THOROUGH INSTRUCTION IN 
GERMAN, FRENCH, SPANISH 

BY CORRESPONDENCE. 


Special Courses for Business Men and Women. Write for Circular. 
rilOF. V. KUXZEB, Vh. 1 Director , 

Telephone Philips’ Building. 120 Tremont St., 3 Hamilton Blace, Boston , Mass. 


Continued from paye 12. 

table game of u blind man s buff ” 
ensued, in which I (now confident 
of my safety) played an important 
and not uninteresting part. Blind- 
ed by the folds of the velvet, the 
infuriated animal rushed madly 
hither and thither, uttering groans 
of dismay and bellows of baffled 
rage, and it was only after a period 
of nearly half an hour that he suc- 
ceeded in getting rid of the objec- 
tionable obstruction to his vision. 
By this time I was, of course, in 
safe quarters, and though deprived 
of the use of the cloth, contrived, 
by the aid of the farmer’s overcoat, 
to obtain a passable picture of my 
unruly “sitter” from the exterior of 
his territory. 

A USE FOR ^SPOILT NEGA- 
TIVES. A SUGGESTION. 

By Roland Whiting. 

Among the many waste pro- 
ducts which the average photog- 
rapher brings forth in the course 
of a year, I suppose there are few 
that are troubled about less than 
rejected or spoilt negatives. I am 


speaking most especially to the 
landscape photographer, and I 
would advise him to save all those 
negatives which he considers un- 
fit for printing from. Artists are 
in the habit of making various 
little sketches of “ bits, ” such as 
foregrounds, distances, skies, old 
stumps of trees, etc , which they 
may meet with in their travels, 
with the idea of being able to in- 
troduce them into their composi- 
tions at some future date. Now, 
this is exactly what I would advise 
landscape photographers to do with 
their ‘ rejections.’ 

Negatives which are fogged or 
stained at one corner, or, perhaps, 
have been hopelessly scratched, 
may yet contain a pleasing bit of 
foreground, or object, or sky scen- 
ery, which could well be printed 
into some other picture with great 
advantage to the composition. 

A little investigation may bring 
to light many a little bit of scenery 
which could be utilized in this way. 

Of course, judgment must be 
exercised, so that the “ bit ” thus 
printed in shall be in keeping with 



The only absolutely 

“Without Position System” 

of Shorthand we have ever seen, 150 to 
200 words per minute. Evening session. 

C. C. CANNON, Lawrence, Mass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


16 

All t hat is N ew and 
Up- to-date in Spring Clothing at 

E. 3D. STEELE CO ’S, 

Corner Central and Prescott Sts. LOWELL, MASS. 


the rest of the picture. The sub- 
ject must be suited to the place, 
time, and season; and the light 
must fall upon each from the same 
source and in the same manner, 
although a subject or “ bit ” of land- 
scape which has been taken in 
diffused light may be introduced 
into a view, lit by the direct rays 
of the sun, if by so doing the piece 
printed in posseses the appearance 
of being under the cast shadow of 
a passing cloud. 

Many photographers look upon 
this printing-in business as being 
very troublesome and tricky; but 
it is not nearly so difficult as one 
who has not tried it might be led 
to imagine; and even if it were so, 
if a composition is improved by 
its practice, it is more than worthy 
of the trouble it gives. 

But to print in a part from one 
negative into another is extremely 
simple. One way is to take off a 
rough print from the negative con- 
taining the “bit” to be printed in, 
and with a sharp knife cut out the 
portion required. These pieces 
are to be used as masks in the fol- 
lowing manner. The piece of 


paper containing the subject to be 
printed in is stuck upon the back 
of the negative containing the land- 
scape or principal background. A 
print is then taken off, printed to 
the required depth. It will be ob- 
vious that the part of the print will 
be left white which was under 
cover of the paper at the back of 
negative, and will possess a soft 
vignetted edge. Endeavor should 
be made to get this edge with as 
much gradation as possible. 

When this is done, the negative 
containing the piece to be printed 
in must be covered by the remain- 
ing piece of paper left from the 
first-mentioned rough print, gen- 
erally at the back; but sometimes, 
if the object has a sharp outline, 
and the cutting-out has been done 
skilfully, it is best to place it on 
the face of the negative. The 
print is then carefully adjusted 
beneath this negative and printed, 
until the piece printed in is of the 
required depth. If this has been 
properly done there should be no 
light line showing, and it will be 
impossible to detect the line of 
juncture. 


Tile Feiiiam Loom 


Has few parts, large warp beam, requires but little 
power, runs rapidly, has an excellent Harness Motion 
and is easy on the warp. Moral: — Equip your mill with 
the Perham Loom, and have the BEST, 


CHARLES F. PERHAM, 

Lowell, Mass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


I 7 


THE LOWELL 
TEXTILE JOURNAL. 

A Monthly Publication by Students of the Lowell Textile 
School, with papei sand other valuableinl'ormation by leading 
in mufacturers. 

KEN WICK UMPLEBY, Business Manager. 
Sub Editor, S. W. WESTON. 

^Secretary and Treasurer, C. E. CURRAN. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY 

AT 

No. 67 middle Street, = Lowell, Hass. 

BY 

THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL COMPANY. 

Entered at the Post-Office at Lowell as Second 
Class Mail Matter. 


SUBSCRIPTION TERMS. 

For one year, postage paid 5 oc 

Single Copies • 5 C 

For Sale at all Newsdealers 


Vdvertisement s must be at the Journal Office before the 
fifteenth of each month for insertion that month. 

Contributions may be sentto Editorof The Lowell Textile 
J >urnal,and willreceive promptattention . 


EDITORIAL. 


We may be pardoned if we feel 
some pride in the present number 
of the Textile Journal. 

It is a fair representative of our 
promise to our friends, and will 
serve to show in part our appreci- 
ation of the generous patronage 
which we have received from the 
start. We promise that each suc- 
ceeding number will grow better. 

Vernon Royle, of John Royle & 
Sons, Paterson, has obtained a 
patent for an improved system 
of lacing Jacquard cards. John 
Royle & Sons is the leading firm 
i n all branches of Jacquard work.: 


Some have already sent in their 
essays for the competition on the 
several subjects named on page 22 
and appearances so far indicate 
that a little more attention paid to 
the rules may save some from 
much disappointment. 

All who find this paragraph in 
their paper marked with L. T. [., 
can take it for granted that their 
subscription to the Journal will be 
thankfully received. Prompt pay- 
ment encourages the publisher, 
and will enable him to add new 
features to the Journal. Please 
bear this in mind, and don’t forget 
the L. T. J. 

“ Take earnestly hold of life, as 
capacitated for and destined to 
high and noble purposes. Study 
closely the mind’s bent for labor or 
a profession. Adopt it early and 
pursue it steadily, never looking 
back to the turning furrow, but 
forward to the ground that re- 
mains to be broken. Means and 
ways are abundant to every man’s 
success, if will and actions are 
righ ly adapted for them. 

Our rich men and our great 
men have carved their paths to 
fortune, and by this internal prin- 
ciple — a principle that cannot fail 
to reward him who resolutely pur- 
ues it. 


i8 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


BEST HALF- HOSE HAVE: THE: 



SfLAW STOCKING CO. LOWELL, MASS. SEND FOR FREE CATALOGUE. 


To sigh or repine over the lack 
of inheritance is unmanly. Every 
man should strive to be creator in- 
stead of inheritor. He should be- 
queath instead of borrow. He 
should be conscious of the power 
in him, and fight his own battles 
with his own lance. When once 
this spirit of self-reliance is learned, 
every man will discover within him- 
self the demands and capacities of 
wealth.” 

As far as she is capacited for 
doing the same work, a woman 
ought to be paid as much as a 
man. 


It is estimated that the greatest 
single industry of any city in the 
world is the carpet manufacture 
carried on in Philadelphia. The 
establishments engaged in this in- 
dustry employ nearly 20,000 people. 

The director of the Textile 
School has had during the past 
month several inquiries for young 
men as assistants in various capac- 
ities in cotton mills. One firm 
sent their representative to the 
school to enquire for a young man 
to replace a former student who 
was leaving them to improve his 
position. 



Columbian Studio, 

55 Soutf? Wfyipple St., Lowell, JVIass. 

People intending having photographs taken, and who are 
particular as to quality and fastidious as to style, and 
who appreciate genuine art, should see our photographs 
and get our prices before going elsewhere, as we make 
everything in the photographic art line. We have nothing 
cheap and nothing to g ve. We are not in the business 
for fun. We are in it for an honest living. ]f you want 
anything cheap, or given, we are not in it, but we will 
guarantee you get your money’s worth if you will try us. 

Take the Lawrence Street Car and tell the conductor 
you want Powell, the Photographer, South Whipple St. 

Telephone Connection. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


19 


N. Whittier, Treasurer anti General Manager. Helen A. Whittier, President. W. it. 15. Whittier, Agent. 


WHITTIER COTTON MILLS, 

General Office, Lowell, Mass. 


Canon Yams, 2s 10 40s 


Single or Twisted, 2 to 200 ends, Ply, Cable Hawser, delivered on Spools 
Skeins, Hanks, Creels, Balls, Beams, Warper Balls, Cones, 

Grey or Colored. Fire Hose Cords a Specialty. 


Special attention given to Surgery and Surgical Operations. Fashion Corner, opposite City Hall 

Night calls promptly answered. Hell at private olliee door. 

WALTER H. VINAL, Ph., M. D., 

PHYSICIAN AND SURCEON, 

Office, Laboratory and Dispensary, Associate Bldg., cor. Merrimack and Worthen Sts., 

Eye, Ear and Throat Diseases Treated. , 

Glasses Fitted Accurately. • • LOWELL, MaSS. 


Sam. H. Thompson, Pres. Elisha J . NEAi.,Treas. 

The Thompson Hardware Co., 


TEAGUE & TEAGUE, 
Hatters and Haberdashers 


Columbia, Hartford & Storm Bicycles, 

BICYCLE SUPPLIES. 

2!>G Me rr ini a vie St., Towel 1 , Mass. 


Exclusive Novelties in Men’s Fine Shirts 
and Neckwear. 

Complete Line of Men’s Fine Underwear 
and controllers of the celebrated Wilson 
Ilat, none better made. 

Corner Central and Middle Streets. Lowell 


Ladies, we cordially invite you to call at . . . 

THE LOWELL CLOAK AND SUIT STORE 


And see. our new spring goods. We have Tailor-made Suits in over 50 colors and styles. 
We have Children’s and Misses’ Tailor made Suits in all colors, from 6 to 14 . Capes, Jackets, 
Dress Skirts, Bicycle Suits and Skirts, Box Coats, Shirt Waists, Silk Waists, Petticoats, etc., 
in all colors and styles. 


16 Merrimack Sq.. Runels' Building, 
Opp. Electric Car Station. 


J. H. BANKS, Proprietor. 


LAMINAR FIBRE CO 


MANUFACTURERS OF 

Roving Cans, Boxes, Trucks, 

And all If or ms of Mill Receptacles . 

3 f f i ce and Factory, Tannery Street, North Cambridge, Mass. 
L. D. Telephone, Arlington ,44. 


BLANK 

BOOKS 


LBWLEBS 


79 Merrimack, 

1 5 and 2 1 John St. 
Lowell, Mass. 


Largest Stock in the city. 

Telephone 238-2 


FRANK PARKER, 

Hanufacturer of 

Steel : and : Brass : Bound : Bobbins : and : Spools. 


LOWELL, MASS 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


20 

ROBERT C ARRUTHERS, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

REEDS AND LOOM HARNESS. ALSO BURR AND LICKER-IN 

CYLINDERS FOR WOOL AND COTTON CARDS. 

Telephone 654*2. Hear Dawrence Sf», Lowell, J\Iass» 


The first American Silk Mill 
was built by Rodney and Horatio 
Hanks, at Mansfield, Conn., in 
1810. Silk was discovered and 
manufactured (according to tra- 
dition) in the Central Flowery 
Kingdom about B C. i 700, when 
Hoang-ti, Third Emperor of China 
and his legitimate wife, Si-ling-chi, 
figured as royal serviculturists and 
made a great success of the new 
industry. 

Base Ball is our only organized (?) 
sport at the Textile School and this 
year we can depend on one more 
class for support, so that every 
effort should be made to develop 
the best team possible 

Though we have not star players 
to fill all the positions, this can 
be made up by “ team play ” which 
can be acquired by practice, and 
this alone has won many games 
against more proficient players 
who did not play together. 


It is very gratifying to the stu- 
dents that sentiment is changing 
in favor of the school. At the com- 
mencement the overseers in the 
mills were a little jealous of the 
school, but this is fast dyeing out 
and the mill men now see that the 
school is here for good and that the 
young people who attend the even- 
ing sessions make careful and re- 
liable assistants. 

We are sorry that the assistant 
editor has been under the weather 
and not able to devote any time to 
the Journal. 

There have been several people 
out canvassing for subscriptions to 
to aid the sick and wounded in 
South Africa. One called at our 
office a few weeks ago and re- 
ceived a small amount, but we have 
never heard or seen any report of 
what was done with the money as 
promised. 


Dress Goods from First Hands at Hanufacturers’ Prices. 

SEND TO US FOR SAMPLES, 

!BK.O'W3sT & -A.CICIEIRO'SriD, 

Dress Goods Manufacturers, 


LAWRENCE, 


MASS. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


2 I 


STUDY 

the points of our different machines and com- 
pare with others. 

UNDERSTAND 

the meri'« and you will be convinced beyond 
a doubt of their superiority. 

HOWARD & BULLOUGH 

flmericm macnine Co., Lid., Pawtucket, R. l. 



We wish every student a bright 
and prosperous career. 

Look out for the L. T. J. 

As we go to press, the evening 
sessions at the Lowell Textile 
School are drawing to a close. It 
has been a very profitable and 
pleasant term. The students have 
attended regularly and they have 
been very attentive to their lessons. 
The instructors are unanimous in 
declaring this the most brilliant 
school year since the opening of 
the school. 

Mr. Franklin W. Hobbs of 
Brookline, nominated as one of 
the two State Trustees of the 
Lowell Textile School to succeed 
Howard Stockton, resigned, is a 
resident of Brookline, and the as- 


sistant treasurer of the Arlington 
mills at Lawrence. Mr. Hobbs 
has been a local member of the 
board of trustees of the Lowell 
textile school since its organization 
four years ago, and his appoint- 
ment to represent the State in that 
board, is a promotion made in rec- 
ognition of the earnest and intelli- 
gent service he has rendered in 
building up the institution in 
whose welfare he has become deep- 
ly interested. Mr. Hobbs is not 
only a graduate of the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, but 
also of the textile department of 
the Bradford Technical college of 
England* and he is thus qualified 
by his education on both sides of 
the water, to know and develop 
the wants of the young and prom- 
ising textile school of Lowell. 


OTIS ALLEN SON. 

LOWELL, MASS. 

ALLEN'S STANDARD LOCK-GORNERED FILLING BOXES, 


Generally used in the New England Mills. 

ROVING CABS , DOFFING BOXES, BACKING CASES, ANTI CLOTH BOARDS. 

WRITE FOR PRICES. 


22 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


C. E. RILEY & CO. I 


281-285 Congress St., 
BOSTON, M7TSS. 

Litest Improvements and Specialties. 


£ 

/ 

2* 

\ 

N 


inPORTERS AND BUILDERS OF 

COTTON, 

WOOLEN, and 
WORSTED 

CARD CLOTHING, 

EGYPTIAN COTTON, Etc. 



PRIZE ESS A VS. 


ONE HUNDRED DOLLARS IN RRIZES. 

To the readers of the Textile 
Journal we offer twenty dollars in 
cash prizes, for the best essay on 
each of the following subjects: 

1 Carding and Spinning, from 
the “ Distaff and Spindle ” to the 
“ Carding Engine and Self-Acting 

o o o 

Mule.” 

2 “The Jacquard Machine, its 
history, construction and use.” 

3 “ Our Export Trade,” the past, 
present and future of our Textile 
industries. 

4 On the commercial aspect of 
Textile education and the relations 
between manufacturer and mer- 
chants. 

5 Finishing of woolens and 
worsteds, from the loom to the case. 

conditions. . 

1 All essays must be entirely 
original. 

2 Writing, spelling and gram- 
mar must not be considered in 
writing upon these articles. We 
are not looking for eloquence, but 


for practical information on the 
subjects mentioned. 

3 The prizes will be awarded 
strictly upon their merits as prac- 
tical studies on each of the subjects, 
and the name and reputation of 
the writer will carry absolutely no 
weight whatever. 

4 All manuscripts must be sent 
at the writer’s risk. 

5 The name of writer must not 
be placed upon the manuscript, 
each one being numbered by us 
for the purpose of identification. 

6 Essays may be sent in anytime 
from the present date to the first 
day of June, 1900, inclusive. 

7 After all the essays have been 
published the prizes will be award- 
ed by vote of the readers of the 
Lowell Textile Journal, who will be 
asked to vote on the respective 
merits without knowing the name 
of the writer. 

8 The writer of the article re- 
ceiving the highest number of votes, 
will receive a prize of $10. To the 
writer of the article receiving the 
next highest number of votes, the 
second prize of $7, will be paid. 


H. E. SHRGENT St CO., 

Allfree High Speed Economic Engines, 

Corliss Engines, Cook Water Tanks and Boilers. 

EQUITABLE BUILDING, BOSTON, MASS. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


EVAN ARTHUR LEIGH. 

Plan Bros, k Go. Colton, woolen and Worsted ninery, 

Syke’s Card Clothing: for Cotton. Critchley’s Card Clothing for VVooien 
and Worsted. Dransfield’s Grinding Machinery, and Emery filleting kept 
in stock, and other mill supplies. 

;>\> and ;>v; MASON JIUI LD1NG, BOSTON , M ASS. 


To the writer receiving the third 
highest number of voles, the third 
prize of $3, will be paid. 

9 The names of the three suc- 
cessful writers will then be pub- 
lished. 

10 Each manuscript must men- 
tion the number of words it con- 
tains, which is limited to six thou- 
sand. 

1 1 Postage or express charges 
must be fully prepaid. 

12 It is recommended that the 
manuscript be legibly written on 
one side of the paper, the size of 
the paper not larger than 8x11 
inches. 

13 As no manuscript will be 
considered that does not comply 
with the above conditions, it is 
urged that the writers will prepare 
their papers strictly in accordance 
with these rules. 

Editor, 

Lowell Textile Journal. 

Boom the School, it is a worthy 
institution. 


At a meeting of the executive 
council on Beacon Hill, Boston, 
March 14th, the Governor of Mas- 
sachusetts nominated Franklin W. 
Hobbs of Brookline to represent 
the State as a trustee of the Lowell 
Textile School, vice Howard 
Stockton, resigned. 

Mr. A. G. Cumnock, president 
of the textile school, has secured 
the promise of Gov. Crane and 
Lieut. Gov. Bates to come and in- 
spect the school. Mr. Cumnock 
will endeavor to arrange an infor- 
mal reception for them when they 
come. 

Now we have it reported that 
there is an offer of $20,000 as a 
gift to the trustees of the school if 
they will put up a suitable building. 

An institution with an equip- 
ment valued at nearly $100,000 
should have a more suitable build- 
ing than the one now occupied. 


Fowler Automatic Draft Regulator. 

THE CONDITIONS WILL BE IMPROVED. 

It makes no difference what the present arrangement of a heating apparatus may 
be, the conditions will be improved by the application of the Fowler Automatic Draft 
Regulator with a saving in fuel, less attention to the fire and a more regular and even 
heat ceitainly this is something to be desired. 

FOWLER AUTOMATIC DRAFT REGULATOR and VENTILATOR CO, 

LAWRENCE!, MASS. 


24 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


H. R. FA*RKER & CO., 
Successors to G. C. Brock, 

PRESCRIPTION - DRUGGISTS, 

Bridg-e, cor. First Street, Oentralville, 
Lowell, Mass. 


The Only First-Class 
Barber Shop in Lowell is at 

YOUNG’S, 

7, 8, 9 Hildreth Building 1 , 
Lowell, Mass. 


LOCAL ITEMS. 

— Buy the best you can afford 
and you will find it the cheapest. 
Nickerson, the tailor, will fill the 
bill. This is no joke. 

— It is worth the price of a sit- 
ting to hear John Powell, crack 
some of his original jokes. His 
work compares with the best in 
the State. 

— Heard in Young’s (the bar- 
ber.) The “ Textiles are the Boys.” 

— Talking about wheels. Did 
you see that grand display at 30 
Prescott street ? You should in- 


sist on seeing the best wheels be- 
fore purchasing. Call on H. B. 
Shattuck & Son. You all under- 
stand what a wheel is. You should 
do. Some of you have many. 

— Rutland & Smith claim to have 
two of the best makes of Cycles in 
the city. See them before buying. 

— E. A. Wilson’s coal and wood 
burns like fury, try it and prove 
the statement. 

— Lothrop and Cunningham’s 
“add ” speaks for itself. The firm 
is reliable, and we know of whom 
we speak. 


WARE BHOS., 

THILORS + 

Have received their full line of Spring 
goods, all up-to-date in novelties 
and confined styles. 

7 06 Merrima rlc St., LOWELL, .MASS. 

LOWELL WALL PAPER COMPANY, 

CEO. W. CHASE, Proprietor. 

Mural » and « Interior » Decorators, 

. . ROOM MOULDINGS - - 



42 CHURCH STREET, 


LOWELL, MASS. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


25 


HAMBLET MACHINE CO ,, Successors to Dustin Machine Co. 

Ensro-iisrEEKs ^ machiitists. 

Paper Cutters, Special Machinery Built, Repairing attended to promptly, Pulleys, Shafting, Gears, Etc. 

GEO. W. HAM BLETT, Prop. 

Tel. Connection. 30 Island Street, Lawrence, Hass. 


— That lunch at the Crystal 
Cafe was elegant. Just to the 
taste. We shall go there again. 

— It was a funny remark for 
Curtin to say the Textiles were a 
fine lot of Shavers. There’s only 
one. Curtin’s all right. 

— See Leed’s before booking 
your Summer vacation. We saw 
him last year, and he sent us to 
Elland, Hull, and Halifax ; only 
two H’s. Take a return ticket. 

— What got Bachelder? Why, 
he moved into Middlesex street 
and he says he would like you to 
give him a call. Don’t forget old 
acquaintances. 

— Your old friend, Bertrand, 
wishes to remind you in time. You 
will be thinking about new clothes, 
and having your old suits cleansed 
and made like new. Don’t forget 
the man who has helped you along 
in the past, you know. Evening 
dress suits. 

— We have not taken any other 


medicine but Father John’s, and 
we have not been sick all winter. 
Preventative is better than cure. 

— We always think there is 
something appropriate when a per- 
son’s name and trade are sue- 
gestive. For instantce : 

Student. Say, Professor, where 
did you get that new suit ? 

Professor. I had it made at 
Ware Bros’, but it is not new, and 
it’s like the men I bought it from, 
it’s all ware, and I am afraid it will 
ware until I am wore out. See ! 

— The Lowell Crayon Company 
is going to set them up. They can 
afford to. They are all chalk. 

— “ Spring, beautiful Spring.” 
Now is the time to prepare your 
lawns and gardens. Where can 
you buy better lawn grass and 
flower seeds than at Bartlett & 
Dow’s ? 

— Call on Harry Raynes’ and 
inspect his beautiful show of ele- 
gant presents. 


H. H. WILDER Sc CO., 

Furnaces, Stoves, Ranges, Kitchen Furnishing Goods 

Nos. 29 and 31 MARKET STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


26 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Lsbes mm 



■or mafly of r«fth Av«nu®.NtwVorW. 


J M P°j{T£K* 9 TAJCQR 


55 PoTTR/M. ‘iTRCCT. 


PAUL 0. KABLE, Assistant. 


SdNLIGHT SHOE STORE. 

wear the Orient Shoe, 

Best $3.50 Shoe in the World. 

100 Central St., .*. Lowell, Mass 


— Everything up-to-date at 
Steeles, Prescott street. If you 
cannot afford a custom made suit, 
get a ready-made one at Steele’s. 
The prices will suit the poorest 
man’s pocket. 

— You were fastidious about va- 
lentines and I know you will re. 
quire the daindiest of Easter Cards. 
Lawler, the stationer, has the most 
beauliful assortment in the city. 

— Martin’s drug store is ever an 
attractive corner for the Textiles. 
Cigars, lemonade and candy kisses. 

— Remember the old saying: 
“ Never too late to mend.” Some 
of your watches are late in the 
morning and fast in the evening, 
and you know it. Chas. W. 


Durant can correct them and 
mend them. 

— Have your developing and 
printing done at J. L. Fontaine’s. 
All photographic amateurs should 
see the fine work done at this 
studio. 

— Before going away, have your 
visiting cards printed at Tobin’s, 

— Of course, when in Lawrence, 
you call on Richardson & Co., for 
your cigars and candies. 

— Sam Hershaw will be pleased 
to show you his fine set of rings. 
He has rings for every kind of 
engagement, and you have so 
many engagements, you require 
.many rings, therefore, go where 
you can get them cheap. 


WM. El. BASS OO.. 

Manufacturers of 




THE 


'ELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


2 7 


SAMUEL KliHSIIAW, 

WatctimaKer anfl J6W6lfir/ or ' i£,,wi ' chRepai,insaspeci ^ 

lid CENTRAL STREET, - - LOWELL, MASS. 


NOT PERSONAL. 

Don't bother H-n-l-y any more ! 
He is writing a thesis. 

L-c-h says, l ' M-hs-e is afraid to 
race.” 

Heard on. the Electrics, “ God 
bless the boy with the cross.” 

“ Ask that handsome man,” 
T-p-l-n-s. 

She sends fudge through the 
mail, soft and sticky. 

Ask B-d-wl, it was only eighteen 
cents. 

C-u-r-r-n, says, “ you should take 
care what you do on evenings 
previous to examinations. Big 
heads are no use.” 

It was B-M who constantly cried 
“ rubber.” 

Please don’t mention Boar war 
to Percy, he gets rattled. 

L-c-h, I more than send it home.” 

Who said base ball, not Textile 
School ball, but base ball ? 


H. C , If he puts the gloves on, 
he will loose his temper.” Beware, 
boys ! 

Have mercy on him ! Save him ! 

Wisdom says, u he’s buying the 
the very best soap,” if he will take 
a look around the school, he will 
find that he will require a large 
quantity. 

Who is the Frederick the Great ? 
Ask C-r-i-r about those shots that 
were heard ail around the hall. 

M-o-e P-r-k-r acts the kid when 
he pin’s paper to the professor and 
class mates. 

“ It is not always the fattest hog 
that makes the sweetest bacon. 

That old sore between P-k-n-s 
and B. F., is in a likely way to be 
settled. 

L. Jr. “ Look out for the land 
slide from the roof.” 

Willie, don’t buy any more 
novels, save your money for a hair 
cut. 


Merrimack Wool Scouring Mills 

WOO Li AND J^OlLiS SCOURED, CARBONIZED AND NEUTRALIZED. 


THOMAS HARTLEY. 


*1 K* 


Lawrence, Mass. 


28 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


M. G. WIGHT & GO., ?lP er anonanuraciuiers Supplies. 

Manufacturing Stationers and Engravers, 

67 MIDDLE STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


P-c-y, “ don’t bother me ! I want 
to study.” 

Fitchburg has “pail” on the 
brain. See ! 

C-r-k-a. “ My head swam that 
time. 

B-r-k-t. “ We have prune pud- 
dings. How about the table girl 
from the Emerald Isle ? 

Hurry up, T-r-y, it’s most one 
o’clock. 

We hear of many “plots” and 
“bad designs” among the fresh- 
men. 

“ 16 to 1 ” is the ratio usually 
seen in the office morning and noon. 

The second year “cottons ” say, 
“ it’s hard to make both ends 
meet.” 

Sporting note. All interested 
in boxing who would like to see a 
loom box, can do so by visiting the 
P. L. D. 

Is it true that the proposed cur- 
few ordinance of the city is aimed 
at our dear little freshmen ? 


It is said there was a “ Hitch ” 
in the proceedings at the first 
athletic association meeting. 

o 

“Shooting” and “ Pitching” are 
on the vvarne, why not play the sun 
wheel on the epicychc train ? Step 
up, gentlemen, two to one on the 
red. 

The total number of candidates 
for the Harvard nine is i 77. We 
would be contented with a small 
fraction of this number. 

W-s-t-n walks down from fourth 
to third floor so he can take eleva- 
tor to fifth. Is this economy, or 
what ? 

“ The pup chewed up the exten- 
sion trunk.’, Forget it, there is a 
“ Devine” healer at 88 Merrimack 
street, who is out without bail, and 
can fit up your grip. 

Who is the drummer that calls 
in the Highlands? K(ni)T. 

Notice for boys from the west 
(Pa). Good cigars at the corner 
drug store, so says the youngone. 


CHARLES GRIFFIN, 

-)|MILL ENGINEER,^ 

Plans ail Sptcilicaiions furusM. Room ail Power to Rent. 

245 MARKET ST., Card Co. Building, L.O U'ELL, MASS. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 29 


Buy your footwear at 

roLEY & eo-'S, 

And save from 25 to 50 per cent. 
Cor. Bridge St and Lakeview Ave. 


“ It is dearer to borrow than to 
buy.” 

Who likes the Bottle? Ketch-up 
H-g-v-s. 

Wisdom, says they must have 
named him right. 

Why is Y g-m-n like an Irish- 

J o 

man? Because he is fond of mur- 
phy’s. Eat more, you look tt in. 

H-g-v-s prefers Blue Label. 

S-m-h. Say, Professor, does that 
come out to a red hair ? 

A t the next meeting in the dis- 
secting re om, there is going to be 
an opeiatiem performed on B-r-k-s’t 
upper lip. It was suggested that 
l e procure se>n e seed from H-n ly, 
but that is too slow. 

BASE BALL NEWS. 

A meeting was held in the lec- 
ture hall ot the school, Monday, 
March 19th, few re-election of offi- 
cers of the athletic association. 
The meeting was called to order 
by former manager, Mr. Hitchcock, 
wffio being unanimously elected 
chairman, and Mr. Stuart to act as 
temporary secretary. 


GEORGE LORRRGEB, 

SUITS, OVERCOATS AND LADIES’ 
COATS MADE TO ORDER. 

All kinds of repairing promptly ami neatly done 
at moderate prices. 

flerrimack St., Associate Bldg., Room 2, Lowell. 

A motion was made by Mr. 
Brickett that all rules of the con- 
stitution be suspended temporarily 
so that new members present could 
have a chance to vote. The offi- 
cers were then elected as follows : 

Mr. Taylor, President; Mr. B. 
M. Parker, vice president; Mr.C. E. 
Curran, secretary and treasurer ; 
Mr. D. Buckan and Mr. C. S. 
Swift, executive committee; Mr. 
Highland and Mr. Crosby, ad- 
visory committee ; Mr. Minge, 
manager of ball nine. Mr. Taylor 
lo be temporary captain of ball 
nine. 

A vote of thanks was then ex- 
tended to Mr. Hitchcock and Mr. 
Buckan for interest payed to asso- 
ciation last season. 

A motion was then made and 
seconded that all dues for member- 
ship to association be payed within 
two weeks from date. Meeting: 
was then adjourned. 

All students will please pay 
three dollars as soon as possible to 
the treasury and thereby become a 
member of the Athletic Associa- 
tion. 

C. E. Curran. 


THOHAS ncNAHARA, 740 Lawrence St. DUNCAN MacNABB, Hanager 

WRMESIT MACHINE CO. 


ENGINEERS AND MACHINISTS. 

All Kinds of Machine Work. - Engine Work a Specialty f 
OPP. CARTRIDGE CO, TELEPHONE 646-s. 


30 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


01. STE1NEBT k SOBS COPIPHNY, 

STEINWAY & SONS, 

Mason & Hamlin, Gabler, Emerson, Skoninger, 
Gramer, Standard, Singer Pianos. 
AEOLIANS AND PIANOLAS. 

290 Essex St., Lawrence, Mass. 
E. S. FESSENDEN - , Manager. 

REPAIRING 

We make a specialty of repairing fine Watches. 
Prices right and workmanship guaranteed. 

CHAS. W. DURANT, 

Central and Middle St., lowell, mass. 

Father John's Medicine 

Cures or it costs nothing. 

AT DRUGGISTS, 50c. and $1.00. 

CARLETON & HOVEY, Prescription Druggists. 
Cor. Merrimack and Snattuck Sts., Lowell, Mass. 

No Competion on Our $ 2.00 Hats , 

THEY ARE THE BEST. 

A. J. CUMMISKEY, 

60 MERRIMACK STREET, - LOWELL. 
See our $5.00 Dress Suit Cases. 

P. F. DEVINE, 

Maker and Repairer of 

Trunks and Leather Goods 

88 Merrimack St., Lowell, ami 410 Essex St., Lawrence. 

JOHN J. CL U IN, 

Gold, Steel, and Frameless Spectacles 
and Eyeglasses. 

O^TIOXJLJST, 

(12 Central St., cor. Prescott, - Lowell, Mass 

COUPES FOR CALLS, 

MORSE COACH CO., 

Carriages for Weddings, Parties, 

Funerals and Depot Work. . . 

Telephone 15-2. Lowell, Mass. 


.. K. A. NT. TOBIN .. 

Job Printing, 

ASSOCIATE BUILDING. LOWELL. 


w. C. HAMBLETT, Pres S. B PUFFER, Treas. 
JAS. TALBOT, Selling Agent, 10 Franklin St., X. Y. 

Criterion Knitting Co., 

Manufacturers of e11 kinds of 

JERSEY "“SPRING-NEEDLE UNDERWEAR 

220 Tanner Street, Lowell, Mass. 

Repairing, Cleansing Dress Suits for Sale 

and Pressing. and to Let. 

ARTHUR M. BERTRAND, 

Successor to F. W. Sargent. 
MERCHANT - TAILOR. 

24 Middle Street, - Lowell. Mass. 


HAVE YOUR EASTER ANNOUNCEMENTS 
PRINTED BY THE 

Enterprise Priming and Stamp Works, 

GUY W. HUTCHINS, 104 Central St. 


|J. T. Fontaine, 

Artist photographer 

j 475 Merrimack St., Lowell, Mass. 


MartMe, RrtlSlIC jncmOllBlS, 

Granite, < 

Bronze, \ Fine Work a Specialty. 

CHAS. WHEELER, 

51 Thorndike Street, = - Lowell, Hass. 

THOS. C. LEE & CO., 

INSURANCE, 

52 CENTRAL ST., - LOWELL, MASS. 


Lowell Textile Journal 


LOWELL TEXTILE SCHOOL COTTON DEPARTMENT. 

Head of Department, OTIS L. HUMPHREY. Assistant, HENRY MCDERMOTT. 



The cotton department of the the building and comprises about 
Lowell Textile School occupies 4,200 square feet of floor space, 
one-half of the entire fifth floor of Here, in this pleasant, welblighted 


4 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


room, may be found examples of 
each of the various machines em- 
ployed in the manufacture of cot- 
ton yarn. 

Every process from the bale to 
the finished product is here illus- 
trated, and by modern American 


dimensions and irregular outlines 
of the room will permit. 

In the south-west corner of the 
room and directly behind the hop- 
per of the automatic feeder, are the 
bins containing cotton of the dif- 
ferent grades and varieties, Waste, 





Mule and Fly Frames to the Right, Spooling and Warping to the Lett. 


machinery of the most approved 
type. This machinery is so arrang- 
ed, that the different processes fol- 
low each other in natural order, 
which facilitates the handling of 
the stock and in this respect is as 
practical and “mill like” as the 


Texas, Uplands, Peeler, Egyptian 
and Sea Island, suitable for yarns 
from the coarsest to the very finest 
numbers. Following the automatic 
feeder and the breaker picker, come 
the intermediate and finisher pick- 
ers, with the latest improved even- 



THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


5 


ers, measuring device and carding 
beater. Near the pickers are the 
top flat and the revolving flat cards. 
The revolving flat card has the 
scroll type of burl adjustment, 
calender roll stop-motion and other 
modern improvements. 


metallic rolls. Directly behind 
these is the sliver lap machine and 
comber, which are used in the pro- 
duction of soft twisted hosiery and 
finer numbers of yarns. To the 
right of the comber are the fly 
frames, the slubber and interme- 



Fly Frames and Cotton Comber. 


Next comes the railway head, 
with sensitive evener and positive 
stop motions and a four delivery 
drawing frame with both electric 
and adjustable spoon, back stop 
motions and mechanical coder and 
calendar roll stop motions and 


diate provided with spur gear dif- 
ferential motion, the fine frame and 
jack have differential motions 
of the burl gear type. The ring 
spinning frame is provided with a 
“combination ” builder, which can 
be used for either warp or filling 


6 


THE 1,0 WELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


and has extra sets of ring sails with 
rings of different sizes, allowing a 
wide range of numbers of both 
warp and filling to be spun. To 
the right of the entrance is the self- 
acting mule, used for the finer num- 
bers and higher grades of yarns, 


the accessories found in the best 
equipped mills. 

In addition to the regular ma- 
chines are many working models, 
showing the construction and oper- 
ation of parts in detail and allow- 
ing the most thorough and com- 



Picking, Carding and Drawing, Looking West from Instructor’s Office. 


and the spooler, wraper and slash- 
er, used in warp preparation. 

This room is also supplied with 
modern humidifyers, hygrometers, 
roving and yarn reels, grain scales, 
yarn tester, twist counter and all 


prehensive explanations to. be 
made. «» 

At the left of the entrance and 
near the Instructors’ office, a space, 
has been set aside for class in- 
struction and recitation. Here by 




THE LOWELL. TEXTILE JOURNAL 


7 


the aid of charts, diagrams and 
black-boards, the various opera- 
tions, motions, detail of construc- 
tion and adjustments of the differ- 
ent machines, and the many calcul- 
ations of speed, drafts, twists, ten- 
sions and productions of each are 
explained, 


The full three years’ course in 
this department is intended to 
familiarize the student with every 
detail of yarn manufacture and to 
allow a certain amount of exper- 
imental research, in connection 
with the practical work at each 
stage. 



Lecture Corner in Cotton Department, Showing Diagrams, Humidifyer and Electric Motor. 


From these charts and diagrams 
free hand sketches are made by the 
students in their note books, of 
cross sections of machines, dia- 
grams of gearing and detail of 
parts, the lettering of which corres- 
ponds with their lecture notes. 


The course includes lectures on 
cotton — its varieties, cultivation, 
selection, structure of the fibre, 
ginning, baleing, mixing, construc- 
tion and operation of the machines 
employed in the different manu- 
facturing processes; defects in the 


8 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


operation of the machinery and in 
the quality of the product and the 
causes of, and remedies for, these 
defects. Calculations for speeds, 
drafts and proportions of drafts, 
twists tensions and productions of 
the various machines. Program- 
mes of drafts and doublings, for 
the economical production of dif- 
ferent numbers and varieties of 
yarns. Schedules of machinery, for 
the production of given amounts 
of yarn of different varieties and 
numbers. Arrangement of machin- 
ery, for the economical handling of 
the stock in process of manufac- 
ture. Figuring of shafting, belting, 
speeds and power required. 

The practical work includes 
demonstrations of the principles 
taught. The operation, settings 
and care of the machinery. Illus- 
trations of the causes which pro- 
duce poor work and the application 
of the remedies for their defects, 
and the production of a consider- 
able amount of finished product 
for use in other departments of the 
school. 

While it could hardly be claimed 
that every graduate of this course 
would be fitted in every respect to 
immediately accept the superin- 
tendency of a cotton mill, there can 
be no doubt that a large majority 
are better informed, in regard to 
the theory and details of practice 
of cotton manufacturing, than 


many of the men holding respon- 
sible mill positions, and a few 
years of actual mill practice, in a 
subordinate position, with the ex- 
perience and “ hard knocks ” that 
such a course would be likely to 
confer, should make a valuable man 
of one with such a foundation to 
build on, as can be secured by the 
serious, earnest student of this 
department. Otis L. Humphrey. 

Foreman — “Jones, what are you 
at now ? ” 

Compositor — “I’m setting ‘A 
House on Fire;’ most done.” 

Foreman — “ What is Smith 
about ? ” 

Compositor — “He has nearly 
finished ‘A Horrid Murder.’” 

Foreman — “ Tell him to finish it 
as soon as possible, and then get 
up‘ A Panic in the Money Market.’ ” 

Compositor — “ How about those 
‘ Municipal Candidates ? ’ ” 

Foreman — “ Run’em in, and then 
complete that ‘ Eloquent Thanks- 
giving Discourse.’” 

Editor — “ Have you room for 
‘ Helen Blazes ? ’ ” 

Foreman — “Yes, just under ‘A 
Satanic Press.’ ” 

Compositor — “ How about ‘ The 
Abuses of Treating’ and ‘We’ll 
Have another ? ’ ’ 

Foreman — “ Set them up, right 
away.” 

Compositor — “ Have you got 
proof of ‘ Is there a Hell ? ’ ” 

Foreman — Ask the Devil.” 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


9 


DESIGNING OF COLORED AND FANCY WEAVE FABRICS. 

COTTON, WOOLEN AND WORSTEDS. 

By Fenwick Umpleby — Continued. 


Speaking generally I find con- 
trast of tones for very small de- 
signs come up much superior than 
contrast of hues. 

In large designs tones and hues 
must be nearer the same weight 
than in small designs, otherwise 
the design is very marked. This 
“nearness” of tone and hue is lost 
or does not show in small designs, 
owing to the eye being unable to 
distinguish them. If the hues are 
strong in small designs, so as to 
give greater distinction, then it 
often produces a bad gray, owing 
to the great difficulty of balancing 
the amount of each color in the 
various designs Special colors 
would have to be made for each 
design. The “muddled” effect so 
often noticed in small designs is 
often caused by the designer put- 
ting a good combination of colors 
from a large design into a small 
one. No small design can be 
copied in colors from a large de- 
sign. 

Rule for combinations in the 
light part of the stripe: Preserve 
the balance of hue by the addition 


of the complimentary or of a softer 
color of the same hue. Use colors 
which will make a good mixture in 
colored wools. 

Overcheckings and striping col- 
ors require great care as to tone,- 
hue, size of checking or striping 
and quantity of color in any part. 
A small overcheck is difficult to 
put on, because of the quantity 
of hue which it gives to the prin- 
cipal shade. Quite different colors 
must be often used when putting 
on a small overcheck to those used 
for a 'large one. I think the best 
way with many small overchecks 
is to use much softer colors chosen 
from the tertiary, but dyed as 
brightly as possible, colors too 
brilliant or strong for ground or 
principal shades, but not equal to 
either primary or secondary colors. 
Another way of obtaining these 
shades, where twist can be used, is 
to twist fine spun primary and sec- 
ondary colors with black or some 
neutral tone. It is important to 
take the hue into account when 
deciding which color to use for a 
small overchecking. For a large 


IO 


THE LOWELL. TEXTILE JOURNAL 


overchecking this is not so impor- 
tant. Example: On a check of 
black and grey a scarlet overcheck 
is good two inches square, because 
the scarlet hue retains its position 
and affects the color of the black 
and grey by giving a slight green- 
ish hue. A scarlet overcheck is 
bad a quarter of an inch square, 
because it gives a reddish hue to 
the black and grey. This is not an 
alteration of the law of complimen- 
tary colors, but a defect of the eye, 
in not being able to separate and 
distinguish each different color. 
The complimentary color of the 
overchecking or stripping is seen 
in large checks or stripes, but the 
hue is seen in small ones. Rule 
for small overchecks: Avoid using 
a color which would make a bad 
mixture if you were blending col- 
ored wools to make yarn. The 
color for large overchecks is a 
question of taste, often discord pro- 
duces a novel color, and is not bad 
taste when tone, size, and quantity 
of color are taken into account. 

Cheviot and Botany Suitings. 
— Cheviot suitings can be colored 
better and more easily than botany 
suitings, the bright colors in chev- 
iot wool showing up more distinct- 
ly than they do in botany wools, 
because the wool is coarser, almost 
each fibre can be seen. In botany 
v. ools the hues of the fine fibres 
nulify each other, giving a gray hue. 


By separation with dark colors, 
with and without overchecks and 
stripings, both large and small. 
If the bright color is separated 
from the light color, or if the dif- 
ferent light colors in large or small 
stripings and overcheckings are 
separated by a dark end or pick, 
the action of blending of colors by 
the eye is stopped, and each color 
is thrown out distinctly. There is 
still the action of complimentary 
color being developed, but not the 
blending, as in case of using col- 
ored wools. 

In Professor Beaumont’s work 
on “ Color in Woven Design, ” 
plate VIII, fig. 3, is given a scrap 
of textile ornament, which illus- 
trates the advantage of this sepa- 
ration of colors. 

This is a good way of putting on 
overcheckings and stripings with- 
out making too marked a line. If 
a colored end is placed in the light 
color, or at the side of a light color, 
in striping or checking, it gives 
to the light color the hue of the 
striping or checking end, but when 
it is placed in the centre of the 
dark color, or separated from the 
light by one end or more, it gives 
no hue of its own color to the light 
stripe next to it, but gives a com- 
plimentary hue to all the shades 
of the stripe equally, except to the 
dark color which immediately sur- 
rounds it. This dark color takes 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


FIRST CLASS COOKING STOVES 

Sold on the Instalment Plan. Also 
set up und rented at a low rate per 
year, piping included. 

LOWELL GAS LIGHT CO. 


1 1 

Are you thinking of buying 

A FILM CAMERA? 

If so, call and see the 

TOURIST HAWKEYE. 

A. H. SANBORN & CO., 

53 Central St., Lowell, Mass. 


the hue of the colored overcheck- 
ing or striping. The tendency of 
the colored striping or checking is 
to be absorbed by the dark ground 
which immediately surrounds it. 
Care should be taken not to use a 
bright color too light in tone. 

Blues have a much greater ten- 
dency to be absorbed into the 
ground than the other colors. Blue 
is called a retiring shade. Yellow 
and orange shades are the oppo- 
site. This tendency is of impor- 
tance in usinsr these colors for 
overcheckings and stripings, and 
also in bringing into prominence 
certain parts of a design. 

Juxtaposition of colors adds to 
or destroys the beauty of a design. 
A knowledge of color enables one 
to take advantage of this fact. In 
making a range of colors, using 
different hues alternately, separated 


by dark ends, different tones must 
not be used if the same design is 
to be produced. The juxtaposition 
of tones does not affect the hues, 
whereas a juxtaposition of hues in- 
creases or decreases their bright- 
ness. — Example: Red and green, 
purple and yellow, blue and orange 
hues increase each other’s bright- 
ness. Purple and blue, green and 
yellow hues decrease each other’s 
brightness. Light blue and dark 
blue, light green and dark green, 
light red and dark red tones do not 
affect each other’s hues. Colored 
lines, or spots, on black or solid 
colored grounds, give to the black 
or solid colored ground the com- 
plimentary color. — Example : A 
black ground with an orange stripe, 
say one inch wide, appears blue. 
If the ground was blue it would 
appear more blue by juxtaposition 


LOWELL CO-OPERATIVE SUPPLY CO., 

GET YOUR MONEY’S WORTH. 

When you are ready to buy something in the line of . . . 

Clothing, • Cloak • or • JTillinery, 

Come and see us before purchasing. 

We promise to save you at least 25c on the dollar. 

44 Bridge Street. N EB 3/\£ ST ORE, near Merrimack Sq. 


12 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Wolf High Art CYCLES, Fuller Truss Frame 

Sold by RUTLHND St S7VtITH, 

195 Middlesex Street, Loivell, Mass. 

TELEPHONE 653-5. We Want Your Repairing. 


with the orange. If, therefore, it 
is important that the black should 
appear black, with an orange stripe, 
the color to be used must be a 
black with an orange tinge, so as 
to correct the blue which appears 
by juxtaposition. 

Determination of hue can only 
be truly arrived at by juxtaposi- 
tion or comparison with another 
hue. The three primary hues can 
be obtained in every tone and hue. 
— Example: Red slate, blue slate, 
green or yellow slate (yellow com- 
bines with the blue of the slate and 
forms a green hue), red brown, yel- 
low brown, blue or olive brown, 
etc. 

These hues, however faint, can 
at once be seen by juxtaposition 
with another hue. 

In making combinations of com- 

O 

plimentary hues, care must be 
taken not to use colors, which are 
too crude in hue, otherwise the 
contrast is very violent. — Example : 
A green slate and a blue slate will 


produce a contrast quite strong 
enough for green and blue, and so 
with other colors. 

Range Coloring. — It is neces- 
sary that the different colors in the 
finished range should harmonize 
with each other, otherwise a good 
selection cannot be made. The 
color may be fairly good by itself, 
but when placed next to the other 
shades, a violent contrast is set up, 
which at once condemns it. Great 
care must therefore be taken that 
the light and dark principal shades 
are in good harmony. 

Brightness of Colors is Essen- 
tial. — Clear or bare finished cloths 
require grayer colors than milled 
finished cloths. Milling destroys 
the brightness of colors by blend- 
ing the different colored fibres on 
the surface, and thus producing 
the grayer hue, which has to 
be used in bare finished goods. 
There is another cause, but it is 
not a question of color, and in this 
article I am dealing with color only. 


C.G.SlGEPrS SONS, 8 ™,?’ 

Builders of 

Wool Washing Machines, Wool Dryers, Wool 
Waste, and Rag Dusters, Duplex Bur Pickers, 
Waste Cards, etc. Write for information con- 
cerning our new automatic Cotton Dryer. 


W. H. BAGSHAW, 

Manufacturer of 

Machine Wool Combs, 

ii Wilson St. - Lowell, Mass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


13 


ENVOY, 

RECORD 


BICYCLES 


FRONTENAC, 

HALLADAY. 


Samples now ready for Inspection at 

CL ZE3T. EMEBSOIST’S, 

229 Middlesex Street, LOWELL, MASS. 


Brilliant checking yarns are im- 
portant, but they must be made to 
harmonize with the light shades 
both in hue and tone. 

It is impossible to lay down ab- 
solute laws and rules for coloring 
textiles, as there are so many ex- 
ceptions. Natural good taste, with 
a full knowledge of the laws of 
color, will produce novel and good 
coloring. Taste can also be culti- 
vated, and if the student will begin 
by harmonizing his own dress and 
his surroundings, his eye will grad- 


ually become accustomed to good 
color, and demand better and bet- 
ter coloring. Constantly study 
the colors of your surroundings, 
whether in the country, in public 
rooms, in paintings, or in the dress 
of people who surround you. Re- 
move anything in the immediate 
surroundings where you live, if 
possible, which is in bad taste or 
crude. Never rest satisfied with 
your combination of color until 
you have attained perfection. 


SOME FAULTS IN MANUFACTURE. 


The great, indeed, we might al- 
most. say, the very great proportion 
of the cloth used consists of 
combed wool and wool that is not 
much felted, as cheviots and in soft 
wool dress goods, yet notwithstand- 
ing this the felted produce of card- 


ed wool, which is manufactured 
into cassimeres, suitings, and over- 
coatings, strong in texture and 
wearing well, and those which are 
dyed different colors in the piece, 
of which black is the most impor- 
tant and must not be overlooked. 


SEEDS! SEEDS! 

Everything for Lawn and Garden. Catalogues Free 

Will be Mailed to Any Address. 

BARTLETT <3c DOW, 

216 CENTRAL STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


14 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Real Estate ana Business Exchange, 

FIRE INSURANCE. 

F=. L. VHNCE 5c CO., 

Rooms 2 and 3, 

Telephone connection. 97 Central St., Lowell. 

Piece dyed fabrics are not always 
free from every fault, and the 
strength of the texture sometimes 
leaves something to be desired in 
spite of the care of the manufac- 
turer. The operations which follow 
each other right up to the finish- 
ing of the fabric are so numerous 
and important, that should only 
one of them be missed, it is quite 
sufficient to imperil the result. On 
the other hand the demands of 
consumers are larger and larger 
and are sometimes based on some 
whim in manufacture. Progress 
made in machinery, excessive pro- 
duction, and competition have 
made goods cheap ; yet high-priced 
goods demand honesty and care as 
much in the value of materials as 
in the handling of them; that is 
from the raising of the sheep right 
on to the final finish of the cloth. 

The first proceeding in manu- 
facture, the choice of wool, requires 
some sound practical knowledge, 
and this matter often leaves some- 


FAMES MAMUFACTDEIHB COIflPAMT , 

Woolen Manufacturers, 

North Billerica, Mass. 
68 Franklin St., Boston, Mass. 

thing to be desired. If the sheep 
have been ill cared for, if the fleece 
has been taken off unskilfully, or 
has suffered during their rear- 
ing, if the sorting of the various 
portions according to the strength 
and felting qualities has not been 
done well ; if the wool has been 
badly used in the scouring, these 
are some of the reasons which 
change the natural strength. 

If we wish to produce a good 
article, strong and of high quality, 
sound and strong wool is necessary 
before everything, one suitable for 
felting. The strength of material 
is a necessary condition which felt- 
ing increases but never replaces. 
Besides, beyond a certain limit of 
fulling the fibre suffers. For a 
strong cloth it is then very neces- 
sary to take very strong wool. The 
manufacturing operations, however 
well they may be carried out, cannot 
possibly make up for the absence 
of natural strength in the wool, 
while unskilful handling can de- 


T ICKETS TO PARIS EXPOSITION , on all the Best Lines. 

Hotel Accommodations Reserved in Advance. 

Tickets to Bermuda, Jamaica, Cuba and Florida at the Lowest Prices. 

LEEDS’, 5 Bridge St., Lowell, Mass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


>5 


New England College ol Languages, : Zsm 

Special Courses for Business Men and Women. Write for Circular. 
ritOF. IK KUXZElt, J‘h. IK, Director, 

Telephone Philips’ Building. 120 Tremont St., 3 Hamilton I’lace, Boston, Mass. 


stroy the natural strength of the 
material. The weakening of the 
fibre is frequently caused by one of 
the preliminary processes ; scour- 
ing, dyeing, drying, etc. Too vio- 
lent washing or an excessive tem- 
perature deteriorate the quality of 
the wool, just as felting caused by 
an ill-judged scouring, then bad 
carding breaks the fibres, and 
forms little hard knots, and render 
the yarn irregular and less com- 
pact. 

Sometimes the wool is not scored 
enough. It is however necessary 
that this should be done, for it 
is dyed better and quicker, it is 
carded and spins more easily and 
will take the fulling better. Some 
people assure us that the residue 
of the scouring still adhering to 
the material protect it against the 
faulty effects of the boiling, mor- 
dant and dyeing baths. Practical 
experience proves on the contrary 
that badly scoured wool suffers 

HURPHY’S 

Steamship Agency, T . 
18 Appleton Street. 

Agent for Cunard, White Star, Dominion, French 
and German Lines. Checks sold on all foreign coun- 
tries. Special steamship agency for Paris Exposition. 


more. The mordants and other 
chemical ingredients partially de- 
compose the grease and attack the 
fibres. Chemical cleaning can 
cause an analogous result. The 
grease impregnates the fibre, and 
if it has not destroyed it itself, it 
opposes all the subsequent opera- 
tions. 

But the most delicate operation 
of all is the dyeing, its influence is 
considerable and the non-success is 
without remedy. Violent or badly 
arranged mordants, too long or too 
strong boilings; some portions too 
hot in the tub spoil the texture 
and strength of the material. Or 
again if we put too much wool 
at once in the tub it cannot be 
handled or treated conveniently; 
it is impregnated irregularly by the 
dyeing bath and is exposed too long 
in contact with the heated sides. 

The irregularity of dyeing if it 
is produced in wool can be les- 
sened, as regards appearance and 

PUTNAM'S DINING ROOMS, 

Established 1882. 

10 Merrimack St. Meals at All Hours. 

COMMUTATION TICKETS FOR SALE. 

F. El. PUTNAM, 

10 Merrimack St., - LOWELL, MASS. 



THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


16 

All that is New and 
Up-to-date in Spr ing Clothing at 

HU. ID. STIEZEULIE & CO ’S, 

Corner Central and Prescott Sts. LOWELL, MASS. 


purity of shade during the opera- 
tion of blending, picking, carding 
and spinning. The mixture which 
is made by the different portions 
of wool modifies the color which is 
not possible when the dyeing is 
done in the piece, and in this last 
case, special care is necessary, on 
which we shall not insist any more. 
On being taken out of the dyeing 
vat the wool also requires special 
care for its cooling, the best way is 
to spread it out as quickly as pos- 
sible in a large room, in a thin 
layer and to turn it frequently. 
And so long as it is not cold, it 
must not be packed up and pressed, 
or the shades would be changed. 

Brown colors have more effect 
on the strength of the wool on ac- 
count of the mordants and the dye- 
ing materials. Brown wool is gen- 
erally carded and spun badly, 
brown yarn breaks in the weaving 
more than light colored yarn made 
from the same wool, brown cloth 


fulls or felts with difficulty. The 
drying of wool has not such marked 
effects on the strength of the cloth. 
But the wool becomes rough and 
brittle when it is dried by an ex- 
cessive heat with insufficient venti- 
lation, it breaks more easily in 
carding and requires more oil for 
its lubrification. 

We have not been able in this 
short sketch only to discuss some 
of the points which require from 
the manufacturer attention at all 
points. We will return to this 
very interesting subject at another 
time and will consider the source 
of numerous bad selections which 
it is good to know in order to 
avoid them. 

Ax Evening Student. 


We beg to call the attention of 
the readers of the Textile Journal 
to essay “Number One,” — The 
Evolution of Cotton Carding and 
Spinning. See page 21. 


Tie Perfiam Loom 


Has few parts, large warp beam, requires but little 
power, runs rapidly, has an excellent Harness Motion 
and is easy on the warp. Moral:— Equip your mill with 
the Perham Loom, and have the BEST. 


CHARLES F. PERHAM, 

Lowell, Mass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


1 7 


THE LOWELL 
TEXTILE JOURNAL. 

A Monthly Publication by Students of the Lowell Textile 
chool, with papers and other valuable in formation by leading 
an ufacturers. 

FENWICK UMPLEBY, Business Manager. 
Sub Editor, S. W. WESTON. 

Secretary and Treasurer, C. E. CURRAN 


PUBLISHED MONTHLY 

AT 

No. 67 fliddle Street, = Lowell, Hass. 

BY 

THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL COMPANY. 


Entered at the Post-Office at Lowell as Second 
Class Mail Matter. 


SUBSCRIPTION TERMS. 

For one year, postage paid $1.00 

Single Copies . 10c 

For Sale at all Newsdealers. 


Advertisements must be at the Journal Office before the 
fifteenth of each month for insertion that month. 

Contributions may be sentto Editorof The LowellTextile 
J >urnal,and willreceive promptattention . 


EDITORIAL. 


The students of the second and 
third year classes of the Textile 
School, in cotton spinning, wool 
spinning and designing, went to 
Manchester, N. H., on Wednesday, 
April nth, and visited the Amos- 
keag and Manchester Mills. 

On Wednesday, April 1 8th, the 
third year cotton class visited the 
Merrimack Cotton Mills, Lowell, 
Mass. 

The public fund in the city of 
London for the Transvaal has 
reached the enormous amount of 
5,185,000 dollars. 


On Tuesday. April 10th, the 
class in industrial chemistry made 
a trip to Boston. The New En- 
gland Gas and Coke Co. at Everett 
and the New England Glass Works 
at Somerville were visited in the 
morning ; the afternoon was spent 
at the works of the Curtis Davis 
Soap Company, Cambridge. 

On Wednesday, April 11th, the 
freshmen of the Textile School 
crossed bats with the Lowell Hio-h 

O 

School team. 

“ Least said, soonest mended.” 

The High School Boys won out 
in a canter. 

The largest belt ever made in 
Canada is in use at the grain ele- 
avtorof the Intercolonial Railway, 
at St. John, N. B. This mammoth 
belt measures 3,529 feet in length, 
over two-thirds of a mile. 

British blue blood is paying a 
very heavy penalty in the South 
African war. Lieutenant Lygon is 
the sixth heir to a peerage who has 
been killed during the present war. 

In Great Britain, the seventh 
day of April, will in the future be 
known as “ Queen’s day.” 

It appears that the Athletic 
Association lacks the efforts of an 
energetic secretary. 


i8 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 



ON 
THE 
TOE 

SEND FOR FREE CATALOGUE 


best half-hose: have: the 


S/LAW STOCKING CO. LOWELL, MASS. 


The “sayings” of some of the 
textiles would fill volumes. Their 
doings could be written on a post- 
age stamp. 

A man is neither good, nor wise, 
nor rich at once, but by careful 
climbing up the ladder, he every- 
day betters his position till at last 
he gains the top. 

On Friday, March 30th, Prof. 
W. W. Crosby, Principal of the 
Lowell Textile School, visited the 
Searles High School, Great Bar- 
rington, Mass. In the evening, 
Prof. Crosby addressed the stu- 


dents in Kellogg Hall, on the work 
being done by his school in the in- 
terests of intelligent labor. His 
lecture was illustrated by the stere- 
optican and the audience were 
treated to fifty views on the history 
of manufacturing. 

We have received news from 
several students, ^formerly at the 
Textile School ; we are glad to say 
they are doing well in their new 
positions. 

An ignorant man should always 
remain silent, but if he knows 
enough to do so he isn’t ignorant. 



Columbian Studio, 

55 Soutl? Whipple St., Lowell, JVIass. 

People intending having photographs taken, and who are 
particular as to quality and fastidious as to style, and 
who appreciate genuine art, should see our photographs 
and get our prices before going elsewhere, as we make 
everything in the photographic art line. We have nothing 
cheap and nothing to g ve. We are not in the business 
for fun. We are in it for an honest living. If you want 
anything cheap, or given, we are not in it, but we will 
guarantee you get your money’s worth if you will try us. 

Take the Lawrence Street Car and tell the conductor 
you want Powell, the Photographer, South Whipple St. 

Telephone Connection. 



THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


19 


N. Whittier, Treasurer and General Manager. Helen A. Whittier, President. W. R. B. Whittier, Agent. 


WHITTIER COTTON MILLS, Chattahoochee, Ga. 

General Office, Lowell, Mass. 


Cation Yarns, 8s 10 40s 


Single or Twisted, 2 to 200 ends, Ply, Cable Hawser, delivered on Spools 
Skeins, Hanks, Creels, Balls, Beams, Warper Balls, Cones, 

Grey or Colored. Fire Hose Cords a Specialty. 


Special attention given to Surgery and Surgical Operations. Fashion Corner, opposite City Hall 

Night calls promptly answered. Bell at private oilice door. 

WALTER H. VINAL, Ph., M. D., 

PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON, 

Office, Laboratory and Dispensary, Associate Bldg., cor. Merrimack and Worthen Sts., 

Eye, Ear and Throat Diseases Treated. 

Glasses Fitted Accurately. LOWELL, MaSS. 


Sam. H. Thompson, Pres. Elisha J . NEAL,Treas. 

The Thompson Hardware Co., 

Columbia, Hartford & Stomer Bicycles, 

BICYCLE SUPPLIES. 

254, 256 Merrimack St., Lotvell, Mass. 


HATS secured at our store are proper in style and 
quality. Try us and be convinced. A superb line 
of neckwear always in stock. 

TEAGUE & TEAGUE, 
Hatters and Haberdashers 

Corner Central and Middle Streets, Lowell 


Ladies, we cordially invite you to call at . . . 


THE LOWELL CLOAK AND SUIT STORE 


And see our new spring goods. We have Tailor-made Suits in over 50 colors and styles. 
We have Children’s and Misses’ Tailor made Suits in all colors, from 0 to 14. Capes, Jackets, 
Dress Skirts, Bicycle Suits and Skirts, Box Coats, Shirt Waists, Silk Waists, Petticoats etc.' 
in all colors and styles. ’ ’* 


16 Merrimack Sq.. Runels’ Building, 
Opp. Electric Car Station. 


J, H. EANKS, Proprietor. 


LAMINAR FIBRE CO 


MANUFACTURERS OF 

Roving Dans, Boxes, Trucks, 

And all Forms of Mill Receptacles . 

Office and Factory, Tannery Street, North Cambridge, Mass 4 
L. D. Telephone, Arlington ,44. 


BLAN K 

BOOKS 


LAWLER’S 


79 Merrimack, 

1 5 and 2 1 John St. 
Lowell, Mass. 


Largest Stock in the city. 

Telephone 238 a 


FRANK PARKER, 

flanufacturer of 

Steel : and : Brass : Bound : Bobbins : and : Spools. 

LOWELL, MASS. 


20 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


ROBERT OARRUTHERS , 

MANUFACTURER OF 

REEDS AND LOOM HARNESS. ALSO BURR AND LICKER-IN 

CYLINDERS FOR WOOL AND COTTON CARDS. 
telephone 654 * 2 . Hcdv Latwcticc St «, Lotv€ll , J}Jdss» 


Showers an sunshine are what 
we expect to get this month, but 
like monny moor things, what we 
luk for doesn’t alius come to pass. 
When May is what May should 
be, ther’s noa moorcharmin month 
ith’ year. Its like a young maid 
at’s just blossimin into womanhood, 
an what is ther moor charmin nor 
that. Aw dooant know owt at’s 
moor fascinatin nor a young lass 
at’s just old enuff to fancy shoo 
knows a lot, an just young enuff to 
be mistakken. Her mental een 
are oppenin, an ivverything shoo 
sees is seen as in a mist an th’ 
rooases show plainly but th’ thorns 
are hidden. Aw believe at ivvery 
healthy minded young man an 
woman start life wi a firm convic- 
tion ’at they’re gooin to reform 
their pairt o’th’ world. But its a 
big contract an if they nobbut could 
have an inklin o’th’ size o’th’ job 
they’d be filled wi despair befoor 
they made a start. But altho’ ther 


ideas are nivver carried aght, an 
all ther desires an hooaps are 
doomed to be disappointed, yet, to 
have even desired to do impossi- 
bilities has been beneficial. When 
they get aght into th’ world an see 
what a army ov evils they have to 
face, they may, an must, loise faith 
i’ ther own strength but they 
dooant give in withaat a struggle j 
an its struglin at gives strength. 
Ther’d be noa heroes if ther wor 
noa enemies. Its far too common 
a practice to set daan young fowk 
as fooils. If they act fooilishly 
throo want ov experience an knowl- 
edge they’re to be excused, but 
what are we to call old fowk who 
nivver gain wit? When yo see an 
old chap yo can form an idea ov 
what he’s done, but yo cannot form 
a guess ov what a young chap may 
accomplish. Monny a lad at wor 
set daan as a fooil has lived to be 
venerated as a genius, an monny a 
giddy, leet-hearted lass has been 


CONWAY TRANSFER COMPANY, 

General Baggage and Freight Forwarders. 


Principal office, Northern Depot. 


Telephone 77. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


2 I 


STUDY 

the points of our different machines and com- 
pare with others. 

UNDERSTAND 

the merits and you will be convinced beyond 
a doubt of their superiority. 

HOWARD & BULLOUGH 

American machine Go., Ltd., Pawtucket, it. I. 



set daan as a fickle butterfly who 
has proved te be an angel upon 
earth. — John Hartley. 

The price of food in the Trans- 
vaal has reached the prohibitive 
mark. Potatoes, 36 cents pur lb.; 


Fowls, $7 20 each ; Eggs, 68 cents 
per doz.; Beer, 84 cents per pint. 

We are sorry to report that the 
sub-editor is still under the weather, 
ai least, he has not attended to any 
business for five weeks. 


ESSAY NUMBER ONE. 

THE EVOLUTION OF COTTON CARDING AND SPINNING 

FROM THE “DISTAFF AND SPINDLE” TO THE CARDING 
ENGINE AND SELF-ACTING MULE. 


THE PRIMITIVE OR HAND METHOD OF CARDING AND SPINNING. 


Spinning is one of the most an- ceive the condition of mankind, had 
cient arts, and from a beneficial this most important art not been 
standpoint one of the most im- invented. 

portant. It would be hard to con- The birthplace of the cotton 


OTIS ALLEN Sc BON. 

LOWELL, MASS. 

ALLEN’S STANDARD LOCK-GORNERED FILLING BOXES, 

Generally used in the New England Mills. 

MOVING CABS, DOFFING BOXES, BACKING CASES, AND CEOTH BOAMDS. 

WRITE FQR PRICES « 


22 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


C. E. RILEY & CO. | 

281-285 Congress St., v 

BOSTON. MHSS. < 

Latest Improvements and Specialties. 


IHPORTERS AND BUILDERS OF 

COTTON, 

WOOLEN, and 
WORSTED 

CARD CLOTHING, 

EGYPTIAN COTTON, Etc. 



manufacture is India, where it is 
very likely to have been carried on 
long before history dates it. 

Herdotus first mentions the 
manufacture of cotton 445 B. C., 
when he describes the cotton plant 
as a wool-bearing tree, the fruit of 
which the inhabitants of India make 
their clothing. 

If at this period cotton fabrics 
were worn, it is very likely that 
they were worn centuries before 
we have any history of them. 

The first known means employed 
to twist together fibres to form a 
thread was by the use of the “dis- 
taff and spindle.” 

The seeds were first removed 
from the fibres by a rude hand 
mill, which consisted of two rollers, 
fluted longitudinally and so ar- 
ranged that they revolved nearly 
in contact with each other. 

The rollers being turned by one 
han 5 of the operator, the cotton 
was fed to them with the other, and 


was drawn between the rollers 
while the seeds being too large to 
pass between the rollers were re- 
moved from the fibres. 

The cotton thus separated from 
the seed was next “ bowed,” the 
object of which was to remove the 
dirt and have the cotton in a fleecy 
and open form. 

The cotton after being; seeded 
and opened up, was then carded 
by the use of two hand cards, into 
a roll or sliver. These cards con- 
sisted of two strips of wood, the 
faces of which were covered with 
wire teeth. The cotton being: 
placed between them, the cards 
were given a slight oscillating 
movement, thus carding the cotton 
and forming it into a sliver ready 
for spinning. 

The cotton being thus prepared, 
was spun by the means of the distaff 
and spindle. Yarn was made from 
the distaff and spindle in the 
following manner: The distaff, 


H. Er. SKRGENT 3b CO, 

Allfree High Speed Economic Engines, 

Corliss Engines, Cook Water Tanks and Boilers. 


EQUITABLE BUILDING 


BOSTON, MASS. 


THE LOWELL, TEXTILE JOURNAL 


2 3 

J. NELSON DENNIS. 


JOHN DENNIS. 

JOHN DENNIS St CO„ 

Press Manufacturers, either Hydraulic , Screw, or Toggle Joint. 


Hollow Plate Finishing Presses and Balers. 
Belting, Curriers' and Boll Coverers’ Machinery. 


which was simply a wooden rod, 
upon which the material to be spun 
was wound, was placed in the 
spinner’s belt, and the material fed 
from it to the spindle. 

The spindle was also a wooden 
or metal rod, having a cleft in its 
upper end to attach the strand of 
cotton. The cotton thus attached 
to the spindle was drawn off the 
distaff and at the same time the 
spinner revolved the spindle, which 
introduced the twist to the yarn. 
The spindle was allowed to hang 
free and as it drew out and twisted 
the yarn it approached the ground, 
until sufficient length had been 
spun, then the spindle was taken 
up and the yarn wound upon 
it. 

The next step was the employ- 
ment of a hand wheel to drive the 
spindle, thus increasing the velocity 
of the spindle by having it driven 
from a large wheel by means of a 


194 Western Ave., Lowell, Mass. 


cord or band. This system of spin- 
ning was the first approach to the 
use of machinery, and may be de- 
scribed in the following manner: 
The spindle was fixed in a frame 
with its axis parallel to the axis of 
the wheel or spindle driver. On 
one end of the spindle was placed 
a whorl around which a band 
driven from the wheel passed, thus 
the spindle received its motion. 

The cotton being attached to the 
point of the spindle was fed from 
the distaff by one of the spinner’s 
hands, and with the other she turn- 
ed the hand wheel, which in turn 
drove the spindle and twisted the 
yarn. After a definite length had 
b.'en so drawn and spun, the di- 
rection of the spindle was reversed 
and the yarn wound upon it in the 
form of a “cop.” Two operations 
were sometimes necessary to spin 
yarn on this wheel. The corded 
slivers were first drawn down into 


J. T. ADAMS, 


Manufacturer of all kinds of 



TOOTHED CYLINDERS 
and TOOTHED WIRE 

For Cotton and Woolen Cards. 

46 Leverett Street., Lowell, Mass. 


24 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


H. R. RARRRR & CO., 

Successors to G. C. Brock, 

PRESCRIPTION - DRUGGISTS, 

Bridge, cor. First Street, Oentralville, 
Lowell, Mass. 

a rove ; the yarn being spun from 
the rove by a second operation. 

The next improvement to be 
noticed, was the employment of a 
treadle to drive the wheel and also 
a form of a flyer to twist the yarn. 
This frame was known as the sax- 
ony wheel, and was somewhat 
similar to the common hand wheel, 
the difference being in the manner 
of twisting the fibres. The large 
wheel was turned by a treadle, 
which was worked by the spinner’s 
foot and in turn it drove the spindle 
and flyer at a very high speed, the 
bobbin being kept back by the 
strain of the thread, turned around 
on its axis just enough to take up 
the yarn as it was spun. The yarn 
was guided on the bobbin by 
means of a small piece of bent wire 
which was from time to time shifted 
along the surface of the bobbin. 

The chief points to be noticed 
in this wheel are as follows : The 
use of a tre.idle to drive the wheel 
or spindle driver ; the employment 


The Only First-Class 
Barber Shop in Lowell is at 

YOUNG’S, 

7, 8, 9 Hildreth. Building, 
Lowell, Mass. 

of an upright spindle and' a flyer 
to twist the fibres, and a differential 
driving for the bobbin. 

Before passing on to the modern 
or mechanical system of spinning, 
it will be well to notice the fineness 
of yarns spun by the ignorant In- 
dians on these rude devises. 

It has been stated that the fabrics 
woven from these yarns were so 
fine that you could hardly feel them 
with your hand, and when placed 
upon the grass were obscured by 
the falling dew. 

Another writer describes them 
as webs of woven wind, and states 
that the yarn was spun so fine that 
29 yards weighed only 1 grain, or 
number 241 hanks to the pound. 
The spinning of such fine yarns 
on these rude devises certainly 
speaks wonders for the natives of 
India, when at the present time, 
with the most modern machines, 
such high numbers are very rare. 

{To be continued.) 


PARKER GOAL anb WOOD GO. 

KILN-DRIED BOBBIN WOOD. 

COAL OF ALL KINDS, 

Office, 20 Prescott Street. 


• • 


Telephone 39-4. 


THE LOWELL, TEXTILE JOURNAL 


2 5 


11 A MB LET MACHINE CO Successors to D ustin Machine Co. 

ElNTGinSTIEE^S and MACHIlsTISTS. 

Paper Cutters, Special Machinery Built, Repairing attended to promptly, Pulleys, Shafting, Gears, Etc. 

GEO. W. HAMBLE1 T ? Prop. 

Tel. Connection. 30 Island Street, Lawrence, Hass. 


NOT PERSONAL. 

Who’s Gardiner ? 

To Y-n-g-m-n and H-r-g v-s. Y ou’ll 
find her at the Shaw-Knitt. 

What have the Presides learned? 

The Stenographer’s name and 
how to keep on the right side. 

That a warp “ flush ” is not a 
poker term. 

That the cotton “gin” is not 
drinkable. 

Not to take Thermo seriously. 

Where the school gymnasium 
and library is. 

That woolen and cotton “ mules ” 
are not freak animals. 

To.pick’em up gracefully. 

To avoid work that they will re- 
gret. 

So, Oom Paul is in school, but 
his lobstership is not a bore. 

L-c-h has announced to his many 
friends that he has been persuaded 
to accept the presidency. Many 
lay this decision to the influence 
of his wife. 


This must be a mis-statement, 
John is not married, only wants to 
be. 

The visit of the Textiles to the 
Amoskeag was not without inci- 
dent. H. C. had a new ten-cent 
cigar and won the deserved admir- 
ation of all by smoking it nearly 
to the label. H. C. Was appointed 
a committee of one to count the 
windows of the mill, but the awful 
effects of the cigar began to show, 
as Harry saw 3 or 4 windows where 
the other boys saw but one. 

M. P. was the last man to leave 
the rooms, the reason was very ap- 
apparent. A glance backward al- 
ways revealed him posing at the 
end of a frame and smiling en- 
trancedly at some pert young miss. 

Where’s the lost child? ask 
H-n-ly. 

Say, Professor, what color is that 
peg that is daubed over with ink? 
Professor. Invisible green. 

Chappies and Chippies at Man- 
chester. 

Anniversary day. This is the 
First day of May. 


H. H. WILDER Sc CO., 

Furnaces, Stoves, Ranges, Kitchen Furnishing Goods 

Nos. 29 and 31 MARKET STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


26 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


ILQUmALMKAMQEM 


'•rly of Fifth Avt 




JMfiOJ{T£k^TAJlQR 


S5 r C^NTT R/M- _ ^ TKCCT, 

PAUL 0. KABLE, Assistant. 


S3NLIGHT SH©E STORE. 

Wear the Orient Shoe, 

Best $3.50 Shoe in the World. 

100 Central St., .*. Lowell, Mass. 


OUR EXCHANGES. 


The Lowell High School Re- 
view to hand, “ better late than 
never.” 

We call the attention of the 
Textile boys to the hustling work 
done by the pupils of the Lowell 
High School. 

Camera club, banjo, mandolin 
and guitar club, debating society, 
a choral society, a first class ball 
team and many other social or- 
ganizations. The Textile Journal 
takes this opportunity to congrat- 
ulate the officers of the High 
School on their great success in 
their many undertakings. 

Percy’s troubles are contagious, 
we unite in saying, poor Percy ! 

Oh, for a smile. 


The Tech, we sympathise with 
you, we, also, cannot raise suffi- 
cient money to run a race or any 
other noble sport. Beg pardon, 
we did raise the price of a pair of 
gloves by demanding a few cents 
from those interested in the manly 
sport ? 

Just because a Freshman sits at 
the tail of the table and eats Frank- 
furters, we should not consider 
him a wag. — Ex. 

Mother — Yes, my child, all mam- 
mas beautiful silk dresses come 
from a small insignificant worm. 

Daughter — That’s papa, isn’t it? 

The Sagmore — You have in- 
deed been very fortunate in secur- 
ing The Rights and Character of 
the Boers. The article is very in- 
structive and interesting reading. 


WM. E. BASS &l OO., 

Manufacturers of 




THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


27 


SAMUEL KERSHAW, 

WStGlilRBRCI Sljll J6W6lfir/ o, ' i£ “ waicl ' Repa,rinsaVdiiiy 

114 CENTRAL STREET, - - LOWELL , 31 ASS. 


The following story illustrates 
the Boer habit of looking after 
himself: A Boer (Dopper) and his 
son, among other guests, were stay- 
ing at one of the principal hotels 
in Pretoria. Upon discharging 
the account, the son drew the 
father’s attention to the charges, 
arid said that the proprietors were 
robbing him. The old Dopper re- 
plied, “never mind, my son, the 
Lord will repay them for their 
wickedness”; whereupon the son 
ao*ain remonstrated, and the father 
said to him, “ Don’t say anything 
about it, my son, the Lord has al- 
ready repaid them for their wicked- 
ness. He told me to take the 
spoons and forks off the table, and 
h e rp I have them in my pocket.” 

The Vidette — We have great 
pleasure in reading your athletic 
and A. D. S. notes. You must 
have some happy times. 

A Bloodless Revolution. A very- 
pleasing story. 


Water does not intoxicate, and 
yet it is nothing unusual to see a 
barrel water-tmht. Ex. 

This does not apply to Lowell 
water. This is a prohibition city, 
but the people get tight. Possibly 
you have heard the expression, a 
Lowell (H) appetite. 

The High School Folio The ar- 
ticle, The Instability of the British 
Empire, has been prepared with a 
great deal of thought and the points 
brought out are worthy of consid- 
eration. We congratulate Robt. 
C- Fox on his unbiassed opinion. 

We thank you for your timely 
advice and have acted upon it. 
How does it please you ? 

“ I take my text this morning,” 
said a preacher, ‘ from dat po’tion 
of the Scriptures whar de Postol 
Paul pints his pistol to de Fessions.” 
— Exchange. 

Alumni notes will be very inter- 
esting reading for past and present 
pupils. 


Merrimack Wool Scouring Mills 

WOOL* AN D NOILS SCOURED, CARBONIZED AND NEUTRALIZED. 

-K* 


THOMAS HARTLEY. 


Lawrence, Mass. 


28 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


GOOD 

BICYLCES 

CHEAP. 
Telephone. . . 


Incandescent Gas Lamps, [Hantles, Chinpys ayd Shades 

BICYCLE REPAIRING AND SUNDRIES. 

gzcrge h. bachelder, 

1 10 Middlesex Street, ... Lowell, Mass. 


“ The Herald.” Glad to read 
that you have a school orchestra. 
You are fortunate in having pupils 
who will take an interest in the 
school and are willing to give en- 
joyment to others 

We have pupils who can blow 
their own horn, and they have an 
empty sound. 

Tommy — There’s a girl in our 
school, mamma, they call “ Post- 
scrip.” Do you know why ? 

Mamma — No, dear. 

Tommy — Because her names is 
Ad-a-lme Moore. 

u The Mirror.” Cast of senior 
play 1900. A group of handsome 
men and pretty girls. We wish you 
success. 

You may look into the Mirror 
and the reflection is always pleas- 
ing- 

The sporting editor is very en- 
thusiastic and appears to know 
what is requisite for true manly 
games. 

Prof. It has been said that a 
serpent can move its tongue more 
rapidly than any other animal. 

Voice — How about a woman! 
Is this a joke ? — Exchange . 


“ Panorama.” Wireless telegra- 
phy should be read by all who wish 
to obtain that, which does not be- 
long to them. We hope some of 
our boys will read and inwardly 
digest. 

Marg. There’s nothing between 
Mr. Cary and me. 

You must sit very close, Mar- 
ge re t. — Exchange . 

“Bulletin.” An artistic school 
paper. We are very pleased to re- 
ceive you ; please accept our 
thanks. You have a hustling ad- 
vertising agent. If you have a 
large circulation the Bulletin will 
be regarded as a good advertising 
medium. 

Notes on Exchanges very well 
written. 

And you have also an orchestra! 
Well done! We have lots of blow- 
ers, no players, not even at ball. 

“ Courier.” We note that the 
H. H. S. have voted to give a 
dance. So did our boys. Proba- 
bly you noticed that it died a mis- 
erable and painful death, caused by 
that dreadful disease, ill-feeling and 
selfishness. The obituary notice 
was in last month’s issue. We 
wish you a pleasant time. 


CHARLES GRIFFIN, 

-*i MILL ENGINEER, if- 

Flans and Sjeeilicaiions FimnsM. Room and Power to Rent. 

245 MARKET ST., Card Co. Building, LOWELL, MASS. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


2 9 


We SUIT our customers and 
Our customers Suit us 
(When they give us their order.) 

nsrzoz&ciEiE^sonsr & co, 

TH1LORS, 

All t.lic Lalost Designs. :>2 Hildreth ICn i l«l i nir. 


“The High School Journal.” 
You are interested in photography, 
so are we. The article “Achrom- 
atic Len»es ” is very instructive. 

“ Charles told papa that he was 
burning up with love for me.” 

“And your father.” 

“ Put him out.” — Exchange. 

“ Gates Index.” The bearings 
of Palaeontology and Morphology 
on Evolution — Rolace Archaeop- 
teryx, protophyta, protozoa. It 
may be good to take, but it will be 
painful to digest. No thanks, try 
something easier. 

We note in your exchange col- 
umn: “Love of learning is the 

characteristic of true manhood.” 
If we have to learn to say the words 
written at the beginning of this 
notice, we are afraid we lack true 
manhood. 

Teacher — “Johnny, repeat this 
after me, ‘ Moses was an austere 
man, and made an atonement 
for the sins of his people.’ ” 

Jonny — “Moses was an oyster- 
man, and made ointment for the 
shins of his people. — Exchange. 


“ The Distaff.” The short stories 
in this well-edited paper are always 
bright, interesting and amusing, to 
say it is managed, edited and pub- 
lished by a committee of the Girls’ 
High School, Boston, there is noth- 
ing cool about it, on the contrary, 
it is warm with lovable reading, 
charming stories of adventure and 
travel. It is one of the best school 
papers in New England. 

The Englishman. — Don’t forget, 
sir, that the Boers have one great 
advantage — they are on their own 
ground. 

The other man. — Then, what are 
you fighting them for? — Exchange. 

A number of girls, discussing 
the meaning of the letters G. C. B. 
after Lord Roberts’ name. One 
girl quickly settled the difficulty 
by saying that the initials stood for 
“ Generally Called Bobs.” 

“ Orange and Black ” has some 
very good stories of Lincoln and 
Washington. “A Practical Joke ” 
is all right. 


THOnAS HcNA/l ARA, 740 Lawrence St. DUNCAN MacNABB, Hanager. 

MHMESIT 7VmCHHNE CO., 


ENGINEERS AND MACHINISTS. 


All Kinds of Machine Work. - Engine Work a Specialty. 
OPP. CARTRIDGE CO. TELEPHONE 646=2. 


30 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


01. STE1NERT 4 SONS COPIPHNY, 

STEIIWAY & SONS, 

Mason & Hamlin, Gabler, Emerson, Slioninger, 
Gramer, Standard, Singer Pianos. 
AEOLIANS AND PIANOLAS. 

290 Essex St., Lawrence, Mass. 
E. S. FESSENDEN, Manager. 

REPAIRING 

We make a specialty of repairing line Watches. 
Prices right and workmanship guaranteed. 

CHAS. W. DURANT, 

Central and Middle St., lowell, mass. 

Father John's Medicine 

Cures or it costs nothing. 

AT DRUGGISTS, 50c. and $1.00. 

CARLETON & HOVEY, Prescription Druggists. 
Cor. Merrimack and Shattuck Sts., Lowell, Mass. 

DESJHRDINS, 

PHOTOGRAPHER, 

709 Merrimack Street, 

Cor. Austin, Lowell, Mass. 

BEST WORK AT LOW PRICES. 

See our $5.00 Dress Suil Cases, 

P. F. DEVINE, 

Maker and Repairer of 

Trunks and Leather Goods 

88 Merrimack St., Lowell, and 410 Essex St., Lawrence. 

O. H. BURNS, 

FIRST-CLASS BARBER, 

Rooms 12-14 Glidden Building, 

40 Middlesex Street, . . Lowell, Mass. 

INSURE AGAINST FIRE 

WITH 

Traders & mechanics Ins. Co., 

Central Block, Lowell. 


.. F\ A. NT. TOBIN .. 

Job Printing, 

ASSOCIATE BUILDING. LOWELL. 


w C. HAMBLETT, Pres S. B PUFFER, Treas. 
JAS. TALBOT, Selling Agent, 10 Franklin St., N. Y. 

Criterion Knitting Co., 

Manufacturers of all kinds of 

JERSEY ™SPR1NG-NEEDLE UNDERWEAR 

220 Tanner Street, Lowell, Mass. 

Repairing, Cleansing Dress Suits for Sale 

and Pressing. and to Let. 

ARTHUR M. BERTRAND, 

Successor to F. W. Sargent. 

IVI ERCHANT - TA I LOR. 

24 Middle Street, - Lowell, Mass. 

UOTO WESTWOOD’S PHARMACY 

FOlt YOUR 

Drugs and Medicines. 

Prices as low as possible for first-class goods. 

Take Dr. Speiicer’s Family Remedies. 

We carry a full line. 

175 Gorham St , cor. Summer, Lowell. 

J. T. Fontaine, 

A RTI ST PHOTOGRAPH E R 

475 Merrimack St., Lowell, Mass. 

Marbic, Hrtistic Jllemoiials, 

Granite, < ’ 

Bronze, Fine Work a Specialty. 

CHAS. WHEELER, 

51 Thorndike Street, = - Lowell, Hass. 


JOSEPH W. LITCH, 

Registered Pharmacist, 

415 Bridge Street, Lowell, flass. 


Lowell Textile Journal 


LOWELL TEXTILE SCHOOL WOOLEN AND WORSTED DEPT. 

EDGAR H. BARKER, Head of Department. ARTHUR STEWART, Assistant. 



No. 1. Worsted Drawing and Carding. 


The Lowell Textile School en- 
joys the unique distinction of being 
the only Textile School or Techni- 
cal College in the world, which 
has a complete Worsted Spinning 
Plant in actual operation. Some 


of the foreign schools are installing 
complete plants, and others have 
partial plants, consisting of draw- 
ing and spinning machinery now 
running. 

The word complete is used in 



4 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


the sense in which it is generally 
understood, that is, any plant that 
has the necessary machinery for 
producing Worsted Yarn from 
raw stock, by the operations of 
Sorting, Scouring, Carding, Comb- 
ing, Drawing, Spinning, and Twist- 
ing. 


the “ Bradford Spun ’’system which 
uses wool from four to eight inches 
in length and includes the opera- 
tions given above, which are in 
operation at this school. 

The second or “French Spun” 
system uses wool from one and 
one-half to four inches in length, and 



No. 2. Worsted Comb and Bailer. 


This would not theoretically be 
a complete plant; for Worsted 
Yarns are made on at least three 
different systems, each system re- 
quiring a different lay-out of ma- 
chinery. 

The first and most common is 


has in place of the Open Drawing 
(so called, of the Bradford system,) 
what is known as French Drawing, 
and in place of the Cap, Flyer, or 
Ring Spinning Frames of the Brad- 
ford system, Worsted Mules. This 
system is to be installed in the 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


5 



near future at the Lowell Textile 
School. 

The third system has no general 
name, but is used in spinning Braid 
Wools (the clip of bright haired, lus- 
trous wooled sheep, almost pure, as 
Lincoln, Cotswold, Leicester, etc.) 
Australian cross breeds, Mohair and 


type of Comb known as the Lister 
Comb is used instead of the Noble 
Comb’of the Bradford system ; the 
Drawing and Spinning is of the 
same type as in the Bradford 
system. 

Although the length of staple 
has been given in each of the 


No. 3. View in Worsted Department. 


Alpaca. These wools vary in length 
from eight to twenty-five inches 
and because of this excessive length 
of staple cannot be carded but are 
“ Prepared ” that is, run through a 
series of Gill Boxes called Pre- 
parers ; for the same reason the 


above systems, this length is general 
and is apt to vary with different 
manufacturers. In fact it is the 
character of the yarn desired and 
not wholly the length of staple 
which determines which system 
shall be used. 


6 


THE I/O WELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Even in the common Bradford 
system there are two types of Draw- 
ing which can be used ; the most 
common is the Open Drawing 
(where the slubbing or roving 
“ drags ” the bobbin round,) and 
the other the Cone Drawing (where 
the bobbin and flyer are driven 


Some spinners of French spun 
yarns use the Holden (or Square 
Motion) Comb in place of the gen- 
erally used Noble Comb, but as 
this type of Comb has not found 
general favor with American spin- 
ners because of the lesser produc- 
tions and the increased cost, it is 



No. 4. View in Woolen Department. 


independently), but as one system 
differs from the other only in the 
method of winding the slubbing or 
the roving on the bobbin, the one 
machine which will shortly be in- 
stalled will illustrate clearly the 
difference between the two systems. 


doubtful if this type of comb is in- 
stalled in the school ; the machine, 
however, is thoroughly explained 
and students have an opportunity 
of seeing it in operation in a neigh- 
boring mill. 

In the Woolen and Worsted de- 




THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


7 



partments of the Lowell Textile 
School the students are taught the 
manufacture of Worsted Yarns by 
all three systems, and in addition 
the manufacture of Woolen Yarns. 
In the latter department the equip- 
ment is complete in every detail 
and consists of the following ma- 


consisting of First Breaker with 
Bramwell Automatic Feed and 
Torrance Balling Head, Second 
Breaker with Torrance Creel, Fin- 
isher with Apperly Feed and Com- 
bination Rub Rolls and Apron, 
Davis & Furber Woolen Mule, and 
Davis & Furber Woolen Twister. 


No. 5. Woolen Mule and Grinding Frame. 

chinery, each machine being A student in order to complete 
the best of its type that its the course must, when given raw 
maker can turn out : — One stock, be able to produce yarn of a 
Parkhurst Burr Picker, one Davis given run (i to 6 single spinning 
& Furber Mixing Picker with and 6 to io double spinning) of a 
Bramwell Automatic Feed, one set required elasticity and breaking 
of Davis & Furber Woolen Cards strength. 


8 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


In the Worsted Department the 
equipment consists of the follow- 
ing new and modern machinery: — 
one Davis & Furber fifty-inch 
Double Cylinder Four Lickerin 
Card, two Hall and Stells Gill 
Boxes, one Noble Ball Bearing 
Comb and Balling Machine (made 
by the Crompton & Knowles Loom 
Works), six operations of Drawing, 
consisting of one Double Can Gill 
Box, one 2 Spindle Gill Box, one 
Weigh Box, one Drawing Box, one 
Finisher, and one Dandy Rover. 

The Spinning consists of one 
Cap Frame, one Flyer Frame, and 
one Ring Frame; the Twisting of 
one Cap Trap Twister, and one 
six-fold Universal Twister, all the 
Drawing, Spinning, and Twisting 
machinery being of the well known 
Primer Smith & Son’s type. 

The general equipment of both 
departments consists of one Roy 
Traverse Grinder, and one Roy 
Grinding Frame together with 
humidifyers and all the necessary 
weighing and testing apparatus, 
such as Yarn Reel, Wrap Block, 
Run Beam, Grain Scales, Strength 
Tester, Twist Counter, and all the 
necessary tools for running a 
modern mill. 

In the Worsted Department as 
in the Woolen, the student must 
before completing the course 
show that he can produce a good, 
level Worsted Yarn of a given 


count (20s to 45s), of a required 
breaking strength and evenness of 
twist. 

The work consists of Lectures on 
the Wool Fibre, Trade Terms of 
Wool, Sorting, Scouring, Carboniz- 
ing, Carding, Back- Washing, Comb- 
ing, Drawing, Spinning, Twisting, 
etc. (with all that their terms imply), 
calculations, productions, speeds, 
etc., and practical work in setting 
up and running machinery. 

Great stress is laid on the student 
obtaining tangible results in the 
shape of actual work done, but 
equally great stress is laid on the 
theoretical part of the work ; he is 
taught not only how to do the work 
but why he should do it as he is 
taught; he is taught principles 
rather than “rules of thumb”; he 
is not merely “shown ’’for instance 
how wool is combed, but rather 
“ taught ” how it should be combed, 
and what the results should be. 
This is demonstrated before his 
eyes on the machine — the comb 
is first made to produce good work, 
the several parts are then thrown 
out of proper adjustment to illus- 
trate poor work, re-adjusted to pro- 
duce the proper work, and the 
student left with the machine to 
work out the principles taught 
him. 

Though wilful waste is neither 
encouraged nor allowed in the 
department, the amount of waste 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


9 


A3SSS 


PitiS 


Look at yourself! Is yo 
covered with pimples? Your skin 
rough and blotchy? It’s your liver! 
Ayer’s Pills are liver pills. They 
cure constipation, biliousness, and 
dyspepsia. 25c. All druggists. 


the student makes is not consid- 
ered as long as he is learning some- 
thing beneficial to himself, and we 
have in operation at the present 
time stock which cost the school 
from fifty to ninety cents per 
pound on a clean basis. 

To sum up, the student is not 
taught a certain number of facts 
blindly, as is apt to be the case 
with the man who goes to a mill 
“ to learn the business,” but is 
taught principles, logically and in 
order; not that he does not learn 
facts, he does ; he is running up 
against hard stubborn facts during 
all the three years of his course 
and learns them in this way. 

There really is no more sense in 
a man’s going to a mill to learn the 
business, where he spends a few 
months under the overseer of each 
department, (who is supposed to be 
a specialist) than there would be 
in a man who wished to be a physi- 


P H OTO G R A P H E R , 

Central Block, - Lowell, Mass. 


cian spending a few months each 
with a surgeon, an eye, ear, and 
throat specialist, and a general 
practitioner, and taking note of 
what each one did in every case, 
then hanging out his own shingle 
and giving his patients (should he 
have any), what he had seen his 
instructors give in similar cases. 
It doubtless would be much to his 
advantage to spend these few 
months with these specialists after 
he had had a thorough training in 
a medical school, but before it 
would be time almost wasted. A 
similar comparison might be drawn 
from Law and Dentistry. In each 
of these professions, the cases are 
very rare where a man would be 
given license to practice, even 
though he could pass the State 
Board Examination, unless he has 
the diploma of some reputable 
Medical, Law or Dental School be- 
hind him. 

The graduates of this depart- 
ment are in exactly the same posi- 
tion as far as being fitted for 
positions as Superintendents and 
Agentsof mills the day after gradua- 
tion as the graduates of our En- 
gineering, Medical, Dental, and Law 


IO 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


STEAM BOILERS, 


AND ALL KINDS OF 

STEEL AND IRON PLATE WORK. 
SCANNELL <3c WHOLBY, 

TANNER STREET, . \ LOWELL, MASS. 


schools are fitted to step at once 
into the high places of their profes- 
sion, without some experience and 
actual service. The graduates of 
the United States Military Acad- 
emy at West Point are given posi- 
tions in the Army as Second 
Lieutenants on graduation, not as 
Major-Generals ; before they can 
assume the higher positions they 
must first learn for themselves what 
no institution can teach them : — 
self-reliance, self-control, and how 
to control others. 

Edgar H. Barker. 

“ I want to encourage young 
men to start printing offices, and 
start all kinds of publications and 


promulgate their theories and 
thoughts to the world. It will do 
more good for this country than 
your military appropriations ; it 
will do more good for this country 
than the appropriations for deeds 
and documents or for horse books 
and cattle books. If one or the 
other is to be curtailed, if we are 
to save a little money here or there, 
save it in the war department, or 
anywhere else, rather than take 
from the American people the 
privilege of what now goes to their 
homes as second class matter.” — 
Extract from speech by Represen- 
tative John I. Lentz of Ohio against 
the Loud Postal bill. 



A ALTHOUGH we Lave been in 
onr New Studio but a short 
time, our customers have found 
us, and our trade is steadily 
increasing. 

Our Platinum work is giving great satisfaction and 
a marked improvement has been made in all other 
branches of our business. PERSONAL ATTENTION 
given to every customer. 

TAKE ELEVATOR TO STUDIO. TEL. 841-3. 

LOTH ROP Si CUNNINGHAM, 

45 JSLerrimack Street, - Lowell, JSlass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


II 


FIRST CLASS COOKING STOVES 

Sold on the Instalment Plan. Also 
set up und rented at a low rate per 
year, piping included. 

LOWELL GAS LIGHT CO. 


Are you thinking of buying 

A FILM CAMERA? 

If so, call and see the 

TOURIST HAWKEYE. 

A. H. SANBORN & CO., 

53 Central St.. Lowell, Mass. 


ESSAY NUMBER ONE.— Continued. 

THE EVOLUTION OF COTTON CARDING AND SPINNING 

FROM THE “DISTAFF AND SPINDLE” TO THE CARDING 
ENGINE AND SELF-ACTING MULE. 


THE PRIMITIVE OR HAND METHOD OF CARDING AND SPINNING. 


The Modern or Mechanical 
System of Spinning. 

Having given a brief description 
of the method employed to spin 
yarn on the hand wheel and distaff 
and spindle, we will next treat the 
mechanical system, showing the 
methods employed and the ad- 
vancement of the same. The 
modern or mechanical system of 
spinning properly commences with 
the invention of the spinning jen- 
ny, by James Hargreaves. 


The invention of the picking 
stick and drop box by Kay greatly 
increased the production of the 
hand looms, consequently scarcely 
enough yarn could be produced on 
the hand wheels to supply the de- 
mands. 

It was in this state of the trade 
that Hargreaves’ invention appear- 
ed. This machine, as described, con- 
sisted of a wooden frame, nearly 
square, in which was fixed the spin- 
dles, creel, carriage and the driving 


LOWELL CO- OPERA TIVE SUPPLY CO., 

GET YOUR MONEY’S WORTH. 

When you are ready to buy something in the line of . . . 

Clothing, • Cloaks • or • ITillinery, 

Come and see us before purchasing. 

We promise to save you at least 25c on the dollar. 

44 Bridge Street. NE5 Aa£ STORE, near Merrimack Sq. 


12 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Wolff High Art CYCLES. Carroll Chainless. 
Sold by RUTLRND St S7VfITH, 

195 Middlesex Street , Lowell , Mass. 

TELEPHONE 653-5. We Want Your Repairing. 


wheel. The spindles were fixed 
in one end of the frame in a verti- 
cal position and received their mo- 
tion from a drum by means of 
bands. The creel was fixed in the 
centre of the frame, and was for 
the purpose of holding the twisted 
roves which were to be spun. The 
carriage was placed above the creel 
and in a line with the point of the 
spindle, so arranged that it could 
be drawn out from the spindle, car- 
rying with it the yarn. 

The jenny was worked by a per- 
son who took up his position in 
front of the frame, and with one 
hand the spindles were turned by 
means of a hand wheel, with the 
other the carriage was drawn out. 
The rovings were first drawn be- 
tween two bars which were fixed 
in the carriage and were then at- 
tached to the point of the spindle. 
The roving thus attached to the 
point of the spindle, the carriage 
was next drawn out until a proper 
length of rove had been given out, 

C.S. SBBGEHrS SOWS, Gra S" ,e 

Builders of 

Wool Washing Machines, Wool Dryers, Wool 
Waste, and Rag Dusters, Duplex Bur Pickers, 
Waste Cards, etc. Write for information con- 
cerning our new automatic Cotton Dryer, 


then the bars, between which the 
rove passed, were brought togeth- 
er, thus holding the roving. The 
roving now being held at the point 
of the spindle and also by the 
clasps fixed in the carriage, the 
carriage is drawn out carrying with 
it the rove, thus drawing it down, 
the amount of draw being regu- 
lated by the distance the carriage 
was moved from the spincjle after 
the rove was clasped. At the 
same time that the operation of 
drawing was going on the yarn 
was being twisted by the revolving 
spindles. 

Then the attenuation and twist- 
ing went on at the same time until 
the requisite degree of fineness 
was attained, then the carriage was 
reversed and the yarn wound upon 
the spindle, being guided by a fal- 
ler which was worked by the spin- 
ner’s hand. 

This machine, though it may 
appear to us a very simple and 
rude one, certainly was a great im- 

W. H. BAGSHAW, 

Manufacturer of 

Machine Wool Combs, 

ii Wilson St, . Lowell, Mass, 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


13 


E. 7X. St R. HHLL. 

Manufacture and Repair 

Roving, Twister and Spinning Flyers, 

ALSO SPINDLES, STEEL CAPS AND TUBES. 

Write for Estimates . If A WHENCE, MASS. 


provement over the old systems of 
spinning one thread at a time on a 
hand wheel, and Hargreaves de- 
serves a great deal of credit as be- 
ing the inventor of the first machine 
on which several threads at a time 
could be spun. 

After the first fever of excite- 
ment resulting from the invention 
of Hargreaves’ jenny had subsided, 
his machine was quickly brought 
into use, as it was found that one 
person could spin as much as ten, 
fifteen, and even twenty, by using 
the new method of spinning. 

But even this amount was not 
sufficient to meet the demand, as 
the yarn spun on the jenny was 
not very good for warps, though 
serving very well for filling; con- 
sequently, there was yet room for 
a machine, which could be relied 
upon to spin good warp yarn, as 
well as filling. 

Such were the conditions when 
in the year j 764 Richard Ark- 


wright’s attention was called to the 
subject then occupying all men’s 
minds, i. e., improvement on the 
machines employed in spinning 
and weaving. 

We have now arrived at the 
source of the two principal types 
of modern spinning machines. In- 
termittent, represented by the mule 
which has its origin in the hand 
wheel. The ring and throstle, 
whose progenitor is the saxony 
wheel. Arkwright’s machine differ- 
ed from the others in that he em- 
ployed rollers to attenuate the rov- 
ing instead of doing it by hand. 
This machine consisted of a wood- 
en frame in which was fixed the 
rollers, creels, spindles and flyers. 
The drawing out of the cotton was 
accomplished by having rollers, us- 
ually three, placed at suitable dis- 
tances apart for the cotton to be 
drawn, and by having them so 
geered that each successive roller 
revolved at a greater speed than 


SEEDS! SEEDS! 

Everything for Lawn and Garden. Catalogues Free 

Will be Mailed to Any Address. 

BARTLETT DOW, 

216 CENTRAL STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


H 


Are You a Stammerer? 

Are you afflicted with Nervous Troubles, Bilious • 
and Nervous Headache, Dyspepsia, etc., then 
come to me and I will cure you. No drugs. 

PROF. EARLY, Phrenological Brain Specialist. 
Masonic Temple, - Lowell, Mass. 


FAULKNER MANUFACTURING COMPAN Y, 

Woolen Manufacturers, 

North Billerica, Mass. 
68 Franklin St., Boston, Mass. 


the one preceding it ; the cotton 
was drawn out proportionately to 
the speed of the first and last rolls. 
After the cotton was passed be- 
tween the rollers and drawn it was 
next passed around the flyer and 
onto the bobbin, being twisted sim- 
ilar to the method employed in the 
saxony wheel. The winding was 
accomplished by the use of a cam 
to traverse the rail. 

The distinctive feature of this 
machine is the method of drawing 
by rolls, and we may safely call 
this one of the greatest steps ever 
taken towards the advancement of 
spinning, for without rollers to 
draw the cotton it would be hard to 
imagine what would be the condi- 
tion of cotton spinning today. 

This method of drawing by roll- 
ers has since been introduced into 
every other form of cotton spinning 
frames where drawing is necessary 
and for many dealing with other 
fibres. This 'machine was driven 
by water and horse power and is 


very likely the first cotton spinning 
machine ever driven otherwise than 
by the spinner’s hand. 

This machine, though at first 
was only used for spinning yarn, 
was later adopted for the prepara- 
tion of the cotton for spinning. 

We find it first in the drawing 
frame and afterwards in the whole 
series of fly frames. In the draw- 
ing frame the cotton, after drawn, 
was delivered into a can in the 
form of sliver with no twist while 
in the fly frame it was after drawn 
and further reduced, twisted into a 
rove and wound upon a bobbin 
ready to be further drawn and 
twisted into yarn. 

Although Arkwright receives 
the honor of being the inventor of 
this machine it is doubted by many 
as it is claimed that he had men 
in his employ who made improve- 
ments on this frame and he received 
the credit for them. It has also 
been stated that John Wyatt origi- 
nated the method of drawing by 


Engage your Ocean Steamship Tickets at... 

LEEDS’, 5 Bridge St., Lowell, Mass. 


Agent for all steamer lines to Nova Scotia and the Provinces. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


15 


New England college ol Languages, 

Special Courses for Business Men and Women. Write for Circular. 

1* HOF. 1 \ KUXZKll, Pit. D., Director, 

Telephone Philips’ Building. 120 Trcmont St., 3 Hamilton Place, Boston, Mass. 


rollers many years before Ark- 
wright, and it is he who should 
have had the honor of making 
this most important invention. 

Carding. 

Before going further with the spin- 
ning it will be well to treat the 
evolution of carding, as it was 
about this time that Arkwright’s 
frame was brought into use that the 
manufacturers began to look to- 
wards improved methods of card- 
ing. 

Although great improvements 
had been made in the machines 
employed to spin yarn, the machin- 
ery was yet very imperfect, espec- 
ially in the preparation of the cot- 
ton for the spinning. 

As stated before the carding was 
effected by hand cards, which nec- 
essarily must have been a very 
slow and tedious process. An im- 
provement on this method was 
made by Lewis Paul in 1748, when 
he brought out two systems of 


carding, which greatly increased 
the production and quality of the 
carded sliver. 

The first was an improvement 
on the hand system of carding by 
having a series of flats laid parallel 
with one another, each flat having 
its face covered with wire teeth 
similar to the hand cards. The 
cotton was spread out on these 
flats, and by the use of a hand card 
which was brought into contact 
with the cotton and flats, the cot- 
ton was carded on the flats, after 
which each flat was stripped and 
the slivers from each were united 
into one, ready for drawing. By 
this method several slivers were 
carded at once, while with the 
hand cards only one of a short 
length could be carded, thus this 
was a great improvement over the 
old hand card system. 

The second and more important 
one was the use of a cylinder 
covered its whole circumference 


ID. H. T vVILSO]Sr 00., 

Goppersnuius. Plumbers, Steam and Gas Fillers, Sanitary Engineers. 

Manufacturers of Slasher Cylinders, Silk and Dresser Cylinders, Color and Dye 
Kettles. All kinds of copper work for mills. All work warranted satisfactory. 

Shop , 279 and 283 Dutton Street, LOWELL, MAS Sc 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


16 

All that is New and 
Up-to-date in Spring Clothing at 

IE. ID. STEELE <3c CO ’S, 

Comer Central and Prescott Sts. LOWELL, MASS. 


with parallel rows of cards. Under 
the cylinder was a frame of flats, 
which followed the outline of the 
cylinder. These flats were also 
covered with wire teeth, and were 
placed in close contact with the 
cylinder. 

The carding was affected by feed- 
ing the cotton in between the cyl- 
inder and flats and turning the 
cylinder until the cotton was suffi- 
ciently carded; then each flat of the 
cylinder was striped and the sliver 
from each united into one, as in the 
hand system of carding. 

This machine bears clear resem- 
blance to the modern carding cyl- 
inder, the difference being that in 
the modern card the flats are 
placed above instead of beneath 
the cylinder. 

It must be admitted that this 
machine was a great improvement 
over the methods previously em- 
ployed to card, though it was by 
no means a perfect carding ma- 
chine, as will be shown. 


Its defects were that the cylin- 
der had to be fed by hand, and 
that the cotton was stripped by a 
comb, which necessitated the stop- 
ping of the machine when the cot- 
ton was carded, and also the oper- 
ation of joining the ends by hand. 

One of the first improvements 
on the card was to make it self 
feeding by forming the cotton into 
a lap, which was unrolled as the 
cotton was fed to the cylinder. 
This was an invention of John 
Lees, in the year 1772. 

Another improvement was the 
employment of a doffer or finisher 
cylinder to take the cotton from 
the main cylinder, by having it to 
revolve nearly in contact and in 
opposite direction from the cylin- 
der. 

About the year 1776 Arkwright 
invented the doffer comb, which 
was a very ingenious contrivance 
to take the carded fleece from the 
doffer. 

Continued on page 21. 


He Pena® toon 


Has few parts, large warp beam, requires but little 
power, runs rapidly, has an excellent Harness Motion 
and is easy on the warp. Moral: — Equip your mill with 
the Perham Loom, and have the BEST, 


CHARLES F. PERHAM, 

Lowell, Mass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


l 7 


THE LOWELL 
TEXTILE JOURNAL. 

A Monthly Publication by Students of the Lowell Textile 
School, with papers and other valuable information by leading 
manufacturers. 

FENWICK UMPLEBY, Business Manager. 
Sub Editor, S. W. WESTON. 

Secretary and Treasurer, C. E. CURRAN. 


PUBLISHED MONTHLY 

AT 

No. 67 fliddle Street, - Lowell, flass. 

BY 

THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL COMPANY. 


Entered at the Post-Office at Lowell as Second 
Class Mail Matter. 


SUBSCRIPTION TERMS. 

For one year, postage paid • . . . . $1.00 

Single Copies . 10c 

For Sale at all Newsdealers. 


Advertisements must be at the Journal Office before the 
fifteenth of each month for insertion that month. 

Contributions may be sent to Editorof The Lowell Textile 
Journal, and willreceive promptattention . 


EDITORIAL. 

The manager of the Lowell 
Textile Journal asks, not as a favor 
but as a matter of mutual interest, 
that each student and subscriber 
enclose their order in today’s mail 
for the amount due. 

He is urgent, not because he 
imagines you value fifty cents or 
one dollar more than such a Jour- 
nal, but because of the liability all 
busy men are under of forgetting 
or omitting to do at the moment 
what they are willing enough to 
do. 

Let the manager hear from you 
by next mail. “ Do not put off 
until tomorrow what ought to be 
done today.” 


The secret of successful and 
thorough knowledge of the art of 
textile designing lies not wholly in 
what others may teach you, but in 
taste and originality of your own 
ideas combined with the knowl- 
edge. 

To the close observer a great 
deal of what may properly be call- 
ed nonsense has been published of 
late in the “Not personals.” We 
can assure our friends there has 
been nothing said with bad intent. 
We would be glad to turn back to 
our youth to understand what all 
the boys write in their unselfish 
way, simply to have a schoolboy’s 
friendly rap at a classmate. 

The Atherton Machine Shops 
were sold to Lowell men to manu- 
facture a Lowell invention. 

The appropriation bill has pass- 
ed all stages in the house and 
senate and the Governor has sign- 
ed the bill. 

As we go to press the examina- 
tion of the day students will be in 
full swing. We wish you all suc- 
cess in your arduous duties and 
hope you (afterwards) will have a 
pleasant vacation. 

Three cheers for the twenty 
graduates. 


i8 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


BEST HALF-HOSE HAVE THE 



sflAw stock me co. Lowell, mass. send for free catalogue 


THE PERHAM LOOM. 


One of the most interesting features of 
the meetings of the National Manufacturers’ 
Association and of the New England 
Cotton Manufacturers’ Association, which 
were held in Lorrimer and Chipman Halls, 
Tremont Temple, in Boston, last week, 
was the exhibit of the new Perham Loom, 
which was in operation in Gilbert Hall, 
Tremont Temple, during the convention. 
This loom, was inspected by a large 
number of manufacturers, and much in- 
terest was expressed in its workings, both 
in the plain loom and that to which the 


shuttle-changing device was attached. The 
claims for the loom are that a very high 
speed can be obtained, thus being able to 
get a very large product from it, also that 
it has fewer parts than any other loom, 
thus making it easy to fix, and of its very 
light running, which means a great saving 
in power. The claims of the builders of 
the loom seem to be fully sustained after 
seeing its workings. The loom, it is un- 
derstood, will soon be ready to put on the 
market, and it is claimed that it will reduce 
the cost of weaving very materially. 


Boston Journal of Commerce and Textile Industries, May j. 



Columbian Studio, 

55 Soutf? Whipple St., Lowell, Mass. 

People intending having photographs taken, and who are 
particular as to quality and fastidious as to style, and 
who appreciate genuine art, should see our photographs 
and get our prices before going elsewhere, as we make 
everything in the photographic art line. We have nothing 
cheap and nothing to give. We are not in the business 
for fun. We are in it for an honest living. If you want 
anything cheap, or given, we are not in it, but we will 
guarantee you get your money’s worth if you will try us. 

Take the Lawrence Street Car and tell the conductor 
you want Powell, the Photographer, South Whipple St. 

Telephone Connection. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


19 


N. Whittier, Treasurer and General Manager. Helen A. Whittier, President. W. R. Ii. Whittier, Agent. 


WHITTIER COTTON MILLS, Chattah ooch ee, Ga, 

General Office, Lowell, Mass. 


Gotloi) Yams, 8S 10 40S 


Single or Twisted, 2 to 200 ends, Ply, Cable Hawser, delivered on Spools 
Skeins, Hanks, Creels, Balls, Beams, Warper Balls, Cones, 

Grey or Colored. Fire Hose Cords a Specialty. 


Hammocks and Ice Cream Freezers. 

W. T. S. BARTLETT, 

The Uptown Hardware Store, 653-659 Merrimack Street. 

HATS secured at our store are proper in style and 
quality. Try us and be convinced. A superb line 
of neckwear always in stock. 

TEAGUE & TEAGUE, 

Hatters and Haberdashers 

Corner Central and Middle Streets, Lowell 
C. T. UPTON. G. S. GILMAN. 

UPTON 5* CIL.7UYHN, 

MACHINISTS, JOBBING OF ALL KINDS. 

Special Machines designed and built to order. Fine work a specialty. Manufacturers 
of the DUFF hand driller for bit brace with screw feed and chain attachment. 

587 MIDDLESEX ST. Tel. Connection. LOWELL, MASS. 


Deal Estate ana Business Excliaoge, 

Call and See Us * 

J J 

FIRE INSURANCE. 

F=. L. VHNCE St CO., 

Rooms 2 and 3, 

Telephone connection. 97 Central St., Lowell. 

^■PHOTOGRAPHER^ 

Barristers Hall, Lowell, Mass. 


FRANK PARKER, 

rianufacturer of 

Steel : and : Brass : Bound : Bobbins : and : Spools. 


SAm. H. Thompson, Pres. Elisha J . NEAL,Treas. 

The Thompson Hardivare Co . 9 

Columbia, Hartford & Stomer Bicycles, 

BICYCLE SUPPLIES. 

254, 256 Merrimack St., Lowell , Mass. 


LOWELL, MASS. 


20 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 



The manager of the Lowell 
Textile Journal has been an eye 
witness to many evening gradu- 
ating exercises in the old country, 
and he never saw so large a num- 
ber from one school graduate at 
one time as was graduated at the 
Lowell school. The (evening stu- 
dents) graduating exercises were a 
success ; the speaking was brilliant 
and the remarks timely and to the 
point. 

We have had many inquiries 
respecting the Perham loom, and 
we have answered the inquiries to 
the best of our ability. As the 
Perham loom is to be manufactured 
in this city, it will add another in- 
dustry to the many noble enter- 
prises of Lowell. 

If there is a place anywhere 
where weaving can be taught to an 
apt pupil, that place is the Textile 
School. 


Come again, we shall be glad to 
see you. 

To post a notice in a mill com- 
mending men to the succeding 
overseer is a very honorable and 
praiseworthy act. Mr. M. Cuttle 
showed the material he is made 
from. We wish Mr. Cuttle and 
his son Frank success in their new 
enterprise. 

The most persistent worker in 
behalf of textile education visited 
the Lowell Textile School two 
weeks ago, and the result was that 
in less than one week Mr. Frank 
P. Bennett sent his son to take a 
course in weaving. 

Every textile paper in Boston, 
Wade’s Fibre and Fabric, Textile 
World, American Wool and Cot- 
ton Reporter, are the friends of 
every working man, and every mill 
man should be subscribers to these 
papers. 


CONWAY TRANSFER COMPANY, • 

General Baggage and Freight Forwarders. 


Principal office, Northern Depot. 


Telephone 77. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


21 


STUDY 

the points of our different machines and com- 
pare with others. 

UNDERSTAND 

the merits and you will be convinced beyond 
a doubt of their superiority. 

HOWARD & BULLOUGH 

American macliine Go.. Ltd., Pawtucket, R. I. 



Continued from page 16 . 

This comb was a finely toothed 
strip of steel, and was worked by 
an eccentric, so that it came in 
contact with the cotton on the 
doffer, thus removing and forming 
it into a continuous fleece or webb, 
which was condensed into a sliver 
and delivered to a can ready for 
drawing. By these several inven- 
tions and improvements the card- 
ing machine possessed all the 
essentials of the card now in use, 
namely: continuous feed, continu- 
ous carding and continuous deliv- 
ery. 

The action of this machine is 
very unique. At one end the cot- 
ton is put in in an entangled and 
knotted mass, the fibres lying in 
every direction. At the other the 
cotton came out an even film with 


the fibresstraightened and free from 
dirt, motes, neps and short fibres. 
The Mule. 

During the period that has now 
passed under review, Hargreaves 
and Arkwright, with the aid of 
others, had established the cotton 
manufacture by their spinning ma- 
chines, but there was yet room for 
further improvements as their ma- 
chines couldn’t be used for the 
finer numbers and soft twisted 
yarns. As has been shown the 
solution of the problem of spin- 
ning more than one thread at a 
time belongs to Hargreaves, while 
the idea of drawing by rollers is 
credited to Arkwright. 

The next and one of the most 
important inventions in cotton 
machinery was the combination of 
these two principles. 


OTIS ALLEN Sc SON. 

LOWELL, MASS. 

ALLEN’S STANDARD LOCK-CORNERED FILLING BOXES, 

Generally used in the New England Mills . 

MOVING CABS, DOFFING BOXES , BACKING CASES , AND CLOTS BOABDS. 

WRITE FOR FRIGES* 


22 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


C. E. RILEY & CO. 3 

JR 

281-285 Congress St., ^ 

BOSTON, MHSS, 1 

JR 

Latest Improvements and Specialties. N* 


iriPORTERS AND BUILDERS OF 

COTTON, 

WOOLEN, and 
WORSTED 

CARD CLOTHING, 

EGYPTIAN COTTON, Etc. 



This machine is an invention of 
Crompton’s, in the year 1775, and 
is known as the mule owing to its 
hybrid nature involving both the 
principles of the jenny and the 
water frame. 

Like the former it has spindles 
without bobbins to give the twist, 
and like the latter it has a series 
of rollers to reduce the roving to 
yarn. 

The distinguishing feature of 
this machine is that the spindles 
are supported on a movable frame, 
known as the carriage, instead of 
being stationary as in the jenny. 
In the jenny the clasp which held 
the roving was drawn back by the 
hand from the spindles, while in 
the mule the spindles recede from 
the rolls which act as a clasp to 
hold the rove after a certain length 
has been given out. 

By this arrangement the mule 
had the advantage both of rollers 
and the method employed to draw 


in the jenny, as the roving was 
first drawn by rollers and then 
subject to a slight draft between 
the spindles and front rolls, and it 
was due to this that a finer quality 
of yarn could be spun on the mule 
than on either the jenny or water 
frame. The mule being one of the 
most complicated machines ever 
invented to spin was not at once 
perfected, and it was many years 
before it was made a self-acting 
machine. 

The first machine consisted of 
not more than thirty or forty spin- 
dles, the rollers being of wood and 
all its parts rudely and heavily 
constructed. 

Crompton having made no effort 
to secure by a patent the exclusive 
rights of his invention, it became 
public property and was perfected 
by more enterprising manufac- 
turers. 

The first improvement on the 
mule was the employment of roll- 


H. E. SARGENT 6L CO., 

Allfree High Speed Economic Engines, 

Corliss Engines, Cook Water T anks and Boilers . 

EQUITABLE BUILDING, BOSTON, MASS. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


23 


JOHN DENNIS. 


J. NELSON DENNIS. 


JOHN DENNIS St GO., 

Press Manufacturers, either Hydraulic , Screw, or Toggle Joint . 

194 Western Ave., Lowell, Mass. 


Hollow Plate Finishing Presses and Balers. 
Belting, Curriers’ and Roll Coverers’ Machinery, 


ers similar to the ones on Ark- 
wright’s frame and a general 
reconstruction of the machine by 
skilled mechanics, until it was 
adapted for one hundred, or even 
more, spindles. Many improve- 
ments and changes were made on 
themuledating through many years. 

But the machine which has met 
with greatest success is the self- 
acting mule invented by Mr. Rob- 
erts, of Manchester, Eng. With 
this machine a very close ap- 
proach to perfection seems to be 
made. The mule of to-day is a 
self-acting machine in every re- 
spect, and the yarn produced upon 
it has yet to be surpassed. It is a 
machine made up of a combination 
of mechanisms that are perfect and 
wonderful in their actions. 

It would be impossible to give a 
history and the details of the mule 
in this article and only a brief 
sketch of its origin and advance- 
ment is undertaken. 


Throstle and Ring Spinning. 

The throstle is the second of the 
mechanical spinning frames calling 
for notice. 

This frame is simply an improv- 
ed form of the water frame of 
Arkwright, and a gradual develop- 
ment from it. Compared with the 
latter, the changes introduced were 
that all the rollers upon each side 
were connected and driven from 
one source, and that the method 
of driving the' spindles was also 
improved by the introduction of a 
horizontal cylinder, which drove 
the spindles by means of bands or 
cards passing around a whorl fixed 
on the spindle. 

The flyer of the throstle was 
constructed as in the latter form of 
the water frame, fitted for winding 
a traverse arrangement or lifting 
rail, which receives its upward and 
downward motion from a heart 
cam. The bobbins were not driven 
positively as in the bobbin and fly 


THE CRYSTAL CAFE... 

Dinner, 11.30 till 3 o’clock. Oysters and Shell Fish. 

Orders Cooked a specialty. Lunches of all kinds. 

JAMES W. QRADY, Prop. 


140 Worthen Street. 


24 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


H. R. PARKER & CO., 
Successors to G. C. Brock, 

PRESCRIPTION - DRUGGISTS, 

Bridge, cor. First Street, Oentralville, 
Lowell, Hass. 


The Only First-Class 
Barber Shop in Lowell is at 

YOUNG'S, 

7, 8, 9 Hildreth Building, 
Lowell, Mass. 


frame, but were fitted loosely upon 
the spindle and pulled around by 
the thread. 

The winding was accomplished 
by placing the bobbin upon the 
traverse or lifting rail, and retaid- 
ing its movement by means of a 
flannel washer. This caused its 
rate of revolutions to fall behind 
the spindle just to the extent that 
the yarn was delivered by the front 
roll to the spindle. The alternate 
ascent and descent of traverse rail 
filled the bobbin with a succession 
of even layers. Such was the 
throstle frame in its earlier form ; 
subsequently numerous improve- 
ments of detail took place in its 
construction, which, as in the case 
of the mule, brought it to a high 
degree of perfection. 

Owing to the small production 
of the throstle frame it was not 
used very extensively, being super- 
seded by the ring system of spin- 
ning. 


Ring Spinning. 

During the past half century 
this machine has become exceed- 
ingly popular, owing to its great 
production and to the numerous 
improvements that have been in- 
troduced into its details. 

Like the throstle it is a continu- 
ous spinning frame, and is very 
likely derived from the throstle, 
though it differs from it in import- 
ant details. The ring frame was 
invented by Mr. Jencks of Paw- 
tucket, R. I., about the year 1833. 
The method of driving the spindles 
and rollers is similar in this ma- 
chine to the one employed in the 
throstle frame; the principal differ- 
ence between the two machines is 
that in the throstle frame the twist 
was introduced into the yarn by a 
flyer, while in the ring frame it is 
obtained by a traveller and the 
spindle. 

The ring was a flat, thin piece 
of steel, in the form of a washer 


SUFFOLK ENGRAVING CO., 

Engravers and Electrotypers. 

. . . WRITE FOR SAMPLE PROOFS OF OUR MACHINE . . . 

3346 Congress St., and 275 Washington St., - Boston, Mass. 

S. E . BLANCHARD, Treasurer, 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


25 


// A ill /> TjK T jII^LC/JJLJLJS Hj CO.y Successors to Dustin Machine Co. 

ENGINEERS and 

Paper Cutters, Special Machinery Built, Repairing attended to promptly, Pulleys, Shafting, Gears, Etc. 

GEO. W. HAMBLETT, Prop. 

Tel. Connection. 30 Island Street, Lawrence, Hass. 


with a hole in it large enough for 
the bobbin to pass freely through. 
On the inner edge of each ring 
was a small flange, for the purpose 
of carrying a small piece of bent 
wire, commonly known as a travel- 
ler. It was by the means of this 
traveller that the winding effect 
was produced. These rings were 
fitted centrically over the bobbin 
and spindle so the drag on the 
yarn would be equal all the time. 

The development of this ma- 
chine has forced several important 
problems upon the notice of me- 
chanics. The increase of speed 
caused a great amount of vibration 
of the spindle and consequently 
heavy wear and tear. It was a 
long time before this difficulty was 
overcome, but the task was finally 
accomplished until the speed of the 
spindle was increased to as high as 
10,000 R. P. M. with scarcely no 
vibration. Another difficulty to 
overcome was to prevent the yarn 
from ballooning owing to the cen- 


trifugal force generated by the 
rapid revolving spindle. This dif- 
ficulty was overcome by the use of 
separators, which were placed be- 
tween each spindle to prevent the 
yarn from whipping. Many other 
difficulties were overcome before 
the ring frame was perfected and 
brought into use. 

The recent rapid increase in the 
adoption of the ring spinning 
frame for low and medium counts 
show that it is now a practically 
perfect and a commercially suc- 
cessful machine. 

The mule would no longer re- 
main a rival to the ring frame but 
for the fact that softer and more 
even yarns can be spun on it. 

To show the advancement of 
spinning the following may be in- 
teresting : An expert hand spinner 
with a spinningwheel is said to have 
been able to spin a single thread 
about four miles long per day, or 
eight skeins. Calling a day 1 2 hours 
which was probably a short day for 


H. H. WILDER &. CO., 

Furnaces, Stoves, Ranges, Kitchen Furnishing Goods 

Nos. 29 and 31 MARKET STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


26 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Lg grs Alexano e p* 


'J*poRT£k^TAJLQX 


55 Qcntral jnctT, 


PAUL 0. KABLE, Assistant. 


SaNLISHT SH0E.STORE. 

Wear lhe Orient Shoe, 

Best $3.50 Shoe in the World. 

100 Central St., Lowell, Mass. 


a hand spinner, each spindle in a 
ring frame on 30 degrees yarn 
would spin about the same amount, 
and if yarn was coarse, more. A 
spinner tends to-day a thousand 
spindles or more, and hence does 
the work of a thousand spinners 
with the old-fashioned spinning 
wheels, which were in use a little 
more than a century ago. X. 

MAKES CLOTH NON-COM- 
BUSTIBLE. 

The American consul at Frei- 
burg reports a new and promising 
discovery in his district of a chem- 
ical process for making cloth in- 
combustible. 

The process is said to be cheap 
and simple, will not injure the 
finest fabric, and does not cause 


colors to run or change in colored 
goods. The weight of the stuff so 
treated is not perceptibly increased, 
and it chars only when brought in 
direct contact with a flame and the 
charring does not extend beyond 
the immediate influence of the 
same. 

A piece of wood wrapped with 
one thickness of canvas treated 
with this process can be laid 
among live coals for some time and 
will not show the slightest effects 
from the fire when the canvas is 
removed unless the wood has come 
in direct contact with the fire. 

Water dissolves the chemicals, 
however, and after a treated piece 
of stuff has become thoroughly 
wet it is no longer fire proof when 
dry a. ain. 


WM. E. BASS Si, OO., * 

Manufacturers of 



THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


2 7 


SAMUEL KERSHAW, 

WaictimaKBr 3i|il Jawaiar, Foreifn wi " ch Rtp,iinng a 

114 CENTRAL STREET, - - LOWELL, MASS. 


A PECULIAR ARRANGE- 
MENT OF CRYSTALS. 



The above illustration is a very 
good example of the peculiar way 
in which crystals sometia es ar- 
range themselves on separating 
from saturated solutions. 

A beaker containing a hot satu- 
rated solution of mercuric chloride 
was allowed to stand over night, 
thus permitting it to cool slowly. 


In the morning the beaker appear- 
ed as shown in the photograph. A 
heavy layer of needle crystals hung 
suspended from the surface of the 
liquid, while about an equal amount 
crystalized on the bottom of the 
beaker. By far the largest anfiount, 
however, clustered around the stir- 
ring rod, which happened to be 
left in the solution, while the sides 
of the beaker are entirely free. 

On close examination it will be 
noticed that the camera has accur- 
ately caught the apparent bend iti 
the glass rod where it enters the 
solution. This ocular illusion is 
due to the difference between the 
the index of refraction of air and 
that of the solution. 

B. R. Richards, 

Instructor of Analytical Chemistry. 

A defendant said in a court re- 
cently : “ I can say, sir, that I never 
put my name to an anoymous let- 
ter.” 


Merrimack Wool Scouring Mills 

WOOL! flJSlD JSlOlLiS SCOURED, CA$BOJStIZED Af4D NEUTRALIZED. 

•» * 


THOMAS HARTLEY. 


Lawrence, Mass. 


28 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


> 

GOOD 

BICYLCES 

CHEAP. 
Telephone. . . 


incandescent Qas Lairjis, fnantles, cninpys and Shades 

BICYCLE REPAIRING AND SUNDRIES. 

GEORGE: H. BACHELDER, 

110 Middlesex Street, - - - Lowell, Mass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE SCHOOL. 


The term now drawing to a close 
marks distinctly an epoch in edu- 
cational matters. We have to turn 
back but a very few pages of his- 
tory to find an era where many 
things were counted upon and 
thought of as being well known 
which were so far in error as to be 
a matter of ridicule now. To be 
sure the foundations for our pres- 
ent attainments have been laying 
through all these by-gone days, and 
had they not been well laid the 
superstructure must have been 
weak. 

It seems as if we had gained 
tremendously in this last century, 
and yet the prospects were never 
so bright for fresh attainments, and 
the field for new conquests so close 
at hand as now. 

It is not impossible that some of 
the theories which we regard as 
positive where we have apparently 


proved the truth many times may 
be shattered by new achievements, 
but it is hardly to be supposed ; 
rather it will be the development 
of new ideas or novel combina- 
tions of old ones that will surprise 
us. 

It behooves us to bend every 
energy upon perfecting each detail 
of what we do that when the whole 
is put together it may not merely 
reproduce what others have done 
but go far ahead, just as when the 
parts of a machine are made one 
by one, there is little or nothing to 
bespeak the success of i he machine 
as a whole and little errors are not 
easily discerned in the separate 
parts, yet the machine can not be 
assembled, much less do its work, 
unless each of the several parts is 
in itself perfect. 

In life we find this principle 
of vastly more importance than 


M. G. WIGHT i COMPANY, 

. . . Mill Supplies, Ruling a nd Bin ding. 


67 MIDDLE STREET, 


LOWELL, MASS. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


<*29 


Men who are fastidious and wish to be 

better dressed than their fellows, go to . . . 

NICKERSON, 

THE TR1LOR, 

ll.ltlrcUi Haihlius, LOWELL, MASS. 


in a machine, for if any par- 
ticular part of a machine is 
bad or imperfect it can be easily 
thrown away and replaced, but in 
training the mind to meet the 
world’s problems if one portion be 
improperly developed, it is not so 
easy to correct and the process 
covers so long a period that these 
parts are usually not discovered 
until too late to remedy; so, while 
we have accomplished much dur- 
ing the past year let us remember 
that only by the closest application 
and the greatest diligence can we 
exceed past attainments; and as 
each year marks a great advance 
in the world’s progress, if we would 
continue to keep up with this pro- 
gress, our efforts must be in a fast 
increasing ratio. 

W. W. Crosby. 

The stories in the “ Linden Hall 
Echo” are especially well written. 
We wish the young ladies of the 
school every success. 


EXCHANGES. 

A bright and newsy little paper 
the “Vidette.” , 

Always on the look-out for “Sag- 
amore,” a neat and interesting pa- 
per, but we think it would be great- 
ly improved if you would add an 
exchange column to it. 

Read Ameteur Journalism in 
the “Cue.” 

An up-to-date paper the “ High 
School Review,” Cambridge, Mass. 

We welcome the “Worcester 
High School Sentinel,” a new ex- 
change. 

Also “ Pine Grove Echoes.” 

“ The Prospect ” would be great- 
ly improved by an exchange col- 
umn. 

“ The Blotter ” is a fine exchange 
and full of good stories. 

A good story, Causes of the 
Present War, told in the “ B. F. H. 
S. Oracle.” 


ThOHAS HcNAHARA, 740 Lawrence St. DUNCAN MacNABB, Hanager. 

WHMES1T MHCHING CO.. 


ENGINEERS AND MACHINISTS. 


All Kinds of Machine Work. - Engine Work a Specialty, 
OPP. CARTRIDGE CO. TELEPHONE 646-3. 


30 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


F. T. HANFORD, 

Wholesale Cigar Dealer, 

23 POTTER ST., LOWELL, MASS. 

.. F\ A. M. TOBIN .. 

Job Printing, 

ASSOCIATE BUILDING. LOWELL. 

REPAIRING ¥r 

We make a specialty of repairing fine Watches. 
Prices right and workmanship guaranteed. 

CHAS. W. DURANT, 

Central and Middle St., lowell, mass. 

W. C. HAMBLETT, Pres S. B. PUFFER, Treas. 
JAS. TALBOT, Selling Agent, 10 Franklin St., Y. 

Criterion Knitting Co, 

Manufacturers of all kinds of 

JERSEY snd SPR1NG-NEEDLE UNDERWEAR 

220 Tanner Street, Lowell, Mass. 

A Warranted... 

TOOTH BRUSH FOR I9cts. 

We give a new brush if the bristles come out. 

CARLETON & HOVEY, Prescription Druggists. 

Cor. Merrimack and Shattuck Sts., Lowell, Mass. 

Repairing, Cleansing Dress Suits for Sale 

and Pressing. and to Let. 

ARTHUR M. BERTRAND, 

Successor to F. W. Sargent. 

MERCHANT - TAILOR. 

24 Middle Street, - Lowell, Mass. 

Wear the ALLRIGHT SHOE? 

Its the shoe you ought to buy, at the price 
you ought to pay. New styles just received. 

HUNTOON’S SHOE STORE, 

12 Central Street, Lowell, Mass. 

GOTO WESTWOOD'S PHARMACY 

FOR YOUR 

Drugs and Medicines. 

Prices as low as possible for first-class goods. 

Take Dr. Spencer’s Family Remedies. 

We carry a full line. 

175 Gorham St., cor. Summer, Lowell. 

See our $5.00 Dress Suit Cases, 

P. F. DEVINEI, 

Maker and Repairer of 

Trunks and Leather Goods 

SS Merrimack St., Lowell, and 410 Essex St., Lawrence. 

J. T. Fontaine, 

Artist photographer 

475 Merrimaok St., Lowell, Mass. 

C. H. BURNS, 

FIRST-CLASS BARBER, 

Rooms 12-14 Glidden Building, 

40 Middlesex Street, . . Lowell, Mass. 

Marble > flrlisilc jnemoilals, 

Granite, 

Bronze, Fine Work a Specialty. 

CHAS. WHEELER, 

51 Thorndike Street, - - Lowell, JTass. 

THOS. C. LEE & CO., 

INSURANCE, 

52 CENTRAL ST., - LOWELL, MASS. 

HENRY REYNOLDS, 

Successor to T. J. Reynolds, 

Practical Hovscshoev, 

495 WORTHEN ST. Tel.‘714-4. 

LOWELL, MASS. 


THE LOWELL. TEXTILE JOURNAL 


3 


30,000 

PERHflM® LOOMS 

A Year is the Number We Expect to Make. 

We had a dozen machine shops and foundries on 
the list but none so well suited to the needs of a large 
loom business as the 

ATHERTON A1RCHINE CO.’S PLANT, 

LOWELL, MASS., 

which we bought at auction. It was bought because 
we wanted a home for the PERHAM LOOM with 
space in which to grow. We have 21 acres 
and only 3 or 4 covered with buildings. 

The machines made by the Atherton Company 
were of the highest order. We shall soon start the 
works and the last to come must not expect to be the 
first served. 

“A Word to the Wise is Sufficient.” 

If it is a dividend you are after, remember the 

PERHHM LOOM, 

PERHAM & STICKNEY, Lowell, Mass. 

N. B. — Two gentlemen at the Manufacturers’ con- 
vention timed the 30-in. PERHAM LOOM and stated 
that it was running 480 picks a minute. The manu- 
facturer who furnished the yarn said it would not 
stand over 200 picks. Have you an idea that the 
loom could run at this speed if it was not easy on the 
warp and filling ? 







Principal WILLIAM W. CROSBY, S. B., M. E. 


Lowell Textile Journal 


GRADUATING EXERCISES AT THE LOWELL TEXTILE 

SCHOOL. 


The active work of the Lowell 
Textile School closed for the season 
Tuesday afternoon, June 5th, when 
the graduation of the regular class 
for 1900 took place with appropri- 
ate exercises. The school was 
open all of the forenoon and up to 
2 p. m. for inspection and the 
work in the several departments 
was on exhibition, as in former 
years. The exhibits show the pro- 
gress from the raw material to the 
finished product, and the first piece 
of cloth made in the school is in- 
cluded. 

The graduating exercises took 
place at 2.30 and the school room 


was prettily trimmed, decorated 
with flowers, plants and palms for 
the occasion. Principal Crosby 
presided, and among those present 
were the following: President 

Cumnock, Secretary Smith, E. S. 
Hylan, A. G. Pollard, E. D. Hol- 
den, of the board of trustees in 
Lowell and vicinity ; Franklin W. 
Hobbs of the state trustees. 

The exercises showed that the 
young men of the graduating class 
had put in effective and painstak- 
ing work, and that of itself consti- 
tuted a compliment to the instruc- 
tors. 

The programme: 


MUSIC American Orchestra 

ADDRESS, Trustee on the part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 

Franklin W. Hobbs, assistant treasurer of Arlington Mills. 

ABSTRACT, Investigation of Evenness of Product and Amounts of 

Waste Made in Cotton Carding .... Stephen Eaton SmHh 

ABSTRACT, Investigation of Scaife or Builder Motion on a Worsted 

Spinning Frame Chauncey Jackson Brickett 

CLASS HISTORY AND STATISTICS .... James Francis Syme 


6 


THE T.OWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


MUSIC, Serenade ........... Herbert 

ABSTRACT, The Setting and Reeding of a Perfect Fabric, John Edward Perkins 

ABSTRACT, An Experimental Research to Determine the Quantity of 

Indigo Deposited Upon the Fibre . . . Arthur Lincoln Baldwin 

ADDRESS William W. Crosby, Principal 

PRESENTATION OF DIPLOMAS . A. G. Cumnock, President of Trustees 
MUSIC American Orchestra 


Address of State Trustee Franklin W. Hobbs. 


Mr. President , Members of the 

Graduating Class, Ladies and 

Gentlemen : — 

It was a special gratification to 
me to receive an invitation to be 
present today and to address the 
graduating class of the Lowell 
Textile School, the first day class 
which has completed the full course 
of three years, for I have always 
been deeply interested in textile 
education in general, and especially 
so in the welfare and success of 
this school. I ask your attention 
for a few moments to some thoughts 
that have been in my mind in con- 
nection with “The Present Ten- 
dency Toward Specialization in 
the Textile Industries of America, 
and the Consequent Necessity for 
Textile Schools.” 

To enable us to more fully un- 
derstand and appreciate this pres- 
ent tendency toward specialization, 
let us first briefly review the history 
and growth of the textile industries 
in Europe and this country, and 


then we shall be able to see more 
clearly the necessity for textile 
schools, such as this one in Lowell, 
and their connection with special- 
ization. As I am more intimately 
associated with the branches of 
textile connection with the wool 
manufacture, I shall use those 
branches as an illustration. What 
I have to say about wool is, how- 
ever, equally true in regard to all 
other branches in the essential 
features. 

There could not well be a greater 
industrial contrast than that pres- 
ented by the development of the 
wool manufacture here and that 
which has taken place in England 
and on the continent in Europe. 
One experience is almost the re- 
verse of the other, as will be seen 
in the following brief sketch. The 
subdivision of the wool industry in 
Great Britain is an evolution of 
centuries, and a survival of the 
days of hand manufacture, under 
which, just as at present, the spinner, 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


7 


the weaver, the dyer and the fuller 
had each his own separate work. 
It was asubdivision unaccompanied 
by any inconvenience, on account 
of the close concentration of the 
various branches of manufacture 
in particular localities. In fact, 
there were many towns in which 
practically the occupations of the 
entire people were in one way or 
another connected with the cloth 
manufacture. The foreign manu- 
facturer in visiting a typical Am- 
erican mill is astonished at the 
diversity of operations performed 
in one establishment. The custom 
in England generally is for the 
scouring and the carding and the 
combing to be done in one es- 
tablishment, thespinning in another, 
the weaving in another, the dyeing 
in another, and, very often, the 
finishing in still another; and the 
packing of the goods constitutes 
another distinct branch of business. 
This division of work in the Eng- 
lish textile manufacture has an 
historical origin, and the English 
factory system is a direct evolution 
from the hand and home industry 
of the eighteenth century. Both 
carding and combing were origin- 
ally carried on in the homes of the 
working people. The wool was 
weighed out to carders or combers 
by the merchants at the storehouses 
and taken to the homes, thence it 
was returned in the form of card 


rolls or tops, and again given to 
the spinner. The yarn was sold 
to the weavers, who carried their 
products to the markets. At the 
markets or the inns the merchants 
bought the cloths, and in turn, 
sold them to the fullers, and so 
they were passed on through various 
steps, until in time they reached 
the shops and were sold at retail. 
Each branch had its own distinct, 
well-defined field of work, into 
which the rules of the guilds for- 
bade either of the others to en- 
croach. 

Small capital prevented large 
enterprises in those days of the be- 
ginnings of the wool manufacture. 
The comber, however, whose sav- 
ings permitted him in time to buy 
his own stock, which he sold in the 
form of tops, gradually as machin- 
ery came into vogue, he was able 
to utilize it, selling his tops to the 
spinner, who, at first, conducted 
his business in the household, de- 
veloped his branch of industry in 
the same way, and still sold his 
yarn to the weaver, and so on, to 
the complete fabric. As machinery 
was gradually invented and intro- 
duced and the old hand manufacture 
driven out, this differentiation con- 
tinued along lines which, as we 
have seen, had been established for 
many generations. This custom 
has been so firmly fixed in the 
methods of manufacture in Eng- 


8 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


land, that there are but slight de- 
partures from it today, because ex- 
perience has led men in that 
country to believe that, on the 
whole, it is the most efficient and 
economical system of manufac- 
turing. 

The factory system of manu- 
facturing grew up in the United 
States under circumstances wholly 
different from those I have just 
described. Up to the time of the 
revolution we had practically no 
textile manufacture here except 
those carried on in the household. 
Our people wore either “ home- 
spun ’’ or imported fabrics. In the 
meanwhile, the factory system was 
developing at rapid strides in Eng- 
land. The English manufacturers 
realized what a source of wealth 
and commercial supremacy they 
would have if they could keep these 
textile manufactures in their own 
country. The British parliament, 
therefore, enacted laws which, un- 
der the most stringent penalties, 
prohibited the exportation of textile 
machines of any nature or any parts 
of models of them. During the 
revolution the few manufactures 
we had were disorganized, but at 
the close of the war, when our 
people once more turned their at- 
tention to the manufacturing indus- 
tries and wished to develop them 
as they were being developed in 
England, with new processes and 


new machinery, they found that by 
these Acts of Parliament it was 
impossible to import the necessary 
machinery. In this country there 
was none of this new machinerv, 
the use of which had already revolu- 
tionized textile manufacture abroad. 

The people of Pawtucket, R. I., 
celebrated, in October, 1890, the 
centennial of the establishment of 
the first cotton factory in the 
United States, equipped with mod- 
ern spinning machinery. It would 
be but the truth to state that it 
came to this country in the brain 
of Samuel Slater. The importation 
of machines and models were pro- 
hibited, but no law could prevent 
this great mechanical genius from 
building in this country machines 
for spinning, identical with those 
he had helped construct in the 
shops of England. In a similar 
manner the Schofields, who started 
in Byfield, in Massachusetts, in 
1 794, the first American woolen 
mill, in which English machinery 
was used, brought the ideas to the 
United States and built the ma- 
chinery here. 

In the woolen industry, our 
earliest mills were the develop- 
ments of the old carding and full- 
ing mills of the colonial days. At 
the beginning every man was liter- 
ally his own weaver and the wool 
manufacture was unknown outside 
of the household. Each farmer 


THE LOWELL. TEXTILE JOURNAL 


9 


raised his own sheep; he clipped 
and washed their fleeces, while his 
wife and daughters made the yarn 
and wove the coarse fabrics on the 
hand loom. The processes were 
simple; the wool, after washing, 
was combed as straight as possible 
with two cards, with leather backs 
and wire teeth, which were held in 
the hands. The wool was taken 
from the cards in a long soft roll 
and spun upon a large light wheel, 
sometimes kept in motion by the 
hand, sometimes by a treadle. The 
wheel caused a single spindle 
to revolve with great velocity, 
and this spindle gave to the yarn 
its twist, the dexterous fingers 
of the operator regulating the sup- 
ply of wool and the consequent 
size of the yarn. The degree of 
uniformity secured by this method 
was the evidence of marvelous dex- 
terity. After the spinning followed 
the weaving on a slow moving 
wooden hand loom, and the dyeing 
and fulling by hand. The first 
variation in this household manu- 
facture came with the introduction 
of the outside fulling mill for the 
preparation of the cloth after it 
had been woven. This part of the 
manufacture was naturally the first 
one to be done outside of the 
household, for it required appli- 
ances not convenient to have or easy 
to handle in the house. The card- 
ing mill also soon appeared, and 


these two mills were the real fore- 
runners of the New England wool- 
en mill of today. 'They were apt 
to be found side by side, for one 
was a help to the other and both 
required water power. Both ad- 
juncts, originally, of the household 
industry, they were frequently com- 
bined in one mill, and, when that 
combination was made, the steps 
to the spinning jenny and the loom 
were short and followed naturally. 
Thus we have the general tendency 
of the woolen factory in America. 
The tendency to consolidate all 
branches of the industry under one 
roof was a feature from the start, 
and as has been shown, it was a 
tendency entirely different from 
that which continued in England 
after the appearance of power ma- 
chinery. 

When power machinery was in- 
troduced in America and factory 
made cloth began to supersede the 
“ home-spun ” made in the house- 
holds of our ancestors, the manu- 
facturers found it necessary to per- 
form all the processes connected 
with the manufacture of cloth. 
These first mills were erected upon 
each other. One man could not 
comb wool for others to spin, or 
spin yarn for others to weave, be- 
cause in the part of the country in 
which he was located there were no 
others to whom he could sell. In 
the same way, each man was com- 


IO 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


pelled to dye and finish his own 
cloths, and every mill was forced 
to be complete' in itself. Thus, 
by sheer force of circumstances, 
our methods of manufacturing de- 
veloped and continued along indi- 
vidual lines in which all the pro- 
cesses, from the raw material to 
the finished product, were carried 
on. What we have seen to be the 
case in the wool manufacture is 
equally true in regard to cotton 
and other branches of textiles. 

This brief reviewof the beginning 
of the textile industries in this 
country makes it clear why the 
system of manufacturing as it 
has been carried on in the Unit- 
ed States differs so widely, as a 
rule, from that which prevails in 
England. The chief idea in the 
English system has been from the 
beginning specialization and sub- 
division of each industry into vari- 
ous smaller industries. The finished 
product of one division is the raw 
material for the next, and so on up 
to the final product. The American 
system, up to within a few years, 
has been to concentrate the man- 
agement of the entire manufacture 
of cotton, wool, or other fibre, in 
all the steps, from the raw material 
to the finished product, in one con- 
cern, and under one management, 
and, one might almost say, under 
one roof. 

I have said that the American 


system embraced all the processes 
of manufacture, from the raw ma- 
terial to the finished product. That 
is the usual method, but there have 
always been many notable excep- 
tions, and I think that today there 
is a well defined tendency towards 
subdivision and specialization in all 
branches of textile industry in this 
country. This tendency toward 
specialization, so comparatively 
new in the United States, we have 
seen was its earliest characteristic 
in England. In America it is only 
within a few years that the inertia 
of inherited habit has begun to 
give way, here and there, and a 
subdivision of the textile industries 
into specialties has gradually taken 
place. In Philadelphia this divi- 
sion has existed for some years in 
the worsted industry. In that city 
where there is a comple network of 
manufacturing establishments, all 
within short distances of each other, 
the specialization or differentiation 
of the wool manufacture, its divi- 
sion into distinct and separate 
groups, such as combing, spinning, 
weaving, dyeing, and finishing, has 
been making headway for many 
years and we have practically the 
so-called European system in oper- 
ation. There are in Lawrence 
mills where combing alone is car- 
ried on, others where spinning is 
carried on, and there are many 
commission dyers and finishers. I 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


read in the paper only a few days 
ago that a new combing mill is to 
be established on the site of an old 
woolen mill in the western part of 
the state. This is but another in- 
stance of the old method giving 
way to the new. 

This tendency to specialization 
is quite as marked in the other 
great industries as in the worsted 
manufacture. We see it in the 
many woolen mills in which the 
sole product is yarn, no cloth be- 
ing made. In New Bedford we 
find cotton manufacturers whose 
sole business is the spinning of 
cotton yarns for the trade ; others 
who buy all their yarns and simply 
weave the grey goods; still others 
who print, dye and finish the woven 
cloths. The same is true of Lowell, 
Fall River, Providence, and all the. 
great centres in the state and the 
country at large in all lines of tex- 
tile manufacture. 

I do not think it necessary to 
go into the matter further in detail. 
It is sufficient to say that practic- 
ally all of the various divisions of 
manufacture are today being in. 
dependency and successfully car- 
ried on in this country. It is not 
the purpose of this sketch to go 
into the merits of specialization in 
industry, nor to discuss its advan- 
tages, but simply to point out the 
fact that the present tendency in 
the textile industries is toward 


1 1 

specialization and to see what it 
means and to what it leads. 

We have seen that the present 
tendency in the textile industries 
is toward specialization. It seems 
to me that this same tendency is 
growing more apparent year by 
year in every line of business and 
in every walk of life. We find it 
true in the iron and steel business, 
in the electrical business, and we 
have recently seen it carried to its 
full development in the bicycle, the 
several parts of which are now . 
made, as a rule, in separate and in- 
dependent establishments. The 
same tendency is found in general 
business in certain houses who. 
have specialties in merchandise ; or 
in the case of stock brokers and 
bankers who handle special lines 
of investment. In law and in medi- 
cine we find it the same. The 
old fashioned country lawyer or 
doctor is being replaced by the 
specialist ; in the case of the former 
we have the business lawyer, the 
criminal lawyer, and the corpora- 
tion lawyer; in the latter the spe- 
cialist for the eye, the ear, the nose, 
the throat, a different man for every 
organ in the body. I have men- 
tioned enough instances to show 
my claim that the whole trend of 
life today is toward specialization 
in every branch of activity. What 
does this mean ? To what does it 
point ? It means that the world 


1 2 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


needs trained men to go into these 
special branches of industry ; men 
who have been trained in some 
special branch of industry, men 
who have been trained in some 
special line of activity ; in other 
words, specialists. 

On every side vve see significant 
indications of the growing percep- 
tion of the fact that in these days 
business sagacity and ability must 
be reinforced by the best education- 
al opportunities. This is pre- 
eminently the age of the trained 
man ; the untrained man is at a 
great disadvantage, in trying to 
make a place for himself or to 
solve the problem of success. 
Superior education was once re- 
garded as essential only to the suc- 
cess of the professional man, and 
it was assumed that natural saga- 
city and alertness were the present 
capital for the business man. Un- 
der the conditions of modern life 
and the growing pressure of com- 
petition, it is now seen that special 
training is as necessary for the man 
of affairs as for the man of letters, 
law, medicine, or theology ; and 
that the uneducated business man 
— the man, that is, who is not spe- 
cially trained in his own field of 
enterprise — is a man not properly 
fitted for his work and probably 
doomed to failure ; in any event he 
is greatly handicapped. This truth, 
which is being rapidly recognized 


in this country has long been recog- 
nized abroad. In Germany, especial- 
ly, great strides have been made 
along the lines of practical education. 
The partnership of the German 
textile school and the German 
manufactory, which has been de- 
veloped during the last ten years, 
has seriously menaced the commer- 
cial supremacy of England, and 
has led in the latter country to the 
establishment of schools for the 
training of business men along 
scientific lines. 

The great lesson for us to derive 
from all this activity in matters 
pertaining to education is clearly 
this, that our foreign rivals in the 
textile industries are determined 
to keep all ahead in the matter of 
textile schools and not simply in 
those institutions in which the 
highest branches of scientific in- 
struction are pursued. They are 
convinced that the nation which 
has the best schools is the best 
prepared for the great industrial 
warfare which lies before us. No 
money is spared in the erection, 
equipment, ’and maintenance of 
schools of all grades which will 
provide trained men for their 
great industries. In the coming 
struggle for trade our natural po- 
sition, our home market, and our 
splendid workmen will count for 
much, but the possession of these 
advantages alone will not suffice, 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


13 




and if vve are to keep in the front 
rank of industrial progress vve must 
adopt the methods which prevail 
abroad and about which our manu- 
facturers in the past have cared so 
little. We must not be content to 
continue in the ways ot our fathers, 
to live upon the traditions of the 
past; rather let us set ourselves 
diligently to work to solve the 
problems of today. 

In June, 1892, just eight years 
aero, I wrote for “ The Bulletin of 
the National Association of Wool 
Manufacturers ” an article on “ The 
Bradford Technical College/’ giv- 
ing a sketch of the textile depart- 
ment, and a general plan of the 
textileschool movement in England 
and on the continent, and urging 
the establishment of similar schools 
in this country. Let me quote 
briefly from that article, in which I 
said : 

“ The fact that in all instances 
these schools are well attended ; 
that men of prominence in the 
various industries send their sons; 
that young men hard at work .all 
day voluntarily attend the classes 
in the evening ; that the graduates 
secure good positions, — is sufficient 
evidence of their success. Of that 
there can be no "doubt. They are 
a success. 

“ On the other hand, in order to 
make these schools successful it is 
necessary that the instructors 


should be the best of men, well 
trained in their respective branches 
— not merely theoretical men, but 
men who have had the actual prac- 
tical experience, and who can im- 
part that experience to others. As 
the object of these schools is to fit 
men for the every-day practical 
work of manufacturing, the course 
must be laid out with that idea in 
view. Of course there must be the 
theoretical as well as the practical 
work, but the two must go hand in 
hand, each feature receiving its 
full share in order to secure the 
best results. 

“ These schools are for a two-fold 
purpose, namely, to instruct some 
of those well enough off to send 
them to the day school, and also in 
the evening to help on those already 
engaged in the active work of life. 

“ To those who take hold of this 
matter success is certain. When 
one looks through the manufactur- 
ing districts of all the countries of 
Europe and sees these schools in 
nearly every town, and then looks 
through the corresponding places 
in this country, the difference is 
remarkable. The one notable and 
gratifying exception is the very 
successful and progressive Textile 
School of Philadelphia. It is 
strange that our men, who are so 
wide awake in most matters have 
allowed this to slip by without ac- 
tion on their part. That the time 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


14 

for such action has arrived is cer- 
tain. In fact, the delay has been 
too great already. The nations of 
the Old World are ahead of us in 
this matter. ^It appears that the 
American manufacturers, the Am- 
erican workingmen, the American 
people, have not realized sufficient- 
ly the value and importance of 
textile education as a factor in 
building up the great industries of 
a country. Let us hope that the 
time is not far distant when the 
United States, a country so full of 
colleges and schools, a country 
that pays so much attention to the 
education of its citizens, will also 
provide the best of textile educa- 
tion ; and in this and in all subjects 
lead the nations of the world.” 

That hope, expressed eight years 
ago, is now realized, and its fruition 
is seen in the textile schools which 
have already been established in 
Lowell, in New Bedford, and in 
Lawrence; and I understand that 
many others are in contemplation. 

The great manufacturing inter- 
ests of this state within the last 
few years have begun to feel the 
need of trained men in order to 
successfully carry on the textile in- 
dustries. Our manufacturers now 
realize that as competition grows 
keener, as the standards of produc- 
tion grow higher, and as specializa- 
tion develops, trained men must 
also be developed in order to keep 


New England in the lead of the 
textile industries of the country, 
which proud position she has held 
so long. In other words, when they 
accepted the fact that the tendency 
was toward specialization in the 
textile industries in America, they 
also accepted the natural deduction 
that trained men were necessary 
and that the only way to secure 
the trained men needed to carry on 
this specialized work was to estab- 
lish and maintain textile schools. 
We have begun this work in New 
England on splendid lines in the 
Lowell Textile School. It is well 
equipped, well located, well man- 
aged, it has been a success from 
the beginning. Its students are 
now filling responsible positions in 
our mills and the demand for its 
graduates is already greater than 
one could have expected, and it is 
to this and other textile schools we 
must look in the future for the ex- 
perts in industry. 

Before closing let me say just a 
few words to you young men of the 
graduating class. You stand today 
at the dividing of the ways. You 
are about to leave this school and 
go out into the great school of life 
and assume your part in the prac- 
tical development of our textile 
industries. As I have already 
pointed out, the greatest difficulty 
we have today in managing these 
industries is the scarcity of capable, 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


15 


trained men. There are plenty of 
men who know a little about a 
great many things, but it is very 
difficult to find one man who is 
master of one object. My advice 
to each one of you who is about to 
be graduated today from the splen- 
did school, is this : perfect yourself 
in some branch of manufacturing. 
Get all the general knowledge you 
can, but in addition to that, become 
a master of some special line; and 
when you have become a man of 
recognized ability in that specialty, 
you will find there are plenty of 
places open to you, plenty of men 
who wish to employ you. It seems 
to me that the particular useful- 
ness of textile schools is to start 
young men with this special train- 
ing that will enable them with ex- 
perience to become experts in the 
various branches of textile indus- 
try, and they will thus not only 
benefit themselves but the entire 
industry and the commonwealth. 

I congratulate you, as members of 
the first day class that will go out 
from this school, on the opportunity 
before you. You have been given 
here a splendid training, both the- 
oretical and practical, and any posi- 
tion is open to you if you pursue 
your chosen lines with industry 
and fidelity, and carry out in prac- 
tical life the good work you have 
begun here. You must remember, 
however, that success comes only 


to those who strive for it and who 
make the most of every opportuni- 
ty that is given them. Success 
means hard, constant effort, and 
above all else, honesty. Remem- 
ber there can be no true success 
without absolute honesty. The 
man who can be trusted absolutely, 
the man who is reliable, the man 
who is faithful, the man who is 
true, both to his employer and to 
himself, that man is in demand 
above all others, and strength of 
character makes them all that I 
have indicated. Remember that 
in the long run, in the great battle 
of life, no mere brilliancy of intel- 
lect will count when weighed in 
the balance against those moral 
qualities which we call character. 
The young man who is to take a 
prominent place in life, who is to 
excel in his chosen work, who is to 
be a leader of men, one of the 
captains of industry, must first of 
all realize it is only by force of 
character that true and lasting suc- 
cess can be won in any walk of life. 
The one indispensable requisite 
for success is character. 

So, I say to you, become masters 
of some special branch of work, 
be industrious; be honest in the 
broadest sense of the term ; and 
above all else, cultivate strength of 
character, for it is only men of high 
character who can command the 
respect of their fellow men and 
thus gain true and complete suc- 
cess. 




THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


l 7 


An Able Address by Principal Wm. W. Crosby. 


We have heard this afternoon an 
able discussion of the problem that 
lies so near us and we cannot fail, I 
am sure, to be convinced more 
completely if that be possible, of 
the utility of this institute. 

Among the great problems of 
the world, none has had less done 
toward its solution as compared 
with its relative importance than 
that which deals with clothing us, 
and adorning our dwellings. Ever 
since man emerged from his prim- 
itive state he has been dependent 
upon some sort of a covering, and 
it is now long since the skin of a 
wild beast was replaced by a fabric, 
constructed by the interlacing of 
fibres. In most cases, those arts 
upon which men depended for ex- 
istence, he early learned to master ; 
not numbering among the neces- 
sities those things that theevolution 
of modern civilization is pleased to 
reduce to a science ; but in the 
matter of textile fabrics he con- 
tinued to use the most primitive 
methods. 

It was not unusual to occupy a 
year in securing the wool, carding, 
combing, dyeing and spinning it, 
then weaving and fulling the cloth 
to make it into a great coat, — and 
that less than a century ago. To 
be sure we can now accomplish all 


these operations in one day, and 
while this is a great advance we 
are but upon the threshold of great- 
er and more important advances if 
we will work aright. 

How is it that we are further 
along now than formerly, and why 
have there been such rapid strides 
taken only within the last few years? 
Many times it is because the visible 
results are attained only after long 
periods of preparation. The sup- 
erstructure is all that appears to 
the casual observer, who cannot 
see the foundations sinking far 
underground nor know the weari- 
some weeks and months consumed 
in preparing that without which 
the whole must be a failure. 

The world advances so far as 
each succeeding generation pushes 
beyond the utmost attainment of 
its predecessor. A century ago a 
steamship was unknown; there was 
such a thing as a vessel, but it had 
to be propelled by muscle or by 
wind. Soon came the steam en- 
gine, then Fulton with the combin- 
ation of boat and engine, a long 
step forward. The next man bet- 
tered Fulton and increased the 
original four miles per hour to six. 
By steady growth we now have 
that most wonderful creation of the 
present day, the ocean greyhound, 


i8 


THE HOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


carrying more power in a single 
ship than does the Merrimack river 
with the falls of Lowell and Law- 
rence combined, at normal flow, 
moving the vessel with speed of 
the wind. If our generation had 
to begin where most of the preced- 
ing ones did, then we would never 
have accomplished this nor any 
other achievement. 

In the immediate past there was 
a strong scientific awakening; rec- 
ords were kept, and statistics hand- 
ed down to our day so that we 
have profited not only by the suc- 
cesses of the past but also by the 
failures. 

No single element conduces 
more to the advance of the world 
than truth. We find ourselves sur- 
rounded by the forces and elements 
of nature whether we will or not. 
We could lie back and refuse to 
exert ourselves, doing no more 
than would be necessary to a bare 
existence, but we find the race too 
ambitious for that. To advance 
we must study the conditions that 
surround us and only so far as we 
master the elements do we succeed. 
If each generation is governed by 
the principle of truth, what it trans. 
mits to posterity is a foundation 
for cumulative knowledge. The 
elemental idea of truth, to tell what 
we5 know, the whole truth and 
nothing but the truth, is by no 
means all, and it is very easy to be 


agnostic and profess ignorance, 
where a little effort would enable 
sot e striking advance to be made 
by passing along that truth which 
has been acquired after painstaking 
toil. But beyond the question of 
stating correctly simple facts, so 
evident as to admit of no discus- 
sion as those cases where man may 
want to be very exact and yet not 
be sufficiently master of himself to 
accomplish his avowed purpose. 

In this connection let me quote 
from an eminent Bostonian : “ It 

is the function of man to discover 
what is ; to wrest from ignorance 
knowledge of the properties of mat- 
ter ; to explore the subtle play of 
forces ; to separate, combine, apply, 
transmit, transmute, regulate, and 
master them to secure special re- 
sults. It is an absolute condition 
of such work that the worker must 
be unremitting in his fidelity to 
what really is.” 

Every apparent gain must be 
subjected to a pitiless test. Guess 
work is ruled out if it cannot be 
reduced to certainty. A “perhaps” 
may produce an explosion ; a “ per- 
adventure” negative the most bril- 
liant theoretical result. Every- 
where the cry is for a demonstra- 
tion supported by indubitable tests. 
As a consequence, there grows up 
the stern conviction that nothing 
but truth can live — that no false- 
hood is for a moment safe in the 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


19 


presence of the innumerable and 
pitilessly stern tests which sit as 
incorruptible judges in the supreme 
court of fact. There are no finer 
pages in our history than those 
which tell the story of the great 
men of science who have hastened 
to publish their mistakes when 
larger knowledge has convinced 
them of their mistakenness ; who 
have gladly abandoned the very 
theories which gave them their 
fame when, by their own discover- 
ies, they have been the first to 
learn that those theories were un- 
tenable. Without waiting for de- 
tection they have confessed error. 
Beyond all the contributions which 
men of science have made to the 
comfort, the glory, the expansion 
of our civilization, stands this, — 
that they have taught the world 
that nothing lasts save truth ; that 
no theory and no plan which is not 
the legitimate child of truth and 
fact can ever be a permanent addi- 
tion to the possessions of mankind. 
Literally, a false weight is an 
abomination of the scientific man. 
He hates, with an intelligent and 
scornful hatred, everything which 
is something other than it pre- 
tends to be, because he is safe only 
with what is, what it can be verified 
to be. He knows that for him to 
put the unreal for the real, the 
flimsy for the strong, the false for 
the true, in any leats process or 


product of his art, is to destroy his 
work, and to discredit himself. It 
is as if one should surreptitiously 
slip a false scale upon the draughts- 
man’s table, or a light weight into 
the chemist’s rack. 

Ladies and gentlemen of the 
graduating class : — You have work- 
ed faithfully through these years 
to acquire such information as it 
has been possible to place within 
your reach. Our field for conquest 
is broad, but hitherto the particular 
means to train men for our chosen 
line have been extremely limited. 
Each year adds much to our re- 
sources and to you we shall look 
for fast increasing funds of knowl- 
edge in the near future. You can- 
not remain at a standstill ; you ad- 
vance or you go backward, and you 
surely will not do the latter; use 
every energy to surpass your own 
and others’ attainments and there- 
by help to fulfill the destiny the 
Creator of the Universe would have 
you fulfill and be ever faithful to 
the great principle, Truth. 


“ The Circassian girl has refused 
the tattooed man.” 

“You don’t mean it! I thought 
she loved him.” 

“ She does, but she says she 
doesn’t care to marry a man with an 
elephant on his hands.” — Philadel- 
phia Bulletin. 



1900, CRRDUHT1NC CLRSS, 

H. ,T. THOMPSON, A. L. BALDWIN, R. R. SLEEPER, Chemistry. 

J. P. LEACI1, Jk., I. W. BARR, G. F. LAMSON, S. E. SMITH, Cotton Manufacture. 

A. STEWART, C. J. BRICKETT, II. A. BODWELL, J. F. SYME, Woolen and Worsted Manufacture. 
J. E. PERKINS, KATHARINE BURRAGE.jA. J. PRADEL, Textile Design. 


4 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


21 


Presentation of Diplomas. 


President Cumnock, in an ap- 
propriate little speech, presented 
the diplomas. The list of grad- 
uates and the subjects of their 
theses follows : 

Diploma courses : I, Cotton 
Manufacturing; II, Wool Manu- 
facturing; III, Designing; IV, 
Chemistry and Dyeing. 

Isaac Walwin Barr, I, Lowell, 
Mass.: “ The Effect on the Break- 
ing Strength of Yarn Produced by 
Varying Conditions of Draft and 
Twist.” 

Arthur Lincoln Baldwin, IV, 
Lowell, Mass.: “ An Experimental 
Research to Determine the Quan- 
tity of Indigo Deposited upon the 
Fibre.” 

Henry Albert Bodwell, II, And- 
over, Mass.: “ Details of the Manu- 
facture of a Ten Run Woolen 
Yarn.” (With A. A. Stewart.) 

Chauncey Jackson Brickett, II, 
Haverhill, Mass.: “ Investigation of 
Scaife or Builder Motion on a 
Worsted Spinning Frame.” 

George Francis Lamson, I, 
Lowell, Mass.: “ A Comparison of 
Evenness and Strength of No. 25 
Warp Yarn Employing Two to 
Three Processes of Drawing.” 

John Edward Perkins, III, Pitts- 
field, Mass.: “ The Setting and 
Reeding of a Perfect Fabric.” 

Alois Joseph Pradel, III, Collins- 
ville, Mass.: “ Cloth Construction.” 


Robert Reid Sleeper, IV, Lowell, 
Mass.: “An Experimental Re- 
search to Determine the Fastest 
and Cheapest Direct Cotton Black.” 

Stephen Eaton Smith, I, Law- 
rence, Mass.: “ Investigation of 
Evenness of Product and Amounts 
of Waste made in Cotton Carding.” 
Arthur Andrew Stewart, II, Beau- 
harnois, P. Q.: (With H. A. Bod- 
well. See above.) 

James Francis Syme, II, Wor- 
cester. Mass.: “ The Dobby in Re- 
lation to Weaving.” 

Henry James Thompson, IV, 
Lawrence, Mass.: “ The Action of 
Alkaline Solutions Upon Various 
Grades of Wool in the Process of 
Wool Felting and Scouring.” 

Certificates to One Year’s Post 
Graduate Course in Decorative 
Art and Designing: 

Katharine Burrage, Lowell, Mass. 

Three Years’ Course in Decor- 
ative Art and Designing: 

Laura Etta Campbell, Lowell, 
Mass. 

Fanny Shillaber Lakeman, Salem, 
Mass. 

Amy Helen Goodhue, Dracut, 
Mass. 

Edith Clara Merchant, Lowell, 
Mass. 

Ida Alberta Woodies, Lowell, 
Mass. 

Three Years’ Course in Cotton 
Spinning and Weaving: 

John Pelopidas Leach, Jr., Little- 
ton, N. C. 


22 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


CLASS ROASTER. 

By JAMES F. SYME. 


Each graduate was required to 
write a thesis, and four of the young 
men read interesting abstracts. The 
class history by Mr. Syme was an 
entertaining paper much appre- 
ciated by the pupils of the school. 
After speaking of the general his- 
tory of the class and the school up 
to date, he continued. 

There are 19 members in the 
class. The average age is 21 years, 
6 months, 15 5*9 days to date; 
average weight, 143 2-9 lbs.; aver- 
age height, 5 feet 9 1-2 inches ; 
average color of the eyes ,is not 
determined as no such color ever 
existed in combination. 

This may be proved by the 
chemistry department, whom I 
quote as authority on such sub- 
jects. Among personal character- 
istics no names will be mentioned, 
numbers being given in preference, 
but persons have the privilege of 
putting a name of any one in the 
class against any number described. 

No. 1. Of a very studious na- 
ture, quiet, good natured and never 
knowing it all. A short time ago 
he had a portion of a full beard of 
very low texture which suddenly 


disappeared a couple of months 
ago. 

No. 2. An adept at describing 
menageries. Formerly had tapirs 
in the menagerie at Glen Forest 
heavily on his mind, but since he 
became a senior all such traces 
have disappeared. His only remain- 
ing fault is to continually whistle 
ragtime pieces while designing ; 
finally that will cease and during 
the quiet one will hear the expres- 
sion, “ This is a cinch.” 

No. 3. At present the only 
remaining member and total com- 
position of the famous baseball 
team. We are going to lose him 
from our bachelor list and when 
he goes South this summer the 
boys say, is not going alone. We 
hope to know soon enough to offer 
congratulations at the proper 
time. 

No. 4. The first object meeting 
your eyes upon entering the design 
room is a luminous smile and pair 
of jaws chewing gum. This fact 
alone establishes the true form of 
good natured happiness which the 
owner possesses. He says he is 
quite an athlete but guess he must 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


23 


mean his abilities on a hand loom 
because he is one of the “big four ” 
on crinsdiams. 

o o 

No. 5. Has several names to 
which he replies at the Lowell 
Textile School. Among them are 
“ The man with the extracted 
moustache,” etc. He rides a tin 
bicycle and upon breaking down a 
short time ago all blame was laid 
to the excessive weight of that 
famous moustache protruding so 
far over the handle-bars. It doesn’t 
pay to make him nervous for he is 
very excitable and has a palsied 
knee. Upon the least provocation 
that knee commences an oscillating 
movement and is beyond all control 
of the owner. One night it broke 
from under control and shook a 
whole row of seats at the Opera 
House. 

Nos. 6 and 7. Must be brought 
together for they were both the 
cause of a cute little saying. 

The first of the evening they 
went to dancing school and after 
remaining there a short time, 
dropped into a church fair. I sup- 
pose there wasn’t any attraction but, 
well — there not beingenough young 
ladies at dancing school, or rather, 
the proper ones not being there, 
they tried the church fair acciden- 
tally, knowing full well where they 
were going. 

One young lady who was there 
said to a gentleman, “ Who is that 


dark man over there from And- 
over ?” 

Oh 1 that is No. 6. 

“ And who is that light complex- 
ioned fellow with glasses ? 

Oh ! that is No. 7. 

A quick reply said: “ He is a 
perfect dream.” That was No. 7. 
I have only one fault to find, that 
is going to dancing school the first 
of the evening and then to a church 
fair. No. 6 should go to bed earlier 
to get around on time in the morn- 
ing. 

No. 8. He is the other mem- 
ber of the school class, but you 
may judge him later. 

No. 9. He says the last car 
leaves Nashua at 1 1 p. m., but we 
can hardly believe his does. He 
has a pull with the road, anyway, 
so he can get a car anytime of night 
or day. His principal characteris- 
tic is in the form of an expression 
peculiar to himself, but it must be 
clipped short and a few letters 
should be omitted to make it effec- 
tive. 

He spends a great part of his 
time in the office looking up his 
thesis on “A Typewriter.” 

No. 10. Is very much in de- 
mand by first year men to tie in 
broken ends and fix hand looms. 
He is shortest and still the heaviest 
man in his class. He has a per- 
sistent habit of listening to anyone 
with hands in his pockets and a 


24 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


vacant look on his face. He is 
slow and easy, but he takes things 
in and gets there just the same. 

No. ii. Is a great society man. 
He is the promotor, manager and 
destructor of that famous textile 
ball for which the Journal went in- 
to mourning but a short time ago. 
About 4 p. m. every day he informs 
all concerned in the chemical labor- 
atory that it is nearly 5 p. m. and 
time to get out. He believes in 
being ahead of time and never 
late. 

No. 12. Is considered rather a 
childish member of the class, but 
he is harmless, for the extent of his 
foolishness is throwing wet rags, 
etc., but always at a smaller man. 

No. 13. Is a firm believer in 
the Lawrence fire department and 
claims they can extinguish a fire 
quicker with a wash bottle than the 
Lowell department with all engines 
combined. This is no joke, but he 
is a firm believer in such a state- 
ment. 

Nos. 14 to 19. Are of the other 
sex and it is out of the question to 
attempt to relate any characteris- 
tics. I wish to preserve my good 
health, but I may say they have 
some very dainty lunch parties in 
the studio about noon. In fact 
they have established quite a cook- 
ing school, part of which may be 
found on some examination papers 
if scrutinized closely enough. They 


can’t surely use paint as seasoning 
for they are still alive and well 
enough to be present today. 

No. 8. You may judge for your- 
self and hope you will say he has 
succeeded in tiring you beyond 
description during the past few 
minutes. 


MEMBERS OF THE TEX- 
TILE SCHOOL 


Graduating Class Meet Socially. 

Members of the class of 1900 of 
the Lowell Textile school, with 
their teachers, enjoyed a banquet 
in the St. Charles hotel Tuesday 
night, June 5th. The following 
toasts were included in a pleasing 
programme, S. E. Smith presiding 
as toastmaster: “The School,” 
Professor William W. Crosby; 
“ The Cotton Department,” J. P. 
Leach, Jr. ; “The Faculty,” Pro- 
fessor E. H. Barker ; “ The Wool 
Department,” H. A. Bechwell ; 
“ The Class,” A. A. Stewart ; “ The 
Design Department,” J. E. Per- 
kins; “The Lowell Textile Jour- 
nal,” Professor Fenwick Umpleby; 
“The Chemistry Department,” H. 
J. Thompson. 


The Father-How does it happen 
that l find you kissing my daughter? 

The Suitor-We didn’t hear you 
come down stairs. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


25 


THE LOWELL 
TEXTILE JOURNAL. 

A Monthly Publication by Students of the Lowell Textile 
School, with papers and other valuable information by leading 
manufacturers. 

FENWICK UMPLEBY, Business Manager. 
Sub Editor, S. W. WESTON. 

Secretary and Treasurer, C. E. CURRAN. 


PUBLISHED MONTHLY 

AT 

No. 67 middle Street, - Lowell, Hass. 

BY 

THE LOWELL TEXTILE J OURN A L G OM PAN Y. 


Entered at the Post-Office at Lowell as Second 
Class Mail Matter. 


SUBSCRIPTION TERMS. 

For one year, postage paid 

Single Copies 

For Sale at all Newsdealers. 


Advertisements must be at the Journal Office before the 
fifteenth of each month for insertion that month. 

Contributions may be sent to Editorof I he Lowell T extile 
Journal, and willreceive prompt attention . 


EDITORIAL. 

We are sorry to hear there are 
some local industries likely to shut 
down for lack of orders. 

The laboring class are better off 
than they would be were their 
money tied up in the business in 
which they are employed. When 
their day’s work is done their cares 
may cease. Revolutions and panics 
may lessen the amount of their 
recompense, but they do not bring 
to them the care and trouble which 
the employer has to bear. 

Those who wait for positions 
worthy of their supposed powers 
may spend a life in idleness. 


The manufacturing business is, 
as a general thing, a hazardous un- 
dertaking. The years of prosperity 
are often supplemented by many 
years of adversity. Because the 
gains in one or two booming years 
are large, there is no good reason 
for assuming that they will continue 
so for all time. 

Your work is certainly very good, 
but you have only been one hour in 
executing it. Why do you charge 
such an exhorbitant price ? Be- 
cause I have been thirty years learn- 
ing how to do such work in one 
hour, was the reply. 

Be careful what your tongue lets 
loose. “ For a bird of the air shall 
carry the voice, and that which hath 
wings shall tell the matter.” 

If a man is really up in his busi- 
ness and his habits are not against 
him, sooner or later it is a secret 
which is out and advancement 
follows. 

Mr. Wakichi Otsuka of Ise, 
Japan, and Mr. Hazime Tatoki of 
Toxio, Japan, are two of the most 
diligent students at the Textile 
School. 

The way to get a better position 
is to perform in a first-class manner 
the duties of your present one. 


26 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


esthte of jeremihh clhrk, 

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IVIAU JI^L X IX J-V IV X , { COTTON AND WOOLEN A SPECIALTY- 

Also all kinds of mill supplies. Our storage capacity is over two acres of floor surface. 

A large supply always in stock ready for immediate delivery. 

AVarehouse Machine Repair Shop, 1 LOWELL, MASS. { Office, 277 Dutton Street, 

Perrin St., on line of B. & M. R. R. ' ( Opposite Lowell Machine Shop. 


We have received the first num- 
ber (May) of Construction and 
Originating of Weaves, by Charles 
G. Petzold. As the first number 
is devoted to abstracts of contents 
and a few elementary weaves, we 
are not in a position to review the 
whole work. Mr. C. G. Petzold 
has held the position as head de- 
signer at the Arlington Mills into 
the teens of years. We expect 
some valuable information on 
worsted designing. 

A goodly number of subscribers 
have paid up during the past month, 
and we hope to see more do like- 
wise during the present month. 

William Nelson, professor of 
weaving at the Lowell Textile 
School, and Miss Mary Ann Ha- 
worth of Lowell, were married on 
Wednesday evening, June 13th, at 
the First Primitive Methodist 
Church, Lowell, Mass. 

Through the indefatigable offorts 
of James T. Smith, the Lowell 
Textile School is to have a home 
of its own. 


The Textile Council, at a largely 
attended meeting, have elected 
Thomas F. Connolly as the la or 
representative on the board of 
trustees of the Lowell Textile 
School. 

The attendance at the graduating 
exercises was the largest ever 
known in the lecture hall. 

Of all men he (James T. Smith) 
is the most indefatigable, if it be 
towards any business that can hold 
or detains his mind. 

President A. G. Cumnock read 
a letter at the graduating exercises 
from Frederick Fanning Ayer of 
New York city, stating that he 
would give $ 20,000 towards the 
Textile School. 

Secretaries of textile associa- 
tions, libraries or reading rooms, 
are cordially invited to send in to 
this office such matter as they 
would like to have published for 
the benefit of the textile industry. 
Our columns are open gratitiously 
to such. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


27 


AND ALL KINDS OF 


STEAM BOILERS, STEEL AND IRON PLATE WORK. 

SOANNELL & WHOLEY, 

TANNER STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


There is talk of a Labor Mill in 
Fall River, to be run on the co- 
operative plan. 

A subscriber asks “ how to find 
the average number of picks per 
inch, in an uneven piece of cloth ?” 

The rule here given will be found 
useful. 

If the cloth be unevenly woven 
and thicker in one part than an- 
other, take the number of picks 
under the measuring glass in dif- 
ferent parts, where it is thickest and 
thinest, and add them all together; 
then their sum divided by the 
number of times the cloth was 
measured, will give at an average, 
the picks per inch under the glass. 
Example (the glass has 14-in. open 


space), if there are 12 picks on one 
part, 15 on another, 14 on a third, 
16 on a fourth, and 13 on a fifth; 
then 12, 15, 14, 16 and 13 added 
together equals 70, with divisor 5, 
gives 14 picks for the average count 
on the quarter inch, or 56 picks 
per inch on an average in the cloth. 

Secretary Smith says: “The 
Lowell Textile School is destined 
to become the finest in the world.” 
Last summer we visited the finest 
schools in Europe and can say 
that there is not one so well equip- 
ped as the Lowell School. 

The selection of Mr. Connolly 
does credit to the Textile Council. 
The position is an honorable one. 


CONSTRUCTION AND ORIGINATING OF WEAVES, 

BY CHARLES G. PETZOLD. 

A Text Book for designers, overseers, loom-fixers, web drawers, 
weavers and others who are interested in the construction of cloth. On 
receipt of 25 cents, a copy of Parts I and II will be mailed to any 
address in the United States and Canada. The work is richly illus- 
trated, and the rules for construction of weaves clearly explained. It 
will consist of two hundred and eighty pages, and about 24 plates of art 
weaving, and is to be published monthly in twelve parts. 

CHARLES G. PETZOLD, r 

37 Whitman Street, ----- Lawrence, Mass. 


28 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


EMMONS LOOM HARNESS CO. 

Cotton Harness, Mail Harness and Reeds 

Fcr Weaving* Cotton, Silk and Woolen Goods. 

Mail Jacquard Heddles, Mending Eyes, and Twine Selvedges, 

Laivrence, Mass . 


Take hold of the first favorable 
opportunity. “A bird in the hand 
is worth two in the bush.” 

There’s many a simple looking 
fellow that knows his way about 
quite as well as some that pass for 
wiseacres. It is not the lack of 
knowledge that causes some to be 
set down as simpletons, it’s because 
they let their tongues publish their 
ignorance. 

They used to tell me when I was 
a boy, that “A still tongue makes a 
wise head,” but it does not always ; 
a still tongue never won a grain of 
wisdom nor imparted one. But it 
is better for one’s reputation to 
keep quite, than to talk about what 
we do not understand. 

We must never forget that if 
there were no fools it would not 


pay to be a philosopher. We are 
not all born alike, and that is a 
blessing. It is admitted that vari- 
ety is the spice of life, and nobody 
need be without spice. Great 
talkers are the biggest nuisance we 
have to put up with. 

I never knew either man or wo- 
man that were everlastingly talking 
that stuck or kept to the truth. As 
soon_ as ever they have told all 
they know, they start and tell a lot 
that they don’t know. Simple news 
soon becomes mischievous gossip, 
and gossip is seasoned with scandal, 
and that has to be backed up with 
falsehood. A man that never was 
anything (is nothing, and never will 
be anything) can go on his road 
and be molested by nobody, but 
just as soon as we lifi ourselves out 
of the common rut, just so soon do 


LOWELL CO- OPERA LIVE SUPPLY CO., 

GET YOUR MONEY’S WORTH. 

When you are ready to buy something in the line of . . . 

Clothing, • Cloaks* or • Millinery, 

Come and see us before purchasing. 

We promise to save you at least 25c on the dollar. 

Special Discount Sale during the month of July. 

44 Bridge Street. N E5 \f\L STORE, near Merrimack Sq. 

Lowell, Mass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


29 


Wolff High Ar t CYCLES. Carroll Chainless. 

Sold by RUTLAND & S7VUTH, 

1D?> Middlesex Street , Lowell , Mass. 

TELEPHONE 653-5. We Want Your Repairing. 


we make enemies. The higher we 
ore t the more we are seen bv those 

O * 

that once were our equals. Too 
lazy to fight their way up to our 
level, they do their best to bring us 
down to theirs. 

If a man is bred in a stable, and 
by perseverance becomes able to 
drive in his own carriage and pair, 
they curl up their envious noses 
and say to their friends that you 
still have the odor of the stable- 
But such like are not worth even a 
passing notice. Scandal like scum 
comes to the top and is thrown 
to the dogs. Patience is a grand 
thing, but it is hard to be patient 
when you are wilfully misrepre- 
sented and infamously lied about. 
But have patience. 

Never condescend to contend 
with a scandal monger, if he slings 
mud at you, even though it hits, 
give it a bit of time to dry and it 
will fall off. Fending and proving 
never amounts to much, for a man 


that will lie to injure you, will lie 
twice as fast to clear himself. My 
advice is to be chary of big talkers, 
for the few grains of truth you may 
get are not worth the labor of hunt- 
ing through so many loads of chaff 
to find them. Yet it is a fact, as 
strange as it is true, talking costs 
more wind and wastes more time 
for less purpose than any other 
habit. “Actions speak louder than 
words.” Beginners say all sorts of 
nice things to their help, and 
promise all sorts of impossibilities, 
and they honestly mean all they 
say, but circumstances are against 
them. 

Mr. Ketchan — How is your boy 
getting along at school ? 

Mr. Cheatem — Splendidly, 
splendidly! I just tell you, my friend, 
that boy of mine will make his way 
in the world, don’t you fear. During 
the eight years he’s been going to 
school they have had 32 examina- 
tions, and he’s managed to dodge 
every one of ’em. 


DlSillEHT'o SOKS, 


Builders of 


Cfranteville. 

Mass. 


Wool Washing Machines, Wool Dryers, Wool 
Waste, and Rag Dusters, Duplex Bur Pickers, 
Waste Cards, etc. Write for information con- 
cerning our new automatic Cotton Dryer. 


W. H. BAGSHAW, 

Manufacturer of 

Machine Wool Combs, 

11 Wilson St. - Lowell, Mass. 


30 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


R. 7X, St R. HHLL 

Manufacture and Repair 

Roving, Twister and Spinning Flyers, 

ALSO SPINDLES, STEEL CAPS AND TUBES. 

Write for Estimates. LA WHENCE, MASS. 


THE GRADUATES OF THE EVENING CLASS OF THE 

TEXTILE SCHOOL. 

ADDRESSES MADE BY THE TRUSTEES AND OTHERS. 


Twenty students of the evening 
class of the Lowell Textile School 
graduated Wednesday, May 16th. 
Interesting exercises in the lecture 
hall of the school marked the oc- 
casion and many friends of the 
school attended. 

The hall was very prettily decor- 
ated with potted plants and palms, 
and before and after the speaking 
there was music by the American 
orchestra. The programme was 
quite informal, but what the speak- 
ers said was sound and practical. 

Alexander G. Cumnock, presi- 
dent of the board of trustees, pre- 
sided, and in the course of his re- 


marks pointed out the urgent ne- 
cessity for the manufacture of a 
finer grade of goods in New Eng- 
land, by telling many facts con- 
cerning the conditions under which 
the southern mills are working. 
Speaking of foreign competition, 
he said : 

“ In 1890 the mills of Japan 
were consuming 191 1 bales of cot- 
ton a week. In ’93 they were us- 
ing 3856 bales and in ’95 the num- 
ber was 6978. In ’99 the amount 
was 10,278, the number of mills 
had doubled, and the number of 
spindles had increased from 1146 
in ’90 to 3,334,553. Japan buys 


SEEDS! SEEDS! 

Everything for Lawn and Garden. Catalogues Free 

Will be Mailed to Any Address. 

BARTLETT Sc DOW, 

216 CENTRAL STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


3 1 


¥es, We are Phrenologists 

and love our profession, and you will love us when 
you know ns better. We cure Rheumatism, Nerv- 
ous Diseases, etc., and we never guess. We know 
what you need when we look at you. We rend 
f/ou ns ire teonid rend a Primer . This may 
seem strange, but *tis true. 

PROF. EIARLV. 

128 Merrimack Street, Lowell, Mass- 


FAULKN ER MAN UFACTUR ING COMPANY, 

Woolen Manufacturers, 

North Billerica, Mass. 
68 Franklin St., Boston, Mass. 


the best English machinery and 
with cheap labor can compete 
with our own exports. We must 
get out of the common run of 
goods.” 

Mr. Joseph L. Chalifoux, a trus- 
tee of the school, made a speech 
that was very well received. He 
said in part : 

“You young men who receive 
your diplomas tonight are fortunate 
in having been favored with such 
an institution as this. I dare say 
that you do not realize it. Twenty 
years from now you will. The ar- 
gument that this is a school for 
rich men’s sons is entirely false. 
The men who are at the head of 
the Lowell mills are men who have 
risen through their own efforts. I 
say to you tonight that if you have 
the will power and are willing to 
pay the price of success, you will 
win it. The trouble is that few 
men are willing to pay the price, 
and they envy those who do rise 


from the ranks. They are unwil- 
ling to devote themselves to master- 
ing details. 

“ There are positions in every 
mill being filled by incompetent 
men because better men cannot be 
obtained. If this school should 
graduate 500 men with the right 
will power there would be salaried 
positions for all of them. 

“The competition of the south, 
a part of the country with which I 
am familiar, is an important prob- 
lem. Whole families who have 
lived in the mountains in houses 
that could not have cost more than 
two or three hundred dollars come 
to work in the new mills and are 
satisfied to live in the inexpensive 
houses built by the corporation. 
They can work for small wages 
because it costs them less to live. 
I have seen eggs selling for 10 and 
12 cents a dozen in Alabama when 
they were 40 cents here. I have 
seen turkeys for sale at 25 cents 


NEW YORK CLOAK AND SUIT CO., 

12 JOHN STREET. 

Never before in Lowell have the ladies had the opportunity of making their 
selections of Shirt Waists from a stock so complete as we are now showing. 

THE PRICES ARE INTERESTING. 


THE I OWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


32 

New England College of Languages, •=-=“ 

Special Courses for Business Men and Women. Write for Circular. 
DJIOF. F . KU\ZEF, Fit. D., Director, 

Telephone Philips’ Building. 120 Tremont St., 3 Hamilton Flace, Foston , Mass. 


apiece and coal can be had for $i 
and $1.50 a ton, and is used for 
cooking only. 

“ I feared for the future of Low- 
ell 15 years ago, and established a 
new store in Birmingham. I have 
entirely changed my mind since 
then, but, we still have problems 
that we must meet. We have 
made a start in this textile school. 
We asked the legislature for $70,- 
000 to build a permanent school, 
and have voted $35,000. That is 
not enough. We must recognize 
the necessity as England and Ger- 
many have done it. We must pro- 
duce educated manufacturers.” 

Arthur K. Whitcomb, superin- 
tendent of public schools, and a 
trusteeof the Lowell Textile School, 
was the next speaker, and spoke as 
follows : 

u There never was a time when 
education was held in such honor 
since the world began. Not only 


have civilized countries increased 
their educational expenditures en- 
ormously, but semi-civilized coun- 
tries have come to look upon it as 
a fetish. Germany, overrun by 
Napoleon the First, found herself 
prostrate, and recognized that her 
only hope was in the education of 
her masses. After one generation 
had passed from her schools, the 
finest in the world, Germany again 
met the French under Napoleon 
III, and the man with brains 
behind the guns dictated the terms 
of peace to France in Paris. We 
have recognized the same principle 
in sending Yankee school masters 
to Cuba and the Philippines. 

“ We have built in the high 
school a special course for the tex- 
tile school, that has more strength 
than any other course in the school. 
You can't find another course of 
mathematics like it in any other 
school in New England. There 


3D. H. WILSON' &g CIO., 

Coppeisiiiiitis, Plantes, sieaiq ana Gas Fillers, Sanitary Engineers. 

Manufacturers of Slasher Cylinders, Silk and Dresser Cylinders, Color and Dye 
Kettles. All kinds of copper work for mills. All work warranted satisfactory. 

Shop, 279 and 283 Dutton Street, LOWELL, MASS . 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


33 


F. B. OLIVER. C. II. ALBKK. 

SMITH MACHINE SC EE W CO., 

Cap ape Set screws, coupling Bolls, Cylinder Bolls, Etc. 

54X BROADWAY. Tel. $04-2. ROWELL, MASS. 


was a time when the professional 
men wie’ded the influence in the 
country. It has passed now into 
the hands of the business and pro- 
fessional men. In the future the 
mechanic who is going to hold his 
own must be a broadly educated 
man. This school is to become a 
university where men will come 
from college to learn how to be 
useful in the world.” 

Edward W. Thomas, agent of 
the Tremont and Suffolk mills, and 
a trustee, said in part : “ I’m a firm 
believer in this school. I have 
visited those of other countries, and 
I believe that this country has 
taken a back seat long enough. 
The Lowell mills are greatly in 
need of trained men. It is very 
difficult, when vacancies occur, to 
find men of the right qualifications 
who can be trusted in the positions. 
While the competition of the south 
is serious, brains of New England 
will carry us through.” 


James T. Smith, clerk of the 
board, said in his remarks : “ The 
school is better understood and 
stronger in the legislature than it 
-has been for four years. I am able 
to say tonight that a permanent 
home for the school is assured. 
The act increasing the number of 
trustees, in order to give the city 
council and the labor councils re- 
presentation, was today taken from 
the table and will become a law next 
week. This will become the lead- 
ing textile school of the world.” 

W. W. Crosby, the director of 
the school, spoke briefly before the 
diplomas were awarded. “ We 
hope that we have given you 
something that you can use in 
life,” he said. “ Let your minds 
be set on problems worth solving. 
Whatever you decide upon keep at 
it until it is accomplished.” 

The graduates were: 

Cotton course, three years — Wil- 
liam Lorenzo Wardrobe, Lawrence; 


When you want Musical Goods, 
Sheet Music, Popular or Classic, 



Call at RING’S. 

Everything in Music, Cameras and Talking Machines. 
RING’S, 133 Merrimack Street , LOWELL, MASS. 


34 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


best half-hose: have: the: 



SftAW STOCKING CO. LOWELL. MASS. SEND FOR FREE CATALOGUE 


William Sanford Woodbury, Law- 
rence; Arthur Eugene Silcox, 
Charles Franklin Osgood, James 
Donnelly, Arthur Dane Colby, 
Herman Cecil Rowell, Lowell. 

Worsted spinning course, two 
years — Albert Birtwhistle Cawthra, 
Wigginville ; Samuel Antcliffe 
Ogley, Lowell ; Albert Dean 
Campbell, Lawrence; William 
James Jones, Harry Maden, Her- 
man Cecil Rowell, Ernest Nelson, 
Lowell. 

Chemistry and dyeing courses, 
three years — Fred Lyman Snow, 
Joseph Waterhouse, Lowell. 

Designing course, three years — 


Chas. True Wing, Lowell; Fred- 
erick Robinson Elston, Lawrence. 

Weaving, three years — John 
Howard, Clarence Hutton,- Harry 
Carmi Parker, Lowell. 

Mr. Rowell, it will be noticed, 
was awarded two diplomas, having 
taken two courses by unusually 
faithful work. 


Little Mike (in the midst of his 
reading) — “ Feyther, hoy d’yez 
pronounce I-l-o-i-l-o ? ” 

McLubberty — “ Pronounce ut ? 
Begorra! did yez never hear a tur- 
r-key gobble ?” 



An Interesting Room . . . 

Our Reception Room is always open to the public. 

Is filled with artistic portraits of people you know, 
you should see them. 

CARBON AND V LATINO IN COLOR , 

Charming and imperishable. Platinotypes and other 
novelties of the year. 

COLUMBIAN STUDIO, 

55 So. Whipple St., Lowell, Mass., Tel. Connection. 
Take the Lawrence Street Car. Visitors Welcome. 




THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


35 


N. Whittier, Treasurer and General Manager. Helen A. Whittier, President. W. R. B. Whittier, Agent. 

WHITTIER COTTON MILLS, Chattahoochee, Ga. 


General Office, Lowell, Mass. 


Coiion Yams, 2s 10 40s 


Single or Twisted, 2 to 200 ends, Ply, Cable Hawser, delivered on Spools 
Skeins, Hanks, Creels, Balls, Beams, Warper Balls, Cones, 

Grey or Colored. Fire Hose Cords a Specialty. 


Hammocks and Ice Cream Freezers. 


W. T. S. BARTLETT, 

The Uptown Hardware Store, .*. 653-659 Merrimack Street. 

HATS secured at our store are proper in style and 
quality. Try us and be convinced. A superb lino 
of neckwear always in stock. 

TEAGUE & TEAGUE, 

Hatters and Haberdashers 

Corner Central and Middle Streets. Lowell 

J. R. DUFF'S, 

Patent Cattle Stanchions, 

Will open barn doors, and release Cattle 
instantly in case of fire. 

CAN RELEASE THEM ONE AT A TIME FOR DAILY USE. 

For Circular and Price-List, Address, 

J. R. DUFF, P. O. Box 874, Lowell, Mass. 

Deal Estate ana Business Exchange, 

FIRE INSURANCE. 

F=. L. iZHNCE CO., 

Rooms 2 and 3, 

Telephone connection. 97 Central St., Lowell. 

FRANK PARKER, 

nanufacturer of 

Steel : and : Brass : Bound : Bobbins : and : Spools. 

LOWELL, MASS. 


Call and See Us 



•^PHOTOGRAPHER,^ 

Barristers Hall, Lowell, Mass. 



Sam. H. Thompson, Pres. Elisha J. NEAL,Treas. 

The Thompson llardivare Co., 

Columbia, Hartford & stonier Bicycles, 

BICYCLE SUPPLIES. 

'-.7 / , 236 Merrimack St., Lowell, Mass. 


36 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 



ROBERT C APR i.T 

'VJAMJT’ACTURER OF 

= 

REEDS AND LOOM HARNESS 


FOR WEAVING 


SIXK, COTTON, WOOLINS AND CARPETS. 


Wire and Hair Cl oih Reeds and SlasherCombs. 


LowelI f MdSs. 

i 





POWER WEAVE ROOM. 

The Weaving Department is 
constantly being enriched by the 
addition of new machinery. 

Within the past month there 
new looms have been added to the 
already splendid collection of ma- 
chinery. One of the looms is the 
latest production of the Crompton 
and Knowles Loom Co , embodying 
the principal features of the Cromp- 
ton Clay worsted loom, with new 
ideas added, such as : A cone pick 
and pick motion, and positive 4 by 
4 box motion, but on this loom the 
two set of boxes are controlled from 
one side of the loom, a very con- 
venient and positive arrangement. 

The New England dobby is 
added on to the' loom, this also 
having original and new ideas at- 
tached to it. 

The box chain multiplier, and 
pattern chain being directly con- 



Lowell, Mass. 


n^cted to each other, another strong 
feature is the reverse motion for 
box and pattern chains. 

This loom, although having 54 
inches of reed space, can safely be 
run at 160 picks per minute, and 
give first-class results The other 
two looms are from the Lewiston 
Machine Co., and comprise a 40- 
inch side cam drill loom, inter- 
changeable to a 4 or 5 harness 
loom, and a loom for the weaving 
of bags, which is an entirely new 
feature in the school. 

The above are a valuable addi- 
tion, and are but the forerunners 
of more looms which will be added 
to the department so that the claim 
made for the weave room can be 
sustained, that it is the finest de- 
partment for weaving instruction, 
there is in any textile school. 

Will Nelson, 
Principal of Weaving. 


\V. If. BEAN. K. C. DUNBAR 

BEAN Sl DWM 3A:F2. 

Manufacturers of GENERAL HOUSE FINISH, 

Stair Building, Stair Posts Rails ami Balusters, 
Brackets ami Columns. Wood Turning ami Job 
Work . . . 

I 593 to 605 Dutton St., 


Central Block, 


Lowell, Mass. 



THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


37 


STUDY 

the points of our different machines and com- 
pare with others. 

UNDERSTAND 

the merits and you will be convinced beyond 
a doubt of their superiority. 


HOWARD & BULLOUGH 

Rinefc 05., Ld, Pei?!crtet, 1 1. 



ART IN THE SCHOOLS. 

SUBJECT OF VESPER LINCOLN GEORGE’S PAPER AT NORMAL 

ART SCHOOL. 


At the meeting of the Alumni 
association of the Massachusetts 
Normal Art School, at the school 
building, about one hundred and 
fifty members and their friends 
being present, Vesper Lincoln 
George, instructor in the Lowell 
Textile School, read a paper on 
“ Fine Arts vs Industrial Arts in 
the Public School.” In the ab- 
sence of ‘the president, the vice- 
president, Richard Andrews, pre- 
sided. Mr. George!s essay was 
discussed, after he had read it, by 


John Lyman Faxon, Henry T. 
Bailey, Miss Kate Pierce, George 
H. Bartlett, E. W. D. Hamilton, 
and Walter Sargent. After defin- 
ing what he meant by the fine arts 
as distinguished from the industrial 
arts, Mr. George said, in part : 

What is the public school? Is it 
not a school for all children, wheth- 
er they are to be artists or mechan- 
ics, business or professional men ? 
It is essentially not a place for 
teaching specialties. For these 
we have our State Normal and 


OTIS ALLEN Sc SON. 

LOWELL, MASS. 

ALLEN’S STANDARD LOCK- CORNERED FILLING BOXES, 


% Generally used in the Netv England Mills. 

ROVING CARS, DOFFING ROXFS, RACKING CASES, AND CLOT II HOARDS. 

WRITE FOR PRICES . 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


8 


C. E. RILEY & CO. 

281-285 Congress St., 

BOSTON, 7VY7TSS. 

Litest Improvements and Specialties. 


< 

> 

s 

< 

N 


IilPORTERS AND BUILDERS OF 

COTTON, 

WOOLEN, and 
WORSTED 

CARD CLOTHING, 

EGYPTIAN COTTON, Etc, 



other similar institutions. What- 
ever is taught in the public school 
should be of value to all, and I be- 
lieve that is particularly true of 
art. How many of the students are 
to be painters or sculptors? Very 
few. A much larger per cent, of 
the pupils will go into our manu- 
factories either as designers or man- 
agers,. and thus control the indus- 
trial art of the future in that way, 
while all of them will influence for 
good or evil the art products of the 
future by being purchasers. So 
then what we need is not more art- 
ists, but more people to appreciate 
and encourage art by their intelli- 
gent sympathy and support. If 
the people are brought to an under- 
standing of the virtue of design, of 
art in the things about them, the 
question of their appreciation of 
painting will have been settled. 

It would be impossible to foist 
an atrocious painting upon a man 
who appreciated and demanded 


good design in wall paper, carpets 
and furniture. The children should 
be taught, first of all, the phase of 
art which reaches their everyday 
life; they should learn to find beauty 
in lines, form, color; they should 
be taught what constitutes beauty 
in the ordinary things with which 
they are so familiar — the furniture, 
dishes, wall paper, carpets and rugs. 
When these children shall have 
grown up they will carry the influ- 
ence of these ideas with them in 
their lives, and the leaven will work 
wonders in the next century of this 
country. The history of art points 
out a gradual growth from the 
simple to the complex ; all nature 
is one great symphony of evolution. 
Let us apply the same principle to 
the teaching of children in this 
question. Let them do suoh things 
as are within their capabilities, and 
that they can do well and intelli- 
gently. Don't start them at the 
top. That is no evolution. Don’t 


H. E. SARGENT <£ CO., 

Allfree High Speed Economic Engines, 

Corliss Engines, Cook Water Tanks and Boilers. 


EQUITABLE BUILDING, 


BOSTON, MASS. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


39 


JOHN DENNIS. J. NELSON DENNIS. 

JOHN DENNIS X GO., 

l*ress Jfa mi fa ct urers , either Hydraulic , Screw , or Toytjle Joint . 


Hollow Plate Finishing Presses and Halers. 
Belting, Carriers’ and Boll Coverers’ Machinery. 


give them the grade of work that 
should be expected of normal or 
special students. Teach them to 
do the simpler forms of art and to 
do them thoroughly and well. By 
becoming familiar with these they 
will gradually develop a sense and 
appreciation of beauty that will 
later elevate the dignity of painting 


194 Western Ave., Lowell, Mass. 


to its true position. As a rule I 
believe if the children were taught 
fewer things, and taught them 
better, the result would be infinitely 
more satisfactory. The history of 
art points out that construction 
came first, decoration second, and 
painting last. Let us keep this 
order in our teaching. 


STUDIES. 

By H. P. ROBINSON. 


A fashion is springing up among 
some photographers of mis-using 
the word “study.” When they can- 
not find a title for a picture that 
has happened to them — as dis- 
tinguished from one which has re- 
sulted from thought and intention 
— they call it a “study.” This title, 
curiously enough, is more often 


applied to those photographs which 
owe their existence more to acci- 
dent than art, and depend on happy 
chance rather than study. 

What is a study in art ? Nearly 
always a means to an end, a frag- 
ment, a more or less finished sketch 
or part of a picture intended as a 
help to a completed result ; or it is 


THE CRYSTAL CAFE... 

Dinner, 1 1 .30 # till 3 o’clock. Oysters and Shell Fish. 

Orders Cooked a specialty. Lunches of all kinds. 

JAMES W. GRADY, Prop. 


140 Worthen Street. 


40 THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


H. R. PARKER & CO., 

Successors to G. C. Brock, 

PRESCRIPTION - DRUGGISTS, 

Br.dgre, cor. First Street, Ocntralville, 

Lowell, Mass. 

i WEDDING AND PARTY HAIR DRESSING. 

Ladies’ hair shartipoo, 25c ; Electric treatment for 
falling hair, with shampoo; flair dried with hot, 
tepid or cool air; Electric facial massage, 25c; 
Medicated steam for the face; Artisticmnnicuring, 
25c; Children’s hair cutting, 15c. Separate parlors 
for ladies. Over twenty-live years’ experience. 

Cl IPTIINI’ 3<> Central Street. 

vJ I\ I 11^1 j Remember the Place. 

often a piece of work with brush or 
pencil, made for educational pur- 
poses, seldom finished, except when 
it is completed as a picture, and 
then it is no longer regarded tech- 
nically as a study. A photograph 
is always “finished,” a complete 
picture as far as it goes ; you can 
not leave it unfinished, without you 
consider retouching finish. How, 
then, can it be a study ? A study 
for what ? A photographer may 
study, but his work is not a study 
in the sense that a painter calls his 
sketches studies. 

Photographic studies may be 
produced to aid a painter — studies 
of a hand, an eye, an ear ; but they 
are not such as could be exhibited 
as studies by the photographer to 
aid him in his own art. So also 
may the combination printer make 
studies of the .various parts of his 
picture, but he would not be likely 
to exhibit them ; besides, he usually 

makes his studies with pencil or 
charcoal. Of course it would be 
possible for a photographer to 
photograph a subject on small 
plates from several points of view, 
or under several effects, and then 
take a large picture of the one as- 
pect he likes best, but he would not 
exhibit these studies, nor is it likely 
that many good pictures are pro- 
duced this way, and it would not 
be the least necessary to an expe- 
rienced photographer. 

But may not, or rather must not, 
the photographer study ? Certain- 
ly. His life must be one long 
study. But do not present the 
chance result of study as pictures, 
either with or without unmeaning 
names appended ; however small 
and simple the picture, let it be a 
whole and not a fragment, and let 
it have a meaning which can be 
explained, even should it fail to 
explain itself. 

MUSIC HALL, 

The Popular Family Theatre. 

City and Country 

Bill Poster and Distributor. 


MERRIMAC HOUSE!, 


Monument Square, 
Lowell, Mass. 


W. H. EMERY, Prop. 
W. E. CARLTON, Clerk. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


41 


HAMHLET MACHINE CO Successors to D u st in Machine Co. 

G-HsTEET^S and ZMI_A_OHX2sriHSTS. 

Taper Cutters, Special Machinery Built, Repairing attended to promptly, Pulleys, Shafting, Gears, Etc. 

GEO. W. HAMBLETT, Prop. 

Tel. Connection. 3 0 Island Street, Lawrence, Hass. 


A TERRIBLE EXPERI- 
ENCE. 


As my senses gradually became 
accustomed to my surroundings, 

I looked about and found myself 
in what appeared to be a vast ex- 
panse of limitless plane ; nothing 
but glittering whiteness, dazzling 
in its intenseness, met my gaze far 
and near, and all around a dense, 
stifling, pungent smoke surged to 
and fro in great billowy clouds, 
filling my nostrils. 

A peculiar sensation now seem- 
ed to steal over me. The natural 
law of gravitation seemed but a 
myth and a delusion, for I was 
apparently walking upside down, 
my feet clinging tenaciously to the 
ground above me, enabling me to 
keep .a perfect equipose, yet in no 
sense restricting my ability to walk 
as usual. 

Presently, as the clo ds rolled 
aside for a space, I saw a sight 


never to be forgotten and which 
explained somewhat the cause of 
the vitiated atmosphere I was 
forced to breath. 

Far, far below me, enumerable 
vari colored fires blazed in all di- 
rections, some burning clearly and 
others smouldering, sending forth 
great volumes of smoke and vapor. 
Here and there I could distinguish 
human forms moving to and fro 
with restless persistency, brandish- 
ing in their hands great glittering 
weapons, which clashed together 
at intervals, filling the air with an 
indefinable glamour. The din 
which arose was something awful : 
Sounds of uncanny mirth were 
mingled with shouts and screams 
as of human beings in mortal 
agony. 

And now, as I looked and listen- 
ed, the smoke closed in around me 
denser than ever. The atmosphere 
became so thick that I found great 
difficulty in breathing. The heat 
became intolerable, my breath came 


H. H. WILDER <S6 CO., 

Furnaces, Stoves, Ranges, Kitchen Furnishing Goods 

Nos. 29 and 31 MARKET STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


42 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Lsm'sMLMKjmumm 




, / M P°/{T£K* 9 T A Jt’Q* 


55 rorrwAi- S treet. 


PAUL 0. KABLE, Assistant. 


SdNLIGHT SH0E STORE. 

Wear the Orient Shoe, 

Best $3.50 Shoe in the World. 

100 Central St., Lowell, Mass. 


in gasps, my head began to lift and 
as everything turned black I lost 
my footing and fell. . . . 

Thank goodness I can remem- 
ber nothing of that terrible fall 
through space ! When I regained 
consciousness I found myself upon 
the leaf of a spreading palm. To 
this fortunate accident of position 
I undoubtedly owe my life, other- 
wise had I been dashed to pieces 
on the ground. 

In my fall I had evidently passed 
through one or more of the great 
fires I had noticed, for my wings 
were terribly burned and my body 
badly singed. 

There were myriads of twinkling 
lights all about me, but instead of 
the intense heat only a grateful 


warmth now remained. No one of 
the many humans everywhere seem- 
ed to notice my pitiable condition or 
care what became of me, but as I 
think of it I ought not to expect 
it. I understand it all now, how- 
ever, for you see I am only a com- 
mon “ house fly” and had fallen 
from the ceiling to the table during 

o O 

a dinner party. 

Wouldn’t that “jar” you? 

Henry K. Terry, Jr. 

FORM OF SUBSCRIPTION. 

To Publisher , Lowell Textile 
Journal Lowell , Mass. 
Enclosed please find one dollar, 
for subscription to Lowell Textile 
Journal for one year, to be sent to 
Name, 

Address, 


WM. E. BASS &, CO., 

Manufacturers of 




THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


43 


SAMUEL KERSHAW. 

Waicfiaker and Jawaiar, F,j " ,?n vv: ' ,d ' R ' pai,ins a 

114 CENTRAL STREET, - - LOWELL, MASS . 


EXCHANGES. 


Read “John Ruskin ” in the 
“ Distaff.” 

We welcome the “ Palette and 
Loom” and hope to receive it reg- 
ularly. 

Father — “Johnny, why are you 
throwing those crumbs at your 
sister’s head ?" 

Johnny (innocently) — “To feed 
the rat.” — Exchange. 

Why is the Tugela an angry 
stream? 

Because it is often crossed. 

The Americans in the Transvaal 
say that they have often had lager 
in a schooner, but now they can 
have a schooner in a laager. 

Fighting to try your strength is 
vain glory ; 

Fighting fer principle is true brav- 
ery. — Andrew C. Rupp, Sat- 
urday Blade. 


The boss — “So you want ’a job, 
do you ? What can you do ?” 

Applicant — “ Nothing in partic- 
ular; but then, work is not so 
much an object as good wages.” 

Pollyticks is nothing more nor 
less than handlin’ other people’s 
money. 

Tourist to Irish Jarvey — “This 
is a very fine building.” 

Jarvey — “ Och, sorr, but ye 
should see the front. This is the 
back, the front’s behint.” 

“O Johnny, baby is trying to 
swallow a cork.” 

It can’t, a cork will stop her.” 

In Great Britain the 7th day of 
April will in the future be known 
as “Queen’s Day.” 

“Sam,” said a preacher to his 
negro coachman, “what did you 
think of my sermon ?” 

“Well, Massa, I thought you 
went by a lot of good stopping 
places.” 


Merrimack Wool Scouring Mills 

WOOL ARD ROlbS SCOURED, CARBORIZED ARD REUTF^AIiIZED. 

•» V? 


THOMAS HARTLEY. 


Lawrence, Mass. 


44 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Established 1832. 


NOS. 107 AND 113 MARKET ST. 


EBERT HARNESS CO. 

(W. H. MULNO, Prop.) 

Manufacturers of and dealers in Harness, Saddles, Bridles, Collars. Whips, 
Robes, Blankets, Brushes, Fly Nets, Axle Grease, Harness Oils, etc. 


Repairing of All Kinds Promptly Attended to. 


An ignorant man should always 
remain silent, but if he knows 
enough to do so he isn’t ignorant. 

During a recent meeting a town 
councellor informed his colleagues 
that he had an observation to make 
and could not remain silent with- 
out doing so. 

This was the remark of an old 
Scotsman to his vicar regarding 
the most fitting length for a ser. 
mon: “I tak it,” he said, “that a 
sermon should be na’ mair than 
feefteen meenutes, with a leaning 
to mercy’s side.” 

She (nervously trying to break 
the ice) — “Do you have • reindeer 
in Canada?” 

He (quickly) — “Yes, love, but it 
snows sometimes.” — Exchange. 

Always glad to receive the 
“Lowell High School Review.” 
The students seem to take an 
interest in the school, also in 


“Shavings,” even if they do hit 
some pretty hard. 

Read Character in the “ Gates 
Index.” 

Editorial column well written in 
the “ High School Gleaner.” 

One of our best exchanges “ The 
High School Journal,” Wilkesbarre, 
Pa. 

We welcome the “ High School 
Oracle,” Bridgewater, Mass. 

Glad to learn that the Senior 
Class Play of the “ High School 
Courier,” Haverhill, Mass., was a 
great success. 

The April number of the “ Or- 
ange and Black” contains some 
good stories. 

“The Herald” (Holyoke) con- 
tains several good stories. Notes 
on Exchange well written. 

We are glad to receive the 
“ Thistle,” a new exchange. 


M. G. WIGHT i COMPANY, 

. . . Mill Supplies, Ruling and Binding. 


67 MIDDLE STREET, 


LOWELL, MASS. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


45 


TO THE BEST-DIIESSED 31 EN ! ! 

“ It is essential to know what is correct and proper.” 

These essentials are studied by ... . 

ITIOKBRSOIT, 

THE THILOR, 

Hildreth Building, L0WEL1>, MASS. 


Adolpheus (aged 7)—“ Say, pa, 
what is a convulsion ? 

Fond Parent — “A bad fit, my 
>> 

son. 

Adolpheus (after a little thought) 
— “ What a convulsion your new 
suit is.” — Exchange. 

“The High School Bulletin” of 
Lawrence, Mass., has a very inter- 
esting and well written editorial 
column. The Exchange editor 
must be a hustler. 

“Johnnie,” said his father, “who 
is the laziest boy in school?” 

“ I dunno.” 

“Why, surely you do. Who is 
it, that when the rest are studying, 
sits and idly gazes about the room.’’ 

“ The teacher.” — Exchange. 

The April number of the Eng- 
lish High School “Recorder,” 
Lynn, Mass., contains a good story 
entitled “When Faint Heart Won.” 


We are always pleased to receive 
the “Wind Mill,” an exceedingly 
bright and breezy journal. 

Ghost stories seem to be running 
riot nrong the exchanges. 

The “Panorama” contains a well 
written article on Amateur Pho- 
tography in the March number. 

“ Marguerite” is a good story in 
the “ Radiator.” 

We wish to congratulate the 
“Students’ Review” on its well 
written editorial column. The 
students seem to take an interest 
in their paper. We wish the “ Re- 
view” success. 

Fresh. — “Why do you say I am 
like a Christmas tree? ” 

Soph. — “ Because you are of the 
evergreen species.” — Exchange. 

Querius — “ If married men have 
better halves, what do bachelors 
have ?” 

Cynicus — “ Better quarters.” 


THOriAS IlcNAriARA, 740 Lawrence St. DUNCAN MacNABB, Hanager. 

MHMES.IT MHCHIN6 CO., 


ENGINEERS AND MACHINISTS. 


All Kinds of Machine Work. - Engine Work a Specialty. 
OPP. CARTRIDGE CO. TELEPHONE 646-2. 


46 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Delicious Ice Cream Soda, 

All Flavors 5 cents. 

MOORS’ DRUG STORE. 

Opp. Post Office, ,\ LOWKLL, MASS. 

.. FT A. NT. TOBIN .. 

Job Printing, 

ASSOCIATE BUILDING. LOWELL. 

REPAIRING ¥r 

We make a specialty of repairing fine Watches. 
Prices right and workmanship guaranteed. 

CHAS. W. DURANT, 

Central and Middle St., lowell, mass. 

w. C. JIAMBLETT, Pres S. B PUFFER, Treas. 
JAS. TALBOT, Selling Agent, 10 Franklin St., N. Y. 

Criterion Knitting Co., 

Manufacturers of all kinds of 

JERSEY “SPRING-NEEDLE UNDERWEAR 

220 Tanner Street, Lowell, Mass. 

A Warranted... 

TOOTH BRUSH FOR I9cts. 

We give a new brush if the bristles come out. 

CARLETON & HOVEY, Prescription Druggists. 

Cor. Merrimack and Shattuck Sts., Lowell, Mass. 

Repairing, Cleansing Dress Suits for Sale 

and Pressing. and to Let. 

ARTHUR M. BERTRAND, 

Successor to F. W. Sargent. 

MERCHANT - TAILOR. 

24 Middle Street, - Lowell, Mass. 

Wear the ALLRIGHT SHOE? 

Its the shoe you ought to buy, at the price 
you ought to pay. New styles just received. 

HUNTOON’S SHOE STORE, 

12 Central Street, Lowell, Mass. 

GOTO WESTWOOD’S PHARMACY 

FOR YOUR 

Drugs and Medicines. 

Prices as low as possible for first-class goods. 

Take Dr, Spencer’s Family Remedies. 

We carry a full line. 

175 Gorham St., cor. Summer, Lowell. 

See our $5.00 Dress Suit Cases, 

P. F. DEVINE, 

Maker and Repairer of 

Trunks and Leather Goods 

88 Merrimack St., Lowell, and 410 Essex St., Lawrence. 

J. T. Fontaine, 

Artist photographer 

475 Merrimaok St., Lowell, Mass. 

C. H. BURNS, 

FIRST-CLASS BARBER, 

Rooms 12-14 Glidden Building, 

40 Middlesex Street, . . Lowell, Mass. 

MarMe, l ffttiStlC PlBIDOllalS, 

Granite, , 

Bronze, \ Fine Work a Specialty. 

CHAS. WHEELER, 

51 Thorndike Street, - - Lowell, flass. 

THOS. C. LEE & CO., 

INSURANCE, 

52 CENTRAL ST„ - LOWELL, MASS. 

To get the best Soda in town 
you want to try 

LITCH’S, 

415 Bridge St. .*. Lowell, Mass. 


Lowell Textile Journal 


THE JACQUARD MACHINE. 

ITS HISTORY, CONSTRUCTION AND USE. 


The Jacquard machine is named 
after Joseph Marie Jacquard, a 
straw-hat manufacturer of Lyons, 
France, who was born in 1752 and 
died in 1834. 

What is a Jacquard machine? 
We often hear the expressions, 
Jacquard loom and Jacquard har- 
ness, but strictly speaking there are 
no such things. The Jacquard 
machine is merely an apparatus for 
selecting rising warp threads, and 
a harness, in all essentials the same 
as we find it today, was used cen- 
turies before the Jacquard was in- 
vented. 

It is then what is technically 
termed a shedding motion, and is 
used to produce patterns of great 
width, in which all, or most all of 
the threads in a repeat, move in- 
dependently. It permits elaborate 
geometrical and floral effects, and 
flowing lines, to be readily obtained. 
Before the invention of the Jac- 


quard, these were woven upon the 
draw loom, a loom having harness 
cords similar to the Jacquard, but 
operated by a draw -boy, who 
worked the cords according to the 
draught or design. In very in- 
tricate patterns, sometimes as many 
as 8 or 10 draw boys were required 
at one loom, thus the early inven- 
tions were called draught engines. 

' Ashenhurst in his “ Weaving 
and Designing,” says : “ The 

attention of Jacquard was first 
directed to the subject of mechan- 
ical invention by seeing in a news- 
paper the offer of a reward for a 
machine for making nets. He 
produce the machine but did not 
claim the reward. The circum- 
stances becoming known to some 
persons in authority in Paris, Jac- 
quard was sent for, introduced to 
Napoleon and was employed in 
correcting the defects of a loom 
belonging to the State upon which 


4 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


large sums of money had been ex- 
pended. Jacquard stated that he 
could produce the effects intended 
to be produced on this loom, by 
far simpler means. He was request- 
ed to do so, and improving upon a 
model of Vancauson, produced the 
apparatus which bears his name. 
He returned to Lyons with a pen- 
sion of 1000 crowns, but his inven- 
tion was regarded with so much 
distrust and jealousy by the weavers, 
that they attempted to suppress it 
by violent means.” 

Fox, in his “ Mechanism of 
Weaving,” in writing of Jacquard’s 
invention, says : “ But few people 

ever received so much credit for 
doing so little.” 

“ Between the years 1725-46 sev- 
eral of his countrymen developed, 
and almost perfected, the machine 
known as the Jacquard. Working 
models of each invention are kept 
in the Conservatoire des Arts, Paris, 
and in the Municipal Technical 
School, Manchester, Eng. These 
afford conclusive proof that Jac- 
quard invented little or nothing 
essential to the machine, for except 
in the cylinder, his machine was 
inferior to one invented by Falcon, 
24 years before the birth of Jac- 
quard. In 1746 Vaucanson in- 
vented a machine which chiefly 
differed from the Jacquard in hav- 
ing an endless band of perforated 
papers, passed around a perforated 


cylinder, and rotated automatically, 
instead of an endless chain of per- 
forated cards, turning on a perfor- 
ated prism. Both machines oc- 
cupied similar positions on the 
loom, and cylinder and prism re- 
ceived lateral and rotary move- 
ments. The cards and prism were 
invented by Falcon, but the per- 
forations in the latter belong to 
Jacquard. 

“ The parts of Jacquard’s ma- 
chine are cards, prism or cylinder, 
needles, needleboard, heelrack, 
hooks and griffe, together with 
suitable framing and parts for hold- 
ing all in position, and allow- 
ing each to do its appointed 
duty. 

“ Of these parts in 1804 Jacquard 
used Falcon’s cards, prism, needles, 
heelrack, hooks, griffe and framing, 
but his cylinder and needleboard 
were drilled to form diagonal, in- 
stead of vertical, rows of holes. 
This he had to abandon, and finally 
Falcon’s arrangement was adopted. 
The Jacquard machine is Falcon’s 
invention inverted to give a direct 
instead of an indirect action, and 
fixed on the loom where Vaucanson 
had previously fixed his; to which 
Jacquard added parts to enable the 
prism to move out, make one-fourth 
of a revolution and move in again, 
to correspond as far as possible 
with the movement of Vaucanson’s 
cylinder. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


5 


“ Much is said for the complete- 
ness of this invention when it is 
mentioned that the machine has 
been in use over 90 years, and in 
all essential parts it remains un. 
changed. 

“ All modern effort has been 
directed towards increasing speed, 
reducing cost and imperfections to 
a minimum. 

“ The kind of machines in gen- 
eral use may be classified as fol- 
lows : single acting, center shed, 
double acting single cylinder, 
double acting double cylinder, open 
shed twilling, and other machines 
specially constructed to reduce the 
number or size of cards ordinarily 
required for a given pattern.” 

These are made in different sizes 
for different classes of work, and are 
known as 300, 400 and 600 hook 
machines, etc., each machine, how- 
ever, contains a few more hooks 
than the number given, which may 
be used for selvedges or any other 
purpose. Thus a 300 machine 
contains 304 hooks, or 38 rows of 
8; a 400 machine has 408 hooks, 
or 51 rows of 8. A 600 ma- 
chine contains either 602 or 608 
hooks, according to whether the 
hooks are in rows of 1 2 or 8, 
in the former case there being 51 
rows, and in the latter 76 rows, 
equal to a 300 double machine. 

All Jacquard machines can be 
divided into the following parts. 


1. The frame and the perforted 
board through which the neck 
cords are passed. 

2. The griffe and the necessary 
attachments for lifting the same. 

3. The hooks. 

The needles. 

The spring and spring frame. 
The needleboard. 

The cylinder, hammer, and 
batten. 

8. The catches. 

The cards. 

The Jacquard harness. 


4 - 

5 - 
6 . 

7 - 


9 - 
10. 



Fig. No. 1 is a skeleton section 
of a Jacquard machine. Some of 
the details being purposely omitted. 




6 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


A. Represents the hooks to 
which are attached the harness 
cords. 

B. The needles which press 
back the hooks when they are not 
intended to be raised. 

C. Needleboard which supports 
the needles near an end, and guides 
them into the holes in the cylinder. 

D. Springbox containing as many 
small spiral open springs as there 


F. Comberboard which will be 
described later. 

G. Cylinder , a square perforated 
bar or prism. The holes in which 
are bored to correspond with the 
holes in the needleboard. If the 
blank cylinder is pressed against 
the needleboard every hook in the 
machine will be in proper position 
to be lifted ; but if a blank card be 
placed between the cylinder and 



FIGURE NO. 2. 


are needles or cross wires, each 
spring acting upon the. loop at the 
end of the needle. The pressure 
thus keeping the needles projecting 
through the needleboard in proper 
position and keeps the hooks a in 
an upright position. 

E. Perforated board for neck 
cords to pass through. 


needleboard, all the hooks would 
be pressed back out of the way of 
the griffe bars H. Fig. / and would 
not be in a position to be lifted. 
These griffe bars are placed in a 
moveable frame having a vertical 
motion, being lifted at every pick. 
The duty of the griffe bars is to 
lift such of the hooks as are not 


THE LOWELL. TEXTILE JOURNAL 


7 


pressed back by the needles B. 
The cylinder is held in proper po- 
sition by the hammer pressing 
against the lantern. 

Fig. No. 2 represents a small 
single acting Jacquard machine, 
which gives the true Jacquard lift. 

The pattern is formed by having 
a number of cards, with holes 
punched to represent the pattern, 
and passing over the cylinder. At 
each pick of the loom, the arm or 
batten containing the cylinders is 
carried away from the needleboard 
and all the needles are released' 
Then as the shed closes the cylin- 
der (having made a quarter revolu- 
tion by means of catches engaging 
the projections at the ends of the 
cylinder as it moves away from the 
needleboard) again comes forward 
and presses a new card against the 
needles, thus forcing back such of 
the hooks as are not required to be 
raised by the pattern which is be- 
ing woven. The griffe is then 
raised, carrying with it all the hooks 
which were not disturbed by the 
card. Thus it will be seen that 
the hooks can be raised in any 
manner whatever simply by punch- 
ins a hole in the card where it 
comes opposite its individual hole 
in the needleboard. 

The cards are kept in proper 
position on the cylinder by pegs 
driven into the cylinder. To en- 
able the cards to pass in regular 


order over the cylinder they are 
laced together in an endless ar- 
rangement. This lacing is done 
by hand or upon the lacing ma- 
chine, by means of a string laced 
through holes which are cut for 
the purpose at each end and in the 
middle. 

JACQUARD HARNESS. 

It has already been mentioned 
that this harness forms no part of 
Jacquard’s invention, and that it 
existed just as it is today, centuries 
before his birth. 

It consists of couplings, comber- 
board and mounting thread or 
leash. 

A coupling includes a lingoe, a 
mail, and two loops of linen thread. 

A lingoe is a piece of round 
wire, or lead, flattened and punched 
at one end to allow the lower hoop 
of the coupling to pass through. 
It varies in weight from 1-4 to 1-40 
of a pound in weight. 

It is simply a dead weight hang- 
ing at the end of each coupling to 
keep the twine in tension. The 
lower loop connects lingoe and 
mail, and must be long enough to 
permit the Jacquard hooks to lift 
without carrying lingoes amongst 
warp forming the bottom shed. 

Mails are made of brass, copper, 
steel or glass. Some have from 2 
to 5 eyes for warp, but as a rule 
they contain 3 holes, a small one 


8 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


near each end, and a larger one in 
the center, both outer holes receive 
coupling twine, and the middle one 
is reserved for wax. An upper 
loop varies in length according as 
the connection with mounting 
thread is made above or below the 
comberboard. 

The mounting thread connects 
the upper loop to the tail-cord 
which is fastened to the lower end 
of the hook. 

THE COMBERBOARD 

is a finely perforated board stretch- 
ing across the loom ; the holes are 
only large enough to .admit a 
strong linen thread to pass freely 
through. It is employed to keep 
the harness threads separate, and 
hold each mail exactly opposite the 
particular dent in the reed through 
which the warp thread has to pass. 

The holes in the 300 and 400 
machines are bored at regular dis- 
tances in rows of 8, the distance 
apart being arranged according to 
the ends per inch required in the 
cloth. Sometimes comberboards are 
made from slips held together in a 
groved frame, which enables the 
sett or threads per inch to be al- 
tered to a slight extent by moving 
the slips apart. Comberboards are 
also made by having a wooden 
frame containing wires crossing 
each other. 

There are two principle methods 


of tying up the harness, generally 
called the London tie and the Nor- 
wich tie. 

In the London tie the cards are 
worked over the side of the loom, 
which places the machine in such 
a position that the row of 8 in the 
machine stands at right angles to 
the row of 8 on the comberboard, 
so that when the harness cords are 
tied to their proper hooks they 
cross each other very much. 

In the Norwich tie the cards 
work either over the head of the 
weaver, or over the warp; this 
places the machine so that each 
cord is connected to the hook which 
stands in the most natural position 
to it, thus diminishing the friction 
among the cords. In tying up the 
harness the number of leashes tied 
up to each neck-cord varies with 
the number of repeats required of 
the pattern to be woven, 2, 3, 4 and 
6 being very common for straight 
over tie. 

CARD CUTTING. 

Card cutting machines are of two 
classes — namely, those used to 
tram fer a pattern from design 
paper to cards, and those used to 
copy perforations from an existing 
set of cards to a new set. 

The most familiar machines of 
both classes appear to be of French 
origin. The oldest of all is still 
used in districts where small Jac- 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


9 


quards are the rule. It consists of 
a pair of perforated plates that are 
hinged together, and after placing 
a blank card upon the lower plate> 
the top one closes over it and is 
locked by a sliding catch, both 
plates are secured to a frame with 
rollers underneath that run on rail- 
way lines. A third or carrying 
plate, is perforated like the other?) 
but furnished with a handle at each 
end. It is placed as a bench, upon 
which the design to be copied is 
fixed, and a box containing round 
punches i i-2 inches by 7-32 inch 
diameter, and 1-4 inch heads, is 
within easy reach. The punches 
are dropped one by one into holes 
of the carrying plate to correspond 
with the painted design, then plate 
and punches (for the heads prevent 
the latter from falling out), are 
lifted above the other plates and 
pressure of some kind is exerted 
to force all punches through the 
card. 

The apparatus now generally 
used for this p rpose is a roller 
press, turned by one hand and the 
plates pushed beneath it with the 
other. 

The process is much more rapid 
than might be supposed, especially 
where the ground work of a pat- 
tern is regular, such as plain cloth 
or twill. 

In the case of a plain ground 
the punches are set for the first card, 


but after that a cutter cuts odd 
picks only for the first reading, be- 
cause few punches require chang- 
ing, probably not more than a 
dozen. 

On the second reading he takes 
all even picks. 

A twill ground is read by repeats 
of the twill, thus for a four end 
twill every fourth pick is cut at 
each reading. 

A modern machine, much used 
for cutting cards from the design, 
is the so-called piano machine, 
which punches one row at each 
stroke or revolution, according to 
the keys operating the punches are 
held down by the fingers. 

If a set of cards is already cut 
for any pattern, any number of 
duplicates can be obtained by using 
the repeating machine, which oper- 
ates in much the same manner as a 
Jacquard, and duplicates a whole 
card at each stroke, working en- 
tirely automatic, being fed with a 
continuous string of blank cards. 
At one side of the machine, and 
the set to be duplicated, work- 
ing over a cylinder at the other 
side, the needles operating punches 
instead of hooks as in the Jac- 
quard. 

The variety of fabrics produced 
by the use of the Jacquard machine 
is very extensive and includes 
damasks, quiltings, silks, cotton, 
woolen and worsted dress goods, 


IO 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


curtains and tapestries, carpets and 
figured pile fabrics, gauze fabrics, 
etc., nearly every one of the fabrics 
requiring Jacquards, specially con- 
structed or special tie-ups. 

The description given above of 
the single-acting Jacquard, which is 
the simplest form of machine in use, 
has several disadvantages, one of 
which is that one shed must be 
closed before the following one 
begins to open. This is on account 
of the same lifter or m-iffe having; 
to open each shed ; it must bring 
down the set of hooks that are 
raised and then raise the next set, 
thus forming a closed shed, and if 
a hook was required to be raised on 
say a dozen consecutive picks, it 
would also have to be dropped at 
every pick, causing unnecessary 
strain upon the warp yarn and con- 
suming much power. And, al- 
though this constitutes the true 
Jacquard lift, it is generally con- 
sidered the most imperfect form of 
shedding, that is so far as the mak- 
ing; of a g;ood cloth is concerned. 
It is not suitable for working at a 
high speed, 120 to 140 picks per 
minute being a good speed to drive 
it. 

Another defect is the shed form- 
ed, which varies in size, being larger 
in the middle than at the sides 
where it is most needed, but this is 
not so noticeable on narrow looms 
as on broad. A single illustration 


will show why this is so. Suppose 
we have a loom 100 ins. reed width, 
and it is 7 ft. 6 in. from comber 
board to neck cord where the 
leashes for each repeat of the pat- 
tern are fastened. If we choose a 
leash hanging vertical in the 
center of the loom, then another 
leash attached to the same hook 
but passing through the comber- 
board near the selvedge will form 
the hypothenuse of a right angle, 
triangle with the vertical leash and 
the comberboard, and if the hook 
is raised by the griffe say 4 in. to 
form the shed, the leash near the 
selvedge will not be raised 4 in. 
but 3.32 in., for exemple: 

7 ft. 0 in. — 90 in. % reed width = 50 in. 

90s -I- 0 O 2 = 10GOO V 10600 = 102.95 in. hypothenupe 
before hook is lifted. After hook is lifted the 

vertical leash is 94 in., then 

942 -J- 0 O 2 = 11336 V 11336 = 106.47 in. hypothenuse. 

106.47 in. — 102.95 in. = 3.32 in. 

An interesting example of Jac- 
quard weaving, a copy of which 
can be seen hanging in the office 
of the Textile School, is a repro- 
duction of Phiddeman’s famous 
painting, “ Columbus Sighting Am- 
erica,” which was designed and 
woven at the Arlington Mills, Law- 
rence, Mass. 

The following; account from 
“Tops,” issued by the Arlington 
Mills, gives some interesting facts 
in connection with the preparation, 
design and weaving of this picture 
which was woven as a souvenir of 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


I I 


the Four Hundredth Anniversary 
of the discovery of America by 
Columbus, and a memorial of the 
great World’s Columbian Exposi- 
tion, and will give some idea of the 
work involved. 

“ A photograph of an engraving 


of a thread in the warp and filling in 
the- cloth. This design sheet 6 ft. 
5 in. wide and 8 ft. 9 in. high, and 
was a picture in itself, the figures 
being larger than the life size. 

The loom used was an ordinary 
power loom with the Jacquard 



COLVMBVS SIGHTING’ AMERICA 

DESICNED AND WOVEN AT THE 

ARLINGTON MILLS 

LAWRENCE MA S5ACHV SETTS \SA 


made from the original painting, attachment was 62 in. wide, driven 
was first taken, and from that photo- by steam power, and operated by 
graph the weaving design was made one man. It was fitted with 4 
on an enlarged scale upon cross-sec- Jacquard engines ; two of these had 
tion paper, each square of which is 400 hooks and cords, and two of 
intended to represent the position them 304 each. The engines were 



12 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


placed back to back, the cards 
running in front of as well as back 
of the loom, and all four engines 
operated at one and the same time 
upon the warp. 

Number of cards used . . ‘21,024 

Number of holes in cards . 4 162,750 

Length of cards placed end to end 4^ miles 
Area covered f 5,140 sq ft. or floor space 
by cards l over 70 ft. sq. 


Weight of cards . . . 875 lbs 

Ends of warp per inch . . . 1 1 7 

Total ends of warp .... 3,850 
Picks per inch, white yarn . . 120 

Picks per inch, colored yarn . .120 

Total picks per inch . . . 240 

Speed of loom, picks per minute . 150 

Total picks in each picture . . 5 250 


The pictures are made of the 
finest silk yarn, and were woven 
two abreast in the loom, each pic- 
ture being 16 3-8 in. by 22 3-4 in. 
in size, and the time required to 
weave the two pictures, was one 
hour and one quarter. 

The silk yarn used in each pic- 
ture, if extended in a straight line, 
would measure 10,814 feet, or a 
little over two miles. 

In conclusion I might mention 
the latest invention pertaining to 
Jacquard weaving, which it is 
claimed will revolutionize the tex- 
tile industry. Is is now about two 
years since the textile papers had 
much to say regarding Herr Jan 
Szcyepanik’s wonderful invention, 
by which it is claimed that by util- 
izing photography and electricity 
for weaving purposes, he can ac- 


complish now in a single quarter of 
an hour what it has taken the de- 
signer months or years to complete, 
according to the size of the design. 
Unfortunately, however, it has so 
far been so shrouded in mystery 
that it is hard to say if it is practic- 
able or not. But we expect to know 
more regarding this invention when 
the Paris Exposition opens, as it is 
to be exhibited there for the first 
time, and has promised to weave 
your portrait while you wait. 

HERE IS A WHOPPER. 

Seven years ago a farmer hung 
his vest in the barn yard; a calf 
chewed the pocket in the garment, 
in which was a gold watch. One 
day the animal, a staid old cow, was 
butchered for beef, and the watch 
was found in such a position be- 
tween the lungs of the cow that the 
process of respiration — the closing 
in and filling of the lungs — kept 
the stemwinder w T ound up, and the 
watch had lost but four minutes in 
the seven years. Skeptics are 
shown the watch in evidence of 
the truth of the story! How can 
they get over that ? — Guelph 
Herald. 

Old lady (to shopman) — “ I see 
you recover umbrellas.” 

Shopman — Yes’m, lots of ’em.” 

Old lady — “ Well, I want the one 
I lost last Monday.” — Recorder . 


THE LOWELL, TEXTILE JOURNAL 


13 


CHINESE vs. AMERICAN COTTON GOODS. 


Consul-General Good now writes 
from Shanghai, in regard to state- 
ments that he has seen in United 
States newspapers relative to the 
magnitude of oriental competition 
in the cotton-manufacturing trade. 
The articles refer to a cotton mill 
at Hankau, in which, it is alleged, 
only Chinese labor is employed at 
wages averaging $(.75 per month. 
The mill has 34,000 spindles and 
700 looms and makes good yarn. 
Other mills, it is said, are located 
in Shanghai. The real facts about 
cotton manufactures in China, says 
Mr. Goodnow, are these: The mill 
in Hankau has discontinued weav- 
ing cloth, as it could not meet 
the competition of foreign piece 
goods. The looms are being taken 
out and are being replaced by spin- 
dles. In Shanghai there are 750 
looms running. It is claimed that 
these are now (but only very 
recently) making a coarse sheeting 
at a profit. The cost of making 
this sheeting is fully as much as 
the manufacture of the same grade 
of cloth costs in America. Instead 
of wages averaging $ 1.75 permonth, 
the cheapest coolie laborer receives 
$6 Mexican ( $3 gold) per month ; 


carders and spinners receive $25 to 
$30 Mexican ($12 to $15 gold) per 
month; engineers and weavers re- 
ceive $20 to $60 Mexican ($10 to 
$30 gold) per month. Wages have 
raisen very fast in the treaty ports, 
with the building of mills and the 
establishment of the foreign busi- 
nesses, and are maintained at the 
higher level. 

The labor, however, is less effec- 
tive than the American labor. The 
American weavers accomplish two 
to three times, andAmerican spin- 
ners at least four times, the results 
attained by corresponding Chinese 
workmen in the same time. Two 
of the mills in Shanghai are now 
run entirely by Chinese, two have 
a foreign supervising engineer, and 
five have foreigners for the man- 
agers and heads of departments 
and supervisory places. 

The yarn manufactured at this 
point and at Hankau goes to the 
province of Szechuan, and is there 
made into cloth on handlooms in 
the villages and houses of the con- 
sumers. Only the coarse grades 
of cotton yarn are made, and the 
higher price of raw Chinese cotton, 
as the demand has increased, to- 


H 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


gether with the competition of In- 
dian and Japanese yarn, has caused 
these mills to run at a loss to the 
present time. 

The cotton cloths dominating 
the market in northern China and 
now challenging trade in central 
China are from America. 

We can control this market, adds 
Mr. Good now, so long as we have 
an equal entrance into all China, 
especially as freight lines from our 
country are multiplied ; and when 
the Nicaragua canal is built, no 
other than American cotton goods 
need apply in China. 


MAKING A RECORD. 


Thomas Kitson, a widely-known 
woolen manufacturer, whose repu- 
tation extended to the Old World, 
is dead. Mr. Kitson gained fame 
for a feat which gave to the world 
a record of speed and workman- 
ship in the textile industry. In 
the amazing time of six hours and 
four minutes the fleece of six sheep 
was transformed into a finished 
suit of up-to-date clothing worn by 
Mr. Kitson. The previous world’s 
record of this kind was held by a 
mill at Galashiels, Scotland, and 
was eight hours. At the Scotland 
trial, however, only one kind of 
wool was used, whereas in the Kit- 
son trial there was a mixture of 


20 per cent, white and 40 per cent, 
black, making altogether a better 
cloth and giving a distinct plaid 
pattern. 

A 6.30 on the morning of May 
18, 1898, six sheep were shorn by 
half a dozen experienced shearers, 
who soon had the raw material off 
the animals and in the hands of the 
wool sorter. After this process it 
was scoured, dyed, dried, placed 
upon the picker, carded and pre- 
pared lor spinning. It was then 
spooled, dressed and handed in, 
reeded and finally woven. 

Under the watchful eye of the 
boss weaver the cloth came quickly 
from the loom and was then passed 
into the finishing room, where it 
went respectively through the pro- 
cess of fulling, washing, extracting, 
drying, shearing, pressing and 
general finishing. All in all, the 
cloth was subjected to eighteen 
processes of manufacture before 
reaching the tailor’s hands. 

At about 10 o’clock the cloth 
was given to the tailors who, in the 
short time of two and one-half 
hours, had the suit finished, with 
every button in its place, and fit, 
style and workmanship of the high- 
est order, at the residence of Mr. 
Kitson. A few minutes later he 
received the hearty congratulations 
of his many friends. — Wades 
“ Fibre and Fabric." 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


15 


30,000 

PERHflM® LOOMS 

A Year is the Number We Expect to Make. 

We had a dozen machine shops and foundries on 
the list but none so well suited to the needs of a large 
loom business as the 

ATHERTON RIRCHINiE GO.’S PLANT, 

LOWELL, MASS., 

which we bought at auction. It was bought because 
we wanted a home for the PERHAM LOOM with 
space in which to grow. We have 21 acres 
and only 3 or 4 covered with buildings. 

The machines made by the Atherton Company 
were of the highest order. We shall soon start the 
works and the last to come must not expect to be the 
first served. 

“A Word to the Wise is Sufficient.” 

If it is a dividend you are after, remember the 

PERHHM LOOM. 

PERHAM & STICKNEY, Lowell, Mass. 

N. B. — Two gentlemen at the Manufacturers’ con- • 
vention timed the 30-in. PERHAM LOOM and stated 
that it was running 480 picks a minute. The manu- 
facturer who furnished the yarn said it would not 
stand over 200 picks. Have you an idea that the 
loom could run at this speed if it was not easy on the 
warp and filling ? 


i6 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


SAMUEL II. THOMPSON, President. ELISHA J. NEALE, Treasurer. 

The Thompson Hardware Co., 

importers, Manufacturers and dealers in 

MILL SUPPLIES, TOOLS AND METALS. 

All Kinds of Hardware and Builders’ Supplies. 

254 and 256 ITerrimack Street, = Lowell, flass. 


“ LA UGH AND GROW FA 77’ 

Dorothy — Mamma, if I should 
die, would I go to heaven ? 

“Why, yes, darling of course you 
would.” 

“ And if you should die, would 
you go to heaven, too ? 

“ I hope so, dear.” 

“ I hope so, too ; because it would 
be very awkward for me to be 
known as the little girl whose 
mother is in hell.” — Life. 

The mouthpiece of a telephone 
may be perfectly respectable, but 
there are a great may things said 
against it. 

Mother — Bobby, this is the third 
time I’ve caught you stealing jam, 
and I’m getting tired of it. 

Bobby — Well, why don’t you quit 
hangin’ ’round the pantry then ? 

A shrewd little fellow lived with 
an uncle who barely afforded him 
the necessaries of life. One day 


the two were out together and saw 
a very thin greyhound, and the 
man asked his nephew what made 
the dog so poor. “ I expect he 
lives with his uncle,” said the boy. 

Uncle Bob — Did you enjoy your 
visit in the country, Johnny? 

Johnny — Naw, it’s dead slow. 
W’y, dey don’t even have no cops 
to chase yer when yer goes in 
swimmin’. 

The pupils in a school were 
asked to give in writing the differ- 
ence between a biped and a qua- 
druped. One boy gave the follow- 
ing: 

“A biped has two legs and a 
quadruped has four legs ; therefore 
the difference betwen a biped and 
a quadruped is two legs. — Tit-Bits 

A grave-digger buried a man 
named B tton, and brought in the 
following bill to his widow : “ For 
making one Buttonhole, $ 5 .” — Ex. 


Established 1840. Incorporated 1884. 

TALBOT DYE WOOD AND CHEMICAL CO. 
Acids, Dyewoods, G^emical, 

Drugs, and Dyestuffs Generally. 

38 to 44 MIDDLE STREET, 


LOWELL, MASS. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


*7 


THE LOWELL 
TEXTILE JOURNAL. 

A Monthly Publication by Students of the Lowell Textile 
School, with papers and other valuable information by leading 
manufacturers. 

FENWICK UMPLEBY, Business Manager. 
Sub Editor, S. W. WESTON. 

Secretary and Treasurer, C. E. CURRAN. 


PUBLISHED MONTHLY 

AT 

No. 67 Hiddle Street, » Lowell, Hass. 

BY 

THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL COMPANY. 


Entered at the Post-Office at Lowell as Second 
Class Mail Matter. 


subscription terms. 

For one year, postage paid $1.00 

Single Copies • 10c 

For Sale at all Newsdealers. 


Advertisement s must be at the Journal Office before the 
fifteenth of each month for insertion that month. 

Contributions may be sent to Editor of The Lowell Textile 
Journal, and willreceive prompt attention . 


EDITORIAL. 


Did you ever try to write for a 
trade or school paper? You won’t 
find it very difficult, and your 
method of doing something in the 
mill may help someone out of a 
difficulty. If you know of nothing 
to tell, suppose you ask for some 
information and thus afford an op- 
portunity for others to express 
themselves. 


Let our readers make a general 
information bureau by establishing 
a “ Query and Reply” department, 
in which all may feel free to ask 
and answer questions. What more 
valuable feature could a journal 
possess ? 

Those who wish to succeed in 
life must begin by putting the idea 
of “luck ” behind them. • 

“ Who reads and learns, 

But tells not what he knows, 

Is one who plods and plows, 
But never sows.” 

A subscriber asks: “What are 
the requisite talents of a successful 
overseer?” We have read in one 
of the textile trade papers the fol- 
lowing receipt : “ He must be so 

systematized in his habits, both 
mental and physical, that he can 
judge quickly what is necessary to 
be done, and how to do it ; he must 
have tact and judgment in the giv- 
ing of his orders, and understand 
the abilty and capacity of each 
operative, and keep run in his mind 
of the progress made by each one 
under his supervision.” 


New England noilngn ol Languages, 

Special Courses for Business Men and Women. Write for Circular. 
F1ZOF. F. KUNZE1Z, Fit. I Director , 

Tel ephone Philips’ Building. 120 Tremont St., 3 Hamilton Flace, Boston , Mass . 


i8 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


BEST HALF-HOSE HAVE THE 



SfLAW STOCKING CO. LOWELL, MASS. SEND FOR FREE CATALOGUE 


Again we appeal to those of our 
readers who are in arrears to pay 
up. It takes cash to run a paper 
and cash we must have, don’t for- 
get. 

A subscriber wishes a full des- 
cription of Irish Frieze. We will 
answer this question in next issue. 

There are many people who be- 
lieve that in the public schools the 
teaching of writing is conducted 
on a wrong principle. They argue 
that in the teaching of writing the 
first, last and only rule of the school 
should be to train the children to 


make the written letters of the al- 
phabet uniform and in the system 
most nearly approaching that most 
common among rapid and legible 
writers. 

When the school has done this 
with the child the argument is that 
it should leave it free to develop a 
handwriting individual to itself, the 
only care taken by the teacher be- 
ing to see that the uniformity and 
legibility are being preserved 
throughout. 

The subject is an interesting one 
and worthy the study and attention 
of not only teacher, but parents 
and the children themselves. 


COLUMBIAN STUDIO. 

OUR specialties: 

BROMIDE, CRAYON AND PASTEL 
WORK. 


We are Unexcelled in Children’s Photos. 

Sittings made in Cloudy 
as well as in fair weather. 

J. POWELL, Photographer, 

55 So. Whipple St., Lowell, Mass., Tel. Connection. 





THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


19 


N. Whittier, Treasurer and General Manager. Helen A. Whittier, President. W. It. It. Whittier, Agent. 


WHITTIER COTTON MILLS , Chattahoochee, Ga. 

General Office, Lowell, Mass. 


cotion Yams, 2s 10 40s 


Single or Twisted, 2 to 200 ends, Ply, Cable Hawser, delivered on Spools 
Skeins, Hanks, Creels, Balls, Hearns, Warper Halls, Cones, 

Grey or Colored. Fire Hose Cords a Specialty. 


The man who is afraid of doing 
too much, is near a kin to him who 
seeks to do nothing. 

Mr. John Howard, a graduate of 
the evening weaving class of 1900, 
has been advanced in position, hav- 
ing been transferred from Stott’s 
number one mill, to Stott’s number 
two mill, Lawrence street, as over- 
seer of weaving. 

The weavers and overseers of No. 
1 mill showed their appreciation of 
Mr. Howard by presenting him 
with a combination writing desk 
and bookcase. 

It is a pleasure to record such 
promotions. 


EXPEDICI OUS CLOTH 

MAKING IN 1811. 


At five o’clock in the morning 
of the 25th of June, 1811, Sir John 
Throckmorton, bart., presented two 


sheep to Mr. Coxeter, of Green- 
hams Mills, Newbury, Berks, for 
the purpose of proving that a coat 
could be made from the wool before 
night. The sheep were imme- 
diately shorn, and the wool being 
sorted, etc., it passed through the 
usual process of scouring, dyeing, 
scribbling, spinning (on the jenny), 
weaving (by hand), and a fine 
kersey cloth was manufactured be- 
fore four o’clock in the afternoon. 
The cloth ’was then put into the 
hands of tailors, who completed 
the coat at twenty minutes past 
six, and Sir John had the pleasure 
of appearing in it at a public dinner 
at seven. 

Teacher — “ Now, Johnny, can 
you tell me the most precious 
metal ? ” 

Johnny hesitated, whereupon the 
teacher suggestively fumbled with 
his watch chain. Johnny caught 
on and yelled out “ Brass.” 


FRANK PARKER, 

flanufacturer ot 

Steel : and : Brass : Bound : Bobbins : and : Spools. 

LOWELL, MASS. 


20 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 



YORKSHIRE ITEMS. 


The towns of the “ Britons,” says 
Caesar, “were inaccessible woods 
fortified by ditches and ramparts,” 
thus, “forests served them forcities ; 
they cut down a number of trees 
to inclose a large circle, within 
which they erected huts and stalls 
for their cattle, which were not de- 
signed for continued use.” A ram- 
part of earth, aided by trees cut 
down for that purpose formed 
generally their whole defence, both 
from the warlike incursions of 
neighboring tribes, and the attacks 
of wild beasts, with which thecountry 
in these early times abounded. The 
Romans experienced great difficulty 
in subduing the Britons; but when 
the conquest was in a great mea- 


sure completed, the country was 
governed in the usual manner of a 
Roman province; and towns began 
to rise in the course of time, being 
generally those whose names are 
now found to end in Chester; as 
Manchester, Winchester, etc., a 
termination derived from Castra, 
the lalin word for camp. There was 
a Castrum or an entrenched camp 
at Leeds on the hill lying between 
Charles street and High street; 
then called “ wall-flatt.” A tra- 
jectus or ford crossed the Aire, a 
short distance on the east side of 
the present old bridge. The Roman 
roads which intersected Yorkshire 
can occasionally be traced with 
considerable accuracy. There was 




PHOTOGRAPHER, 

Central Block, - Lowell, Mass. 


\V. H. BEAN. K. C. DUNBAR 

BEPCN St DUN BK R, 

Manufacture rs of GENERAL HOUSE FINISH, 

Stair Building;, Stair Posts, Rails and Balusters, 
Brackets and Columns. Wood Turning and Job 
Work .... 

593 to 605 Dutton St., 


Lowell Mass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


2 I 


STUDY 

the points of our different machines and com- 
pare with others 

UNDERSTAND 

the merits and you will be convinced beyond 
a doubt of their superiority. 

HOWARD & BULLOUGH 

American Alacliine Go., Ltd., Pawtucket, R. I. 



first the roacl from Doncaster, 
through what is called Pontefract 
Park, to Castleford, to Tadcaster, 
and thence to York. Second, the 
road from Tadcaster, through Stack 
near Huddersfield, to Manchester, 
passed through Leeds in a line a lit- 
tle to the east of Briggate, and its 
line is traceable in the neighbor- 
hood of Morley and Gildersome. 
(The word street is derived from the 
latin word Stratum, which indicates 
the course of a Roman road, hence 
Gildersome-Street, near Morley, 
and Street-lane, and Street-houses, 
on the moors near Shadwell, in- 
dicate the course of a Roman road.) 
Third, a road from Castleford, ran 
through Adel, towards Ukley. 

Early in the beginning of the 
x ith century, Seleth, the Shepherd, 
wandered from the South, pursuant 


to his visions, and fixed his her- 
mitage at Kirkstall, where an 
Abbey was afterwards built. 

1285. A staple of wool, etc., was 
settled at Boston, in Lincolnshire, 
and the merchants of the Hanseatic 
League established there their 
guild, and a tax of a mark was laid 
on every sack of wool exported, 
and a mark on every three hundred 
skins. 

1300. Wool in Craven at this 
time sold for more than 6 pounds 
a sack, consisting of 26 stones, of 
14 pounds to the stone. 

The Scots after gaining the bat- 
tle of Bannockburn, which occurred 
on the 25th July, 1 314,- overran the 
north of England, and in that and 
the three following years, they 
several times visited, plundered, 
and devasted the rich pastoral dis- 


OTIS ALLEN Sc SON, 

LOWELL, MASS. 

ALLEN’S STANDARD LOCK- CORNERED FILLING BOXES, 


Generali tj used in the New England Mills. 

ROVING CARS, DOFFING HONES, HACKING CASES, AND CL O HI HOARDS, 

WRITE FOR FRIGES, 


22 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


C. E. RILEY & CO. 

281-285 Congress St., 

BOSTON. 7VY7TSS. 

Latest Improvements and Specialties. 


^ inPORTERS AND BUILDERS OF 

/, 

V COTTON, 

/ WOOLEN, and 
2 WORSTED 

y CARD CLOTHING, 

S. EGYPTIAN COTTON, Etc. 

\ 



tricts of Craven, and also Bolton 
Priory. At their first irruption the 
prior fled into Blackburnshire ; 
several of the cannons took refuge 
in Skipton Castle, where part of 
their cattle were preserved; the 
granges of Emb^ay, Carlton, Hal- 
ton and Stede were destroyed, and 
all the cattle driven away from 
Halton where the corn lands lay 
untilled the next year. 

1336. Edward III granted h’s 
protection for two Brabant weavers 
to settle at York and carry on their 
trade there. Thev were stiled in 
the letters of protection “Wiiliemus 
de Brabant and Hanckeinus de 
Brabant, textores,” and probably 
laid the foundation of the woolen 
manufactures, which have so ama- 
zingly increased in the West. 
Riding. It is not improbable that 
the manufacturer Hankeinus gave 
the name of Hank to the skein of 
worsted and other thread so called 


to the present time. Before this 
period the English were chiefly 
“ shepherds and wool merchants, 
and the king received few other 
imposts but from wool exported. 

Edward III “ having solicited a 
great many men from the Nether- 
lands, well skilled in cloth making,” 
sent colonies of them to Ken Hal 
and other places. Before this 
period all the wool grown in the 
country was exported and manu- 
factured in the Netherlands. The 
manufacturers of Flanders, after- 
wards, seeking refuge from the per- 
secutions with which they were as- 
sailed in their own country, repaired 
in great numbers to England, and 
many of them settled at Halifax 
and the neighboring places. 

1339. The Parliament granted 
Edward III a duty ot forty shil- 
lings on each sack of wool ex- 
ported. Also the same amount on 
each three hundred wool-fells, and 


H. E. SARGENT <& CO., 

Allfree High Speed Economic Engines, 

Corliss Engines, Cook Water Tanks and Boilers. 


EQUITABLE BUILDING, 


BOSTON, MASS. 


THE LOWELL. TEXTILE JOURNAL 


23 

JOHN DENNIS. J- NELSON DENNIS. 

JOHN DENNIS St CO, 

Press Manufacturers, either Hydraulic, Screw, or Toyyle .Joint. 


Hollow Plate Finishing Presses and Balers. 
Belting, Curriers’ and Boll Coverers’ Machinery. 


on each last of leather, for two 
years. The act of parliament, 
which passed the preceding year 
for the encouragement of foreign 
weavers, prohibited the importation 
of foreign cloth, which it was de- 
clared should be worn by none but 
the king and queen, and their 
children. 

The v.oolen manufacturers sent 
a petition to the King and Lords, 
praying “ that the new custom 
lately set upon cloth,” exported 
from England, “ May be taken 
away.” This duty was on “ every 
cloth carried forth by English 1 4c!. 
by strangers 2 id, ’’except worsted 
cloth, on which the English mer. 
chants paid id per piece, and 
strangers 1 i-2d. 

1 354. .York, which had been long 
famous for trade, obtained by an 
act passed this year, the staple 
trade of wool, which had before 
been at Bruges, in Flanders. Many 


194 Western Ave., Lowell, Mass. 


of the York merchants were sub- 
sequently members of the ‘ Cor- 
poration of the Staple ” at Calais. 
The woolen manufacture flourished 
at York, so late as the reign of 
Henry VIII. 

1390. This year two species of 
English woolen cloth were manu- 
factured under an assize of length 
and breadth, viz.: the fine cloth of 
the western countries, and the 
course cloth of Kendal, the latter 
of which were called Kendal Cot- 
tons, though made wholly of wool ; 
for the real cotton manufacture did 
not exist in England till the middle 
of the 17th century. For several 
centuries the buckram of green 
druggets, made at Kendal and in 
Yorkshire, was the common cloth, 
ing of the poor in London and 
other towns. 

1414. Richard de Sunderland, 
and Joan, his wife, surrendered into 
the hands of the lord of the manor, 


THE CRYSTAL CAFE... 

Dinner, 11.30 till 3 o’clock. Oysters and Shell Fish. 
Orders Cooked a specialty. Lunches of all kinds. 


140 Worthen Street. 


JAMES W. GRADY, Prop. 


24 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


East Merrimack Drug Co. 

33 E. MERRIMACK STREET, 
Lowell, Ma>s. P. N. Brunelle. 


WEDDING AND PARTY HAIR DRESSING. 

Ladies’ hair shampoo, 25c ; Electric treatment for 
falling hair with shampoo; Hair dried with hot, 
tepid or cool air; Electric facial massage, 25c; 
Medicated steam for the face; Artistic manicuring, 
25c; Children’s hair cutting, 15c. Separate parlors 
for ladies. Over twenty-five years' experience. 

r* I I DTI |\I’ w 36 Central Street. 

*V ■ 11~ Remember the Place. 


an inclosure at Halifax called the 
Tenter Croft. Woolen goods were 
manufactured long before this period- 

1542. In the 34th of Henry 
VIII, an act was passed in favor 
of the citizens of York, which act 
recites, “ that the po >r of that city 
were daily employed in spinning ) 
carding, dyeing, weaving, etc., for 
the making of coverlets, and 
that the same have not been made 
elsewhere in the same country till 
of late ; that this manufacture had 
spread itself into other parts of the 
country, and was thereby debased 
and discredited, and therefore it is 
enacted that none shall make 
coverlets in Yorkshire but the peo- 
ple of York. 

1547. During the reign of 


Henry VIII, laws were passed 
directing that cloth of gold and 
tissue should be used for dukes and 
marquises, and that purple should 
be kept for the royal family. Earls 
might use embroidery, and com- 
moners of distinction, silks and 
velvets ; the commonalty and serv- 
ingmen were restricted to cloth of 
a certain price and lamb’s fur, and 
were forbidded from wearing any 
ornaments, or even buttons, save 
the badge of their lord or master. 
The king likewise forbade his 
courtiers wearing long hair, accord- 
ing to the general fashion, and 
made them poll their heads, which 
led to the introduction of the 
peruke, afterwards written periwig, 
and more shortly wig. 


CONSTRUCTION AND ORIGINATING OF WEAVES. 

BY CHARLES G. PETZOLD. 

A Text Book for designers, overseers, loom-fixers, web drawers, 
weavers and others who are interested in the construction of cloth. On 
receipt of 25 cents, a copy of Parts I and II will be mailed to any 
address in the United States and Canada. The work is richly illus- 
trated, and the rules for construction of weaves clearly explained. It 
will consist of two hundred and eighty pages, and about 24 plates of art 
weaving, and is to be published monthly in twelve parts. 

CHARLES C. PETZOLD. 

37 Whitman Street, ----- Lawrence , Mass, 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


25 


STEAM BOILERS, 

sclayltin'ie: 

TANNER STREET, 


AND ALL KINDS OF 

STEEL AND IRON PLATE WORK. 


jIj 


WHOLEY, 

LOWELL, MASS. 


1553. During the reign of Ed- 
ward VI and Mary, the flat round 
bonnet, or cap, of plain velvet or 
cloth was fashionable, and was 
worn on the side of the head and 
decorated with a jewel and single 
ostrich feather. The 1 onnet itself 
is preserved in the caps worn at 
the present day by the boys of 
Christ’s Hospital, and their blue 
coats and yellow stockings are such 
as were worn by the London ap- 
prentices at the date of the foundn- 
tion of the hospital, by the youth- 
ful Edward. 

1554. A law' enacted in the 
reign of Edward VI which pro- 
hibited every one from making 
cloth, unless he had served an ap- 
prenticeship of seven years, was 
now repealed, and this plain reason 
given, “ that it had occasioned the 
decay of the woolen manufacture 
and had ruined several towns; ” but 
this law, injurious as it is repres- 
ented to have then been, was re- 
vived during the reign of Elizabeth. 

1557. In the reign of Philip and 
Mary, an act was passed in favor of 
Halifax, which recites that u Where- 
as, the town of Halifax being planted 
in the great waste, and moors, 


where the fertility of the ground is 
not apt to bring forth any corn, nor 
good grass, but in rare places, and 
by exceeding and great industry of 
the inhabitants who altogether live 
by cloth making, and the greater 
part of them neither getteth corn, 
nor is able to keep a horse to carry 
wools, nor yet to buy much wool 
at once, but hath ever used to re- 
pair to the town of Halifax, and 
there to buy two or three stone, 
according to their ability, and to 
carry the same to their houses, 
three, four, or five miles off, upon 
their heads and backs, and so to 
make the same either into yarn or 
cloth, and to sell the same, and so 
to buy more wool of the wool- 
driver ; by means of which indus- 
try, the barren grounds in those 
parts be much inhabited, and above 
five hundred householders there 
newly increased within these forty 
years past, which are like now to 
be undone, and driven to beggary 
by reason of the late statutes (37th 
Henry VIII), that taketh away the 
wool-driver, so that now they cannot 
have their wool by the same small 
quantity or portions as they were 
wont to have; and that also they 


26 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 



55 r EjsfTR/M— S treet. 

PAUL 0. KABLE, Assistant. 


are not able to keep any horses 
whereupon to ride, or fetch their 
wools further from them in other 
places, unless some remedy may 
be provided.” 

1558. It was therefore enacted, 
“That it should be lawful to any 
person or persons, inhabiting with- 
in the parish of Halifax, to buy any 
wool or wools at such time as the 
clothiers may buy the same, other- 
wise than by engrossing and fore- 
stalling, so that the persons buying 
the same do carry the said wools to 
the town of Halifax, and there to 
sell the same to such poor folks of 
that and other parishes adjoining, 
as shall work the same in cloth or 
yarn, to their knowledge, and not 
to the rich and wealthy clothier, or 


S&NLIGHT SH0E STORE. 

wear the Orient Shoe, 

Best $3.50 Shoe in the World. 

100 Central St., Lowell, Mass. 

any other to sell again ; offending 
against this act to forfeit double the 
value of the wool so sold.” 

<559- J a n. 1st. Soon after 
Elizabeth’s accession to the throne, 
the church service was ordered to 
be performed in English, and a 
complete reformation of the church 
immediately followed. . . . Queen 
Elizabeth first in silk stockings 
. . . The glory of the Elizabethan 
era of female costume, as well as 
its most remarkable characteristics 
in the sixteenth century, was the 
ruff of plaited linen or cambric, 
which arose from the front of the 
shoulders behind the head, nearly 
to its full height; from the bosom 
descended a huge stomacher, on 
each side of which projected the 


WM. E. BASS Sc OO., ' 

Manufacturers of 




THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


27 


Watch Repairing is mg Business ! 

And I give careful, painstaking attention to it. 1 ^ive special attention to the repairing of line 
watches — the kind of Watches that need extra careful adjustment. I try to have my work give 
such satisfaction as will win the confidence of all who leave their Watch repairing in my hands. 1 
want von to feel that when you leave your Watch with me for repairs the work will he done to the 
best of my ability and in a competent manner. It is my ambition to add to the reputation I think 
1 have in a small measure already established, of doing honest, through Watch repairing. 

SAMUEL KERSHAW, 

Note the address, 114 CENT liAL STREET , Rowell , Mass. 


immense farthingale or hooped 
petticoat. At this time the ma- 
terial of the ruff having been 
changed from holland to lawn or 
cambric, a difficulty arose as to 
starching or stiffening it, instead 
of the clumsy mode of supporting 
it by poking-sticks of ivory, wood 
or gilt metal. At length the art of 
starching was brought from Flan- 
ders, and taught in London for a 
fee of four or five pounds. The 
ruff was fashionable long after this 
time, for we find it anathematised 
from the pulpit in a sermon 
preached before the king at White- 
hall in 1607-8, as her French, her 
Spanish and her foolish fashions ; 
her plumes, her fannes and a silken 
vizard, with a ruff like a sail, yea, a 
ruff like a rainbow ; with a feather 
in her cap like a flag in her top, to 
tell which way the wind will blow.’ 5 
“ Divers noble personages (says 


honest John Stowe), made them 
ruffs a full quarter of a yard deep 
and two lengths in one ruff.” To 
correspond with the ladies’ far- 
thingales, the bucks of the day 
stuffed out their breeches with 
rags, feathers and other light mat- 
ters, till they brought them out to 
a most enormous size, resembling 
woolpacks. In the preceding reign 
of Mary, the fashion ran on square 
toes, insomuch that a proclamation 
was issued, that no person should 
wear shoes above six inches square 
at the toes. Then succeeded 
pricked-pointed shoes. 

1571. By statute 13th Eliza- 
beth, chap. 19, “All persons above 
the age of seven years, shall wear 
upon Sabbath and Holy days upon 
their heads, a cap of wool, knit, 
thicked, and dressed in England, 
upon pain to forfeit, for every day 


Merrimack Wool Scouring Mills 

WOOL NOILS SCOURED, CARBONIZED ANO NEUTRALIZED. 

•te 


THOMAS HARTLEY. 


■*1 


Lawrence, Mass. 


28 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Established 1832. 


NOS. 107 AND 113 MARKET ST. 

EBERT HARNESS CO. 

(W. H. MUL.N0, Prop.) 


Manufacturers of and dealers in Harness, Saddles, Bridles, Collars. Whip*, 
Robes, Blankets, Biushes, Fly Nets, Axle Grease, Harness Oils, etc. 


Repairing of All Kinds Promptly Attended to. 


not wearing, three shillings and 
fourpence.” 

1 583 The stone stairs, or “Griece 
on the west side of the bridge at 
Leeds,” were built this year with 
stone brought from “ Christall 
Abbaye,” when laborers’ wages 
were 6d a day, whereas now, says 
Thoresda, “ they are hardly content 
with the double.” These stairs led 
to “the Tentures. ’ A pair of 
tenters were then about twenty- 
six or twenty-eight yards long — 
cloth being generally made into 
“ dozens ” or short cloths, but about 
the year i 700, pieces of cloth up- 
wards of sixty yards long were 
made. Near the “ Griece,” was 
Embsey bridge, crossing to the 
land n av insulated, and called the 
“ Isle of Cinder.” 

1603. In the reign of James I, 
nine tenths of the commerce of the 
kingdom consisted of woolen goods. 


Most of the cloth was exported raw, 
and was dyed and dressed by the 
Dutch, who it is said gained ^70 o,- 
000 a year by this emplo) ment. 
A proclamation against exporting 
cloth in a raw state had succeeded 
so ill during one year, by the re- 
fusal of the Dutch to buv the 

j 

dressed cloth, that great murmurs 
arose against it. 

1620. Adam Baynes, Esq., of 
Knostrop, “ Parliament man for 
Leeds,” during the Commonwealth, 
was born December 2 2d, this year, 
obit December, 1670. ... A 

board of trade was instituted by 
James I. One of the reasons as- 
signed in the commission was “ to 
remedy the low price of wool, 
which begat complaints of the de- 
cay of the woolen manufacture.” 
Though the price of wool after- 
wards rose to thirty-three shillings 
a tod (28 lbs.) Nine-tenths of the 


Wolff High Art CYCLES C rroll Chainless. 

Sold by RUTLHND S S7VTITH, 

JOSS Jliddlese.r Street , Lowell 9 Mass, 


TELEPHONE 653-5. 


We Want Your Repairing. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


2 9 


EIMMONS LOOM HARNESS OO. 

Cotton Harness, Mail Harness and Reeds 

Fcr Weaving- Cotton, Silk and Woolen Goods 
Mail Jacquard Heddles, Mending Eyes, and Twine Selvedges, 

La tv re a ce, Mass. 


commerce of the kingdom con- 
sisted of woolen goods. The ex- 
portation of wool was forbidden by 
proclamation, and the company of 
merchant adventurers, by patent, 
possessed the sole commerce of the 
woolen manufacture. 

Tapely — You’re an orphan? 

Miss Somergurl — Yes. 

Tapely — Well, whose consent 
may I ask in order to marry you ? 

Miss Somergurl — Well, you 
might ask mine. 

The superintendent of a city 
Sunday School was making an 
appeal for a collection for a Shut- 
in Society, and he said : 

“Can any boy or girl tell me of 
any shut-in person mentioned in 
the Bible ? Ah, I see several hands 
raised. That is good. This little 
boy right in front of me may tell 
me. Speak up good and loud so 
that all will hear you, Johnnie.” 

“ Jonah ! ” shrieked Johnnie. — 
Harper s Bazar. 


Uncle Thomas — “I like ter git 

O 

up early. Then I can git my work 
done ’fore night an’ be able ter go 
ter bed early.” 

Johnny — “ W’ot yer want ter go 
ter bed early fer ? ” 

Uncle Thomas — “Why, so’s I 
can git up early. You know 
mighty little ’bout the true phil- 
osophy of life.” 

“ What are the holes for?” asked 
little Edna, looking at the porous 
plaster that her mother was prepar- 
ing to adjust on Willie’s back. 

It’s funny you don’t know that, 
“ sis,” interposed Willie. “ They’re 
to let the pain out, of course.” 

“ This carpet is the best there is, 
madam,” said the clerk. “ It cannot 
be beaten. 

“ Then I don’t want it,” replied 
the shrewd customer. “ I want 
one that can stand being beaten 
once or twice a year.” — Philadel- 
phia Bulletin. 



Builders of 


Wool Washing Machines, Wool Dryers, Wool 
Waste, and Rag Dusters, Duplex Bur Pickers, 
Waste Cards, etc. Write for information con- 
cerning our new automatic Cotton Dryer, 


FAULKMER MAMPFACTDRINB C01PANT, 

Woolen Manufacturers, 

North Billerica, Mass. 
68 Franklin St., Boston, Mass. 


30 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


HENRY EDWARDS <£ CO., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Machine Brushes for Noble, Lister and 
Cotton Combing Machines. 

Furnishing brushes for Calico Printing Machines, 
Shearing Machine Brushes, and every description of 
Rotary and Machine Brushes made to order. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in Foreign Bristles. 
146 Fletcher Street. P. 0. Box 459. Lowell, Mass. 


You can get just as large and as good a Floral Piece as you 
care to pay for at 469 Herrimack Street. 

Cut Flowers, Plants, Seeds, Etc. 
Also Landscape Gardening. 

C. F MILES, Pioprietor. Telephone Connection. 


SCARBORO’— YORKSHIRE. 


On Scarborough heights 1 took my stand 
To view the scenes on every hand. 

The towering cliffs, the briny flood, 

Alike proclaim their maker, God. 

The German ocean spreading wide, 

On whose proud ocean shipping ride, 

The anxious, where through his glass 
Delights to see his vessel pass. 

The loving seamen drawing near, 

Can see their sweethearts 011 the pier. 

The loving wife heaves a sigh, 

As her dear husband passes by. 

Then down the cliffe I cast mv eyes, 

Which struck iny mind with great surprise, 
To view the waves which angry roar, 

Which dash and die upon the shore. 

The mossy rocks that have ages stood, 

Are hollowed by the rolling flood. 

Detached from cliffe at bottom lies 
Till time the stratta petrifies. 

The dashing waves with hollow sound, 

Like rumbling thunder shake the ground, 
From hill to hill the echo flies, 

And, murmuring at a distance, dies. 

The castle with its winding wall, 

Doth to my mind old times recall, 

Has long time bore the winters’ blast. 

Is yielding to decay at last. 

’Tis here, the jackdaws’ love to dwell, 

Tis here, the screech owl finds a cell, 

The rabbits burrow under the ground. 

And here the sea fowl nests are found. 

Then from the sea I turned me round 
And here, fresh scenery abound. 

The town, the terrace, and the hills, 

My mind with admiration fills. 

’Tis here, the 'squire and the lord, 

Resorts to have their health restored. 

I 11 curricle, in coaches and four, 

They take their airing on the shore. 


The tandem with their prancing stead 
Along the sands in full speed ; 

But that which graces all the rest, 

Are crowds of females neatly drest. 

Some at terrace, some at spaw, 

Some wandering on the sands below, 

I 11 search of shells, or precious stone 
When polished are in bosom worn. 

The next things which arrest my sight 
Are clouds of capt hills of wondrous height, 
But that which top& them all by far, 

I think is called, Mount Oliver. 

On this high mount as we are told 

Arch Cromwell's troops with courage bold, 

With thundering cannon’s horrid sound, 

Soon brought the castle to the ground. 

They spared neither sex nor age, 

But gave full vent to their rage 

And while thus armed with vengeful rod, 

They spared not the house of God. 

Three pillars of the church wall stand 
Monuments of this wicked band. 

The steeple in the middle had been 
But now at east end is seen. 

And now to shun this painful sight 
My busy thoughts soon took their flight, 

To view the town which from the sand 
Up cresant brow doth wide expand. 

Thus formed by nature, and by art 

That “ Newborough ” forms the widest part. 

A shoulder of mutton form it bears, 

The shank end branches to the pier. 

Some boast of London, some of York, 

Some of Dublin, and some of Cork, 

And of all the towns that near the sea 
The town of Scarborough for me. 

Jonathan Burton, 
Knapton, Yorks., 
July 10, 1820. 


Lowell Textile Journal 


ART CLASSES, LOWELL TEXTILE SCHOOL 


Though the Art Department is 
not a portion of the Textile De- 
partment, it is so closely associated 
on account of the special attention 
which is given to the teaching of 
Ornamental Design for Textile 
Fabrics as to make the two depart- 
ments almost inseparable. A course 
of Art Teaching is part of the 
regular work for Textile students 
in their first year, and in order to 
complete what has been said of the 
Textile Department it is both 
necessary and desirable that the 
work of the Art Department-— or 
at least that portion of it which 
deals with the application of art to 
weaving — should be described. 

The classes were not very large- 
ly attended at first, but as the im- 
portance of Art in connection with 
textile work came to be more gen- 
erally realized the number of 
students increased. 

Since the commencement of the 
classes the number of students 


taking Art had been gradually in- 
creasing. Alteration of markets 
and the growing popularity of ap- 
plied art have no doubt produced 
effects which tend to increase the 
numbers, but Prof. Vesper L. 
Georges knowledge of the require- 
ments of each branch of the textile 
trade has had a greater effect. 

The course of study in decor- 
ative design is so arranged that 
students receive the artistic train- 
ing required, and, at the same time, 
learn how to apply it to the various 
branches of the textile trade. The 
following will give some idea of 
the course of study in ornamental 
design for woven fabrics. 

In nearly all cases new students 
have received little or no previous 
training in design and not very 
much in drawing, consequently it 
is necessary, as a rule, to train them 
at first to draw with ease and free- 
dom. 

The class for first-year students 


4 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


meets one whole day per week, one 
hour Leingdevoted to a black board 
lecture and demonstrations on 
plane geometry and geometrical 
design, and the remaining portion 
of the day to copying good exam- 
ples of ornamental design in fabrics. 
During the second and third terms 


Greek fret and trap-work patterns, 
Celtic interlacings and Arabic and 
Moresque ornament. 

In the practical work of first- 
year students, special attention is 
given to providing good examples 
of design from which to copy, the 
examples being selected either from 



Decorative Art Class Room. 


the course of lectures deals with 
the application of plane geometry 
to ornamental design, including the 
construction of simple geometrical 
patterns, such as conventional floral 
designs, foiled figures, ornamental 
shapes based on regular polygons, 


the collection of fabrics in the 
Museum, or from plates in standard 
works on textile design. To en- 
able students to secure a close ac- 
quaintance with design and color, 
they are required, for home work, 
to make enlarged drawings in 



THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


colors from small copies in black 
and white, each student having the 
same copy, and being at liberty to 
choose his own arrangement of a 
specified number of colors. These 
finished drawings are then critised 
before the students. 

The whole of the work of the 


feeling for what is beautiful in line 
and color. 

All students attending the Tex- 
tile Department are expected to 
attend the Art class during the 
first-year course. 

The second-year course meets 
also for one whole day per week, 



|jt|j 





1 JWV IhiaHJ m - 


Lecture Hall. 


first-year student is of a preparatory 
character, the object of this part of 
the course being to give the student 
as much freedom in drawing as 
possible, to make him familiar with 
the fundamental principles of re- 
peated patterns, and to develop the 


and deals entirely with original 
design, both in the lecture course 
and practical work. The following 
will give some idea of the scope 
and character of the course, which 
is illustrated by diagrams, designs, 
and black board sketches : — Gen- 



6 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


eral principles of ornament* such 
as repetition, contrast, variety, 
symmetry, radiation, even distribu- 
tion and sub-ordination. The plan- 
ning of all-over repeating patterns. 
The “Drop” pattern. The “Turn 
over” pattern. The “Satteen” ar- 
rangements. Various “Skeletons” 


viettes, curtains, etc. Designing 
of striped patterns. The princi- 
ples underlying the structure of 
conventional flowers and foliage, 
with some of the more striking 
examples from historic textile 
designs, Natural plant forms and 
their adaptation for ornamental 



gk uMfjyg 

assist ists 

WlUmii'i* 


Textile Design Office. 


of all-over patterns, as parallel and 
reversed wave-lines ; ogee patterns ; 
powderings ; sprigs or sprays; 
super-position ; borders, corners, 
and angles, and the practical con- 
ditions of their use in such textile 
fabrics as rugs, table-covers, ser- 


purposes. Abstract forms in orna- 
ment. The use of animate forms, 
properties, etc. The limitations 
imposed by the structure, fibre, and 
use of a fabric. 

The practical work in the art 
studio consists of designing for 


1 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


various classes of Textile Fabrics, 
the work being done under the 
direct supervision and advice of the 
Art Lecturer. When possible the 
designs produced by the students 
in the art-class are carried out by 
them on point paper, and woven in 
the looms of the Textile Depart- 
ment. In this way they are able 
to see their work taken through 
the various stages from the sketch 
design to the finished fabric. The 
designs produced in this class 
under tuition are supplemented by 
home work designs which are done 
without assistance ; for this work a 
subject is given out, with details as 
to material, width of repeat, and 
number of colors to be used, 
two weeks being allowed for the 
exercise. The designs sent in are 
subsequently placed before the 
class and critised by the Art Lec- 
turer. 

The third year course of study 
is intended to give students the 
opportunity of devoting themselves 
to that special ciass of textile work 
in which they particularly wish to 
qualify, and to enable them to ac- 
quire a more thorough grasp of the 
possibilities of design. 

Those who possess marked abil- 
ity in the direction of decorative 
design, or who intend to enter 
some weaving industry in which 
Applied Art is a very important 
factor, are encouraged to attend 


7 

for more than one day per week in 
the art studios. 

Although the Art Department 
exists primarily for the purpose of 
teaching ornamental design for 
woven fabrics, classes are also held 
in General Art, including drawing 
and painting from life and from 
still life, black and white work, and 
also in design for other forms of 
Applied Art, but it is not proposed 
here to describe in detail these 
branches of the department’s activi- 
ties ; to mention the fact of their 
existence will be sufficient to show 
that it is well equipped with all the 
facilities for a broad and compre- 
hensive training in the subject. 


The superintendent asked the 
Sunday school “ With what re- 
markable weapon did Sampson slay 
the Philistines ? ” For a while 
there was no answer. The super- 
intendent, to revive the chidren’s 
memory, commenced tapping his 
jaw with the tip of his finger, at 
the same time saying : “ What’s 
this ? what’s this ? ” Quick as 
thought a little fellow replied quite 
innocently — “ The jawbone of an 
ass, sir.” — Philadelphia Press. 

Jack — Cholly is blowing himself 
in great shape, isn’t he ? 

Tom — I ’am afraid the blow will 
almost kill his father when the bills 
come in. 


8 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


WOVEN DESIGN, BOTH UTILITARIAN AND ORNAMENTAL 

IN CHARACTER. 


Textile design may be said to 
have a two-fold relation, first, as 
producing a firm, substantial tex- 
ture ; second, as ornamenting, 
beautifying, and making more at- 
tractive an article of genuine 
utility. Design has, however, be- 
come, in some instances, identified 
rather with its secondary than with 
its complete signification, that is, 
with ornament as apart from, or 
may be as opposed to, utility. In 
such cases pleasing the eye, as it is 
termed, is the principal factor con- 
sidered, for the substance, quality, 
and evenness of the woven texture 
are occasionally sacrificed to this 
one object. True woven design 
combines utility with ornament ; it 
both embellishes the surface of the 
cloth and produces a good, useful 
fabric. But there is a class of tex- 
tile design essential to the manu- 
facture of woven fabrics, which is 
employed to form, more particu- 
larly, a strong, wearable piece of 
goods, possessing a clear, smart 
surface, in which ornament is only 
secondary importance. Thus, on 
examining the large assortment of 
textile fabrics to be seen in the 


warehouses of some of the mer- 
chant princes the absence of what 
is generally understood as orna- 
ment is very remarkable. This 
lack of figured design is noticeable 
in a large variety of textiles in 
wool, worsted, silk, and cotton. 
Although there may be a little ap- 
pearance of design of an orna- 
mental nature in such cloths, yet, 
if they were carefully examined, it 
would be evident that design of a 
constructive character had been 
exercised in their production, and 
fine piece goods has been made 
at a comparatively low price. It 
does not follow that because a 
fabric is rot elaborately figured 
that design has not been employed 
in its production. There are two 
distinct classes of textile designing 
— that which impart to the fabric 
an ornamental surtace, and which 
simply results in producing a smart, 
fine, firm texture. Inventive as 
well as constructive skill is neces- 
sary in the manufacture of cloths 
in which design of the latter class 
obtains. A judicious and economi- 
cal use of materials is an important 
factor in the production of a good, 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


9 


low priced article, but, in addition 
to this, the fabric must be con- 
structed in accordance with a pre- 
arranged weave or design. 

To illustrate the character of 
textile design ornament, take a 
double make piece-dyed worsted 
coating. Now the three principal 
objects to be achieved in this class 
of goods are as follows: First, a 
fine face ; second, a soft, full handle ; 
third, a heavy cloth. 

The first characteristic can only 
be obtained by the employment of 
small yarns for both warp and weft. 
Even providing such threads are 
adopted, and an unsuitable weave 
made use of, the effect will, so far 
as the face is concerned, be any- 
thing but satisfactory. In addition 
to the use of small yarns, a fine 
weave or diagonal is essential, and 
it is in the origination of the latter 
that the constructive skill of the 
designer has to be employed. 

The second quality — softness 
of handle — is primarily due to 
the use of appropriate materials, 
whether wool, nungo, or shoddy. 
These must be blended in suitable 
proportions, carded or worked on 
the machine in the most ap- 
approved manner, so that the yarns 
will issue from the mule or spin- 
ning frame in that soft but weave- 
able state which allows the teazles 
of the raising gig to produce with 
as little friction as possible the 


desired flossy fullness. In a second- 
ary sense softness or handle is due 
to the structure of the make or 
weave of the texture. I the back- 
ing weave does not work in har- 
mony with the face, that is, if it 
should be either of too loose or of 
too fast a construction, the face of 
the cloth will be seriously injured. 
Here again, then, the designers 
skill is requisite both to the com- 
bination of suitable weaves and to 
the binding of the two cloths in- 
separably together. 

The third condition is substance, 
which in the case of cloths possess- 
ing a very fine face can be most 
advantageously obtained by making 
use of a double weave. The fine 
yarns essential to the manufacture 
of such cloths only form a thin, 
flimsy texture, and hence to pro- 
cure the required substance it has 
to be tacked on to a thicker or 
more substantial cloth. Double 
weaves make this feasible, and ad- 
mit at the same time of a lower 
quality of yarns for the underside 
part of the web, thus increasing, 
at a reasonable market price, the 
substance and weight of the cloth. 
From these statements it is ob- 
vious that there are cases where 
design plays an important part in 
the construction of the fabric with- 
out producing what may be styled 
ornamentation. A two-fold texture 
in which the separate cloths are 


IO 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


securely tied together, although 
formed, in many cases, of distinct 
materials and differently con- 
structed as to fineness and thick- 
ness, cannot be produced without 
some principle of design being ad- 
hered to. This illustration shows 
that there may be textile design 
without ornament, but no ornament 
without design. Ornament may 
be considered as that which em- 
bellishes, something which when 
added to another article renders it 
more attractive and generally more 
beautiful. 

It is not now proposed to treat 
on the nature of textile ornament, 
but on the principles by which it is 
produced. Weave and color are the 
two principal agents employed in 
its development. There are, of 
course, other means by which tex- 
tile design is produced, such as 
new materials and novelties in 
yarn construction, but the effects 
obtained in the loom are mainly 
due to either weave or color. 
Weave may first be noticed By 
weave we imply all classes of de- 
sign resulting from interlacing 
warp and weft yarns.' Design of a 
figured or floral description may 
obtain in the cloth in addition to 
weave, but no class of woven effect 
can be produced independent of 
the crossing of warp and weft 
threads. Whatever the character 
of the design of figure which orna- 


ments the cloth, if produced in one 
solid color, the development of its 
various parts is solely due to the 
diversity of methods adopted in 
crossing or interlacing the warp 
and weft yarns. 

HIS TURN NOW. 

The plumber discovered his 
cashier in a state of collapse. 

“ Man came in here a few mo- 
ments ago who must have been 
crazy ! ” gasped the cashier when 
he had recovered sufficiently to 
speak. “ He entered the office 
humming a popular tune of the 
day and wanted to know what his 
bill amounted to. 

“ I looked it up and it was so 
large that I was almost afraid to 
tell him, expecting a roar and the 
customary kick. 

“ But he only smiled, hummed 
another tune and paid it without 
saying another word, going away 
whistling.” 

“What was his name?” de- 
manded the plumber, looking the 
cashier over to see if he had b* en 
drinking. 

“Smith. I wish you could have 
heard him when he went away 
whistling.” 

“ He can afford to whistle,” 
answered the plumber gloomily. 
“ He's the ice man. By the way, I 
think we had better change ice men 
tomorrow.” — Detroit Free Press. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


I I 


GLEANINGS FROM CONSULAR REPORTS. 


New French Spinning Machine. 

Although the spinning machines 
now in use are considered excellent, 
there is constant effort to bring 
them to a greater degree of per- 
fection. 

The working of the present bob- 
bin frame, one of the preparatory 
machines is considered susceptible 
of improvement. In all prepara- 
tory machines, the v.ool sliver is 
submitted to twisting and drawing 
in different directions, to make it 
regular and sufficiently thin for 
use in the spinning frame. The 
sliver in each bobbin machine, after 
passing through the guide plates 
into the feed rollers and then into 
the delivery rollers, should have 
sufficient resistance to avoid fre- 
quent breaking before being wound 
onto wooden reels. 

The problem is to obtain this 
resistance; in the present bobbin 
machine, the sliver, in leaving the 
delivery rollers, passes between 
condensers corresponding with 
each head stock of the frame. The 
condensers are to impart resistance 
by compression 

These wooden-roller presses are 
always fitted in pairs, one above 


the other, and have two movements, 
one forward movement to make 
the sliv r advance and a twirling 
motion which winds the sliver 
spirally for a certain length on the 
fluted wooden rollers; besides an 
alternate twirling motion to wind 
it spirally in an opposite direction 
for an equal length, and so on. 

Although this double motion 
seems to have solved the problem 
of imparting resistance, the con- 
densers wear out rapidly and entail 
expense disproportionate to the re- 
sult obtained. The system also 
requires that each bobbin shall be 
adapted to a special kind of wool, 
and much annoyance is caused by 
the sizing employed, as well as by 
the condensers becoming greasy 
and discolored. 

The invention of Mr. Brule, a 
Tourcoing spinner, is said to be 
most practical, although he does 
not consider it perfect. It operates 
on natural wool of various kinds 
and different lengths. The princi- 
ple of the machine is as follows : 
The sliver, in leaving the delivery 
cylinder, instead of passing under 
the condensers, which are done 
away with, passes into a special 


12 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


funnel, the center opening of which 
is in the form of a flattened ellipse 
and works by an alternate rotary 
motion. By this means, the sliver 
receives a twist in one way, is im- 
mediately wound on the bobbin, re- 
ceives a twist in the opposite direc- 
tion for a certain length, is again 
wound on the bobbin, and so on. 

The bobbin thus obtained is per- 
fectly tight and contains a regular 
and properly twisted thread, much 
better than that made on machines 
fitted with condensers. The ma- 
chine has a greater yield, and the 
thread is not tied so often and is 
more even. 

The continuous circular move- 
ment of the main shaft on the side 
of the machine is easily changed 
into an alternate circular move- 
ment, which passes on to an axle 
under the frame and carries the 
pulleys corresponding with those 
of the funnel. The thread thus 
receives by means of the funnel an 
alternate twist in one direction and 
then in the other for an equal 
length, which is regulated by the 
speed of the delivery cylinder. 

The advantages of this system 
are an increase of production for 
each machine — since the speed is 
quickened without injury to the 
thread — and a reduction in hand- 
work. 

It is said that this machine will 
be exhibited in working order in 


the near future at the Technical 
Institute of Roubaix. 

W. P. Atwell, 

Consul. 

Roubaix, June 18, 1900. 

Air Ship in Switzerland. 

At the invitation of Count 
Zeppelin, I was present at the trial 
ascent of his air ship on the after- 
noon of July 2, at Manzell, on Lake 
Constance. 

At 7 o’clock the great ship, 124 
meters (407 feet) long and 1 2 
meters (39 feet) in diameter, con- 
taining seventeen separate balloon 
compartments filled with hydrogen 
gas, was drawn out of the balloon 
house securely moored to the float. 
In twenty minutes all was ready 
for the aseent, and the ship left its 
moorings with Count Zeppelin in 
charge of one of the gondolas and 
Mr. Eugene Wolf, the famous ex- 
plorer, in charge of the other, while 
Baron Bassus accompanied the 
party as meteorologist. At the mo- 
ment of the ascent the wind was 
blowing at the ra e of about 26 feet 
per second, giving the operators a 
good opportunity of testing the 
ability of the air wheels to propel 
the great ship against the wind. 
The cigar-shaped structure as- 
cended slowly and gracefully to 
about 30 feet above the raft. The 
balances were adjusted so as to give 
the ship an ascending direction. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


13 


E. M. TUCKE. 

TUCKE Sl 

The Leading Electrical 

79 MIDDLE STREET. 


The propellers were set in motion, 
and the air ship, which has cost 
considerably over $ 200 , 000 , started 
easily on its interesting trial trip. 
At first, the ship moved east against 
the wind for about 2 miles, grace- 
fully turned at an elevation of about 
400 feet, and, making a rapid sail 
to the westward for about 5 miles, 
reached an altitude of 1,300 feet. 
It was then turned and headed once 
more east, and after traveling about 
a mile against the wind blowing at 
the rate of 26 feet per second, sud- 
denly stopped ; floating slowly 
backwards 3 miles to the west, it 
sank into the lake, the gondolas 
resting safely upon the water. The 
time of the trip was about fifty 
minutes ; distance traveled, about 
10 miles ; fastest time made, 5 miles 
in seventeen and one-half minutes ; 
highest revolution of the propellers 
600 per minute; highest possible 
revolution, 1,200. The cause of 
the sudden stoppage in the flight 
of the ship was occasioned by a 
slight mishap to the steering ap- 
paratus, but the colossus floated 
gently with the wind until it settled 
upon the surface of the lake with- 
out taking any water. The raft 
was then brought up and the ship 


PERCY PARKER. 

PARKER, 

Contractors in Lowell, 

. ' . Tel. Connection. 


was easily placed upon it and 
brought back to the balloon house. 
The weight is 200 centners (22,000 
pounds.) The cost of filling the 
balloon with hydrogen gas was 
$ 2 , 000 . 

James T. DuBois, 
Consul-General. 
St. Gall, July 5, 1900. 

Manual Training in Germany. 

There exist at present in Ger- 
many, distributed in 605 places, 861 
schools and institutes wherein 
manual training is carried on in 
1,5 14 workshops. Of this number 
836 schools and institutes conduct 
the training on a pedagogical basis. 
Prussia has 570 manual-training 
schools. The 1,514 pupils’ work- 
shops comprise 286 independent 
manual-training schools and 238 
public schools, of which 16 are 
auxiliary schools where the work is 
obligatory, 17 are middle-class 
schools, 41 are high schools (made 
up of 8 gymnasiums), 6 technical 
gymnasiums, 12 technical and 
technical high schools, and 15 
boarding schools, 7 are preparatory 
institutes, 26 are teachers seminar- 
ies, and 93 are boys’ asylums ; while 
the remainder consists of various 


l 4 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


M. G. WIGHT J COMPANY, 

. . . Mill Su p plies, R uling and Binding. 

67 MIDDLE STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


kinds of private educational estab- 
lishments. 

Five hundred and thirty-five 
workshops are devoted to wood 
carving, 527 to working in card- 
board, and 356 to the carpenter’s 
bench. Of these, 68 are closely 
connected with wood carving, 
77 with preparatory roughing-out 
work, 35 with metal work, 2S with 
country timbering, 1 1 with wood 
and metal turning, and 1 1 with 
modeling in clay. 

Over 2,200 German teachers 
have been taught to become in- 
structors in manual training. Of 
these 954 were taught in Leipzig 
and 1,250 acquired training in 33 
places in other parts of Germany. 

Richard Guenther, 

Consul-General. 
Frankfort, June 19, 1900 

Growth of the Ice Habit in 
England. 

The ice habit is making rapid 
progress in Great Britain, due 


largely to the incessant clamor for 
ice in hotels and public places by 
the thousands of traveling Amer- 
icans. Not very long ago, the at- 
tendants of public places in En- 
gland, where nearly everything 
except ice was provided, would be 
insulting if one complained be- 
cause ice could not be had. Today, 
all first class places have a few 
small lumps swimming in a glass 
dish, and you pick these out with 
sugar tongs ; and in country inns 
and even in second class public 
houses, they apologize for not 
having it. 

Though very few saloons and 
restaurants have refrigerators, many 
private residences now own them ; 
and there would be far more gen- 
eral use of ice if companies were 
organized to distribute it from 
house to house. As it is, one must 
secure it almost by favor from the 
fishmonger. 

, Last summer was an unusually 
hot one, and all the American’s 


CONWAY TRANSFER COMPANY, 

General Baggage and Freight Forwarders. 


Principal office, Northern Depot. 


Telephone 77. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


15 


SAMUEL H. THOMPSON, President. ELISHA J. NEALE, Treasurer. 

The Thompson hardware Co., 

IMPORTERS, MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS IN 

MILL SUPPLIES, TOOLS AND METALS. 

All Kinds of Hardware and Builders’ Supplies. 

254 and 256 rierrimack Street, - Lowell, flass. 


refrigerators in stock in England 
by consignment or otherwise were 
soid. Properly handled, there is 
good opportunity in England for 
American refrigerator manufac- 
turers. 

Cold storage is a growing busi- 
ness here, and large brewers are 
putting in extensive cold-storage 
machinery plants ; but American 
manufacturers in this line are not, 
to my knowledge, in evidence. 

Yesterday’s issue of the London 
Daily Mail had an article on ice- 
In this, the yearly consumption of 
ice in England was estimated at 
450,000 tons (long) and in London 
at 160,000 tons, and the paper add- 
ed : “ The demand is rapidly in- 

creasing, now that the public have 
awakened to an intelligent appre- 
ciation of the cheapness and use, 
fulness of the commodity.” One 
London ice company is credited 
with having a permanent storage 


of 10,000 tons to meet unusual 
hot-weather demands, daily supplies 
being taken direct from ship which 
bring it from the mountain lakes 
of Norway ; and of course, a good 
deal of ice is manufactured. 

Marshal Halstead, 

Consul. 

Birmingham, June 22, 1900. 


Haskell — What’s Robby crying 
for? 

Mrs. Haskell — Oh ! the poor boy 
caught his finger in the pantry 
door. 

Haskell — H’m! he evidently 
didn’t get the jam he was looking 
for that time. 

“ How did you and mamma come 
to get married, anyhow ? ” asked 
Johnnie Chaffie of his father. 

“ Ask your mamma. She knows 
more about it than I do,” was the 
reply. 


LOTHROP & CUNNINGHAM. 

Although we have been in our New Studio but a short time, our customers have found us, and 
our trade is steadily increasing. Our Platinum work is giving great satisfaction and a marked 
improvement has been made in all other branches of our business. Personal attention given to 
every customer. Take elevator to studio. 

Telephone 841-3. 45 MERRIMACK ST., Lowell, Mass. 


i6 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


30,000 

PERHflM® LOOMS 

A Year is the Number We Expect to Make. 

We had a dozen machine shops and foundries on 
the list but none so well suited to the needs of a large 
loom business as the 

ATHERTON mflCHINE CO.’S PLANT, 

l_OWEII_L, MASS., 

which we bought at auction. It was bought because 
we wanted a home for the PERHAM LOOM with 
space in which to grow. We have 21 acres 
and only 3 or 4 covered with buildings. 

The machines made by the Atherton Company 
were of the highest order. We shall soon start the 
works and the last to come must not expect to be the 
first served. 

“A Word to the Wise is Sufficient.” 

If it is a dividend you are after, remember the 

PERHHM LOOM. 

PERHAM & STICKNEY, Lowell, Mass. 

N. B. — Two gentlemen at the Manufacturers’ con- 
vention timed the 30-in. PERHAM LOOM and stated 
that it was running 480 picks a minute. The manu- 
facturer who furnished the yarn said it would not 
stand over 200 picks. Have you an idea that the 
loom could run at this speed if it was not easy on the 
warp and filling ? 




THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


TIIE LOWELL 
TEXTILE JOURNAL. 

A Monthly Publication by Students of the Lowell Textile 
School, with papers and other valuable information by leading 
manufacturers. 

FENWICK U VI PL EH Y, Business Manager. 
Sub Editor. S. W. WESTON. 

Secretary and Treasure r, C. E. ClTRRAN. 


PUBLISHED MONTHLY 

AT 

No. 67 ttiddle Street, = Lowell, flass. 

BY 

THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL COMPANY. 


Entered at the Post-Office at Lowell as Second 
Class Mail Matter. 


SUBSCRIPTION TERMS. 

For one year, postage paid $1.00 

Single Copies . 10c 

For Sale at all Newsdealers. 


Advertisement® must be at the Journal Office before the 
fifteenth of each month for insertion that month. 

Contributions may be sent to Editorof The Lowell Textile 
Journal, and will receive prompt attention . 


EDITORIAL. 


We want a score or more of reg- 
ular and irregular contributors, to 
all of which we are ready and will- 
ing to give value for value received. 

No boy ever jumped from the 
position of filling carrier into that 
of a full fledged overseer by being 
told how its w'ork was done. Think 
this over. 


17 

Frederick Fanning Ayer’s gift 
of $35,000 was magnanimous, but 
the Lowell Textile School will 
have to receive many such gilts 
before it can have a school house 
equal to Manchester, England, 
which is said will cost one million 
pounds sterling. 

Many subscriptions expire with 
this issue, and we trust that re- 
newals will be promptly made. We 
shall continue to send the Journal 
until we are notified to discontinue 
the same, such notification must 
include subscription up-to-date. 

Never be ashamed of confessing 
your ignorance, for the wisest man 
upon earth is ignorant of many 
things, insomuch that what he 
does not know. There can be no 
greater folly in the world than to 
suppose that we know everything. 

There seems to be an opening 
in Manheim for American soaps. 
Consul Harris writes “ that no 
American soap is sold here (Man- 
hein ) so far a I know.” 


flaw England llolingn ol Languages, “""“"HEIE"” 5 " 

Special Courses for Business Men and Women. Write for Circular. 
riiOF. 1\ KUNZER, DU. D., Director , 

Telephone Philips’ Building. 120 Tremont St., 3 Hamilton Diace, Boston , Mass. 


8 


TIIIO LOWELL, TEXTILE JOURNAL 


BEST H A L-F-hOSE HAVE THE 



Writing from Tarn-mi, Consul 
James W. Davidson says: The 
Tamsui river trade is controlled 
with little exception by some six 
launches, carrying together about 
400 passengers a day. All classes 
of passengers and all kinds of 
freight, including several varieties 
of live stock, obtain easy entrance 
and receive equal treatment aboard 
these boats. One may have a 
Chinese in silk as neighbor on one 
trip and a crate of young pigs on 
another. 

The Bureau of Foreign Com- 
merce has received the following 


letter, dated July 17, from Frederick 
W. Bennett, Horsecastle, Yatton, 
Somerset, England : 

“ I should feel much obliged if 
you would, through the Consular 
Reports, make known any require- 
ments to the cooperage trade in 
the United States. I am a buyer 
of second-hand casks, such as are 
originally imported into the United 
States, containing foreign wines 
and spirits, viz. puncheons, pipes, 
hogsheads, quarters, etc., etc. My 
port of delivery would be Bristol 
or Avonmouth, and I should be 
glad to receive prices for such 
casks, either shooked or packed in 
each other, as convenient.” 


COLUMBIAN STUDIO, 1 

OUK SPECIALTIES: t 

BROMIDE, CRAYON AND PASTEL $ 
WORK. 

We are Unexcelled in Children’s Photos. 

Sittings made in Cloudy 
as well as in fair weather. 

J. POWELL, Photographer, 

55 So. Whipple St., Lowell, Mass., Tel. Connection. | 


tit 

tit 

ut 

it; 

nt 

V 

♦ 

♦ 





THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL I 9 


N. Whittier, Treasurer and General Manager. Helen A. Whittier, President. W. It. 15. Whittier, Agent. 

WHITTIER COTTON MILLS, Chattahoochee, Ga. 

General Office, Lowell, Mass. 

Single or Twisted, 2 to 200 ends, Ply, Cable Hawser, delivered on Spools 
Skeins, Hanks, Creels, Halls, Hearns, Warper Halls, Cones, 

Grey or Colored. Fire Hose Cords a Specialty. 


Canon Yarns, 2s 10 40s 


Consul Geo. W. Bell writes from 
Sydney, Australia: “American 
goods need no introduction, they 
are familiar to every buyer in 
Sydney, and so popular that we 
now sell almost three times as 
many as all the other foreign 
countries combined. 

There is hardly a shop in Sydney 
where American articles are not 
displayed and sold. 

There will be an exhibition of 
fire-preventing and fire-saving ar- 
rangements in Berlin, during the 
months of June and July, 1901. 

With the thermometer sizzling 
between 90 and 100, the shirt-waist 
man is making a soaking effort to 
create a cool and comfortable 
fashion. 

His experiences are bitter and 
disappointing. Just as the inner 


man is clamoring for a cool and 
refreshing drink he falls amuck a 
restaurant with waving arms and 
wind stirring fans, he enters and 
feels the cool and refreshing breeze 
and as he is about to take a seat 
near an electric vivifier the aesthe- 
tic waiter informs him that his sun- 
dried throat and burning thirst 
cannot be appeased with nothing 
less than a tail coat. His urban 
sisters and rural cousins, in fact his 
maiden aunts have rallied around 
him. Have they not smiled ap- 
proval upon his endeavor to be 
“gowned” in attractive and be- 
coming manner? Have they not 
lured him into the dance room and 
have they not accompanied him to 
the dinner table? Throughout the 
contest his feminine friends have 
supported him to wear the gar- 
ment they have so long worn with 
telling effect (on his pocket). Now 
he wants it back. 


FRANK PARKER, 

rianufacturer of 

Steel : and : Brass : Bound : Bobbins : and : Spools. 

LOWELL, MASS. 


20 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 



THE REAL IRISH FRIEZE. 

A CLOTH THROUGH WHICH THE RAIN CANNOT POSSIBLY PENETRATE 


Among the various textile pro- 
ducts of Irish manufacturing skill, 
the most extensively known, says 
The Clothier, is the justly celeb- 
rated Irish Frieze. Its manufacture 
has come down from time immem- 
orial. The process since it was first 
woven on the primative hand loom, 
and the subsequent manipulation 
to prepare it for the only garment 
for which it is pre-eminently suited, 
the Clotha More (big coat or over- 
coat) has been handed down from 
one generation of the Irish people 
to another until at the present day 
the rapidly increasing steam-power 
looms of the Irish mills are en- 
gaged in manufacturing friezes 


which are making their way by 
sheer force of real merit in the best 
markets of the world. 

The chief features which dis- 
tinguish frieze from all other cloths 
are its absolute imperviousness to 
rain and its extraordinary durabili- 
ty. In these it resembles the famous 
blankets of the Navajos Indians. 
Of course we are now speaking of 
the real Irish frieze, not the counter- 
feit article, which is now plentiful 
in the American market. These 
points of excellence are secured 
through the peculiar method of 
manufacturing the longest and best 
wool, selected from the best Irish 
fleeces, without which there can be 


PHOTOGRAPHER, 

Central Block, - Lowell, Mass. 


Established 1840. Incorporated 1884. 

TALBOT DYE WOOD HUD GHEH ICHL CO., 

Acids, Dyewoods,Chemicals, Drugs 

And Dyestuffs Generally. 

38 to 44 MIDDLE ST., LOWELL. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


21 


STUDY 

the points of our different machines and com- 
pare with others. 

UNDERSTAND 

the merits and you will be convinced beyond 
a doubt of their superiority. 

HOWARD & BULLOUGH 

American machine Go., Lid.. Pawtucket, R. I. 



no genuine Irish frieze. The pro- 
cess in itself is quite simple, but 
tedious, demanding much time, 
care and attention. 

Nothing but washed wool of the 
longest and strongest fibre is used. 
This is first dyed, and afterwards, 
when spun, is doubled so as to re- 
semble yarn ; in fact it is a softly 
spun woolen yarn, which has not 
been treated by acids in any man- 
ner, so that the whole natural 
strength of the wool fibre remains 
unimpaired. This yarn is then 
woveh after which it is put through 
the thickening or tucking process, 
as it is termed. This latter is prac- 
tically a somewhat prolonged wash- 
ing or sousing of the cloth in a 
carefully prepared solution, slowly 
heated up to the boiling point, and 
then as slowly cooled again. This 
shrinks and consequently thickens 


the fabric which comes from the 
loom to such an extent that it be- 
comes almost impossible, after cut- 
ting the goods, to separate one 
thread of the cloth from the other, 
so closely are they allied and so in- 
terdependent on each other. 

The final operation is the dress- 
ing and finishing of the goods. 
From this brief explanation it will 
be perceived in what the chief 
points of the excellence of Irish 
frieze consist. Dved in the wool 
the color is permanent ; untreated 
by acid, the natural virility of the 
wool fibre is preserved. 

Mrs. Pantzware — Ugh! Another 
kidnapping outrage ! Is there any- 
thing worse than a kidnapping 
case ? 

Mr. Pantzware — No, unless it is 
a kid not napping ! 


OTIS ALLEN Sc SON, 

LOWELL, MASS. 

ALLEN’S STANDARD LOCK-CORNERED FILLING BOXES, 

Generali {/ used in the New Emjland Mills. 

ROVING CABS, DOFFING BOXES, BACKING CASES, AND CLOTH HOARDS, 

WRITE FOR PRICES, 



22 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


C. E. RILEY & CO.S 


281-285 Congress St., 
BOSTON. M7TSS. 

Latest Improvements and Specialties. 


8 

> 

\ 

s 

\ 


EXPORTERS AND BUILDERS OF 

COTTON, 

WOOLEN, and 
WORSTED 

CARD CLOTHING, 

EGYPTIAN COTTON, Etc. 



SURFACING GELATINE PRINTS. 


I know of nothing more aggrav- 
ating than after carefully finishing 
a fine positive to your satisfaction, 
havng it stick fast to a gla^s plate, 
defying all attempts to remove it, 
and having finally to scrape it away 
in shreds to get the glass clean. 
But a few failures lead to success. 
I soon found the right way, and 
curiously enough, when thoroughly 
accustomed to the work, you be- 
come absolutely certain and con- 
fident of the result ; not the slight- 
est hesitation nor fear of sticking 
enters the mind. 

Almost any kind of glass will do, 
provided its surface is good and 
free from bubbles, scratches, or 
other defects. Although plate glass 
is usually recommended, it is the 


least suitable, owing to the porosity 
of its surface. 

To clean the glass, I know of 
nothing more suitable than a brand 
of soap known as 44 Monkey Soap,” 
used only forcleaning non-destructi- 
ble articles. After this the plate is 
well polished with clean chamois 
leather or old silk handkerchief. 
Now comes the critical point, i. e., 
the application of the French chalk 
or powdered talc. This is the time 
when the operator may know 
whether his prints will stick or not 
The chalk must be dry; a littie 
spread on to the glass plate and 
rubbed all over with a pad of cotton 
wool ; with the silk handkerchief it 
is then dusted off again. Now, 
what is the appearance of the glass ? 


H. E. SARGENT <& CO., 

Allfree High Speed Economic Engines, 

Corliss Engines, Cook Water Tanks a nd Boilers . 

EQUITABLE BUILDING, BOSTON, MASS. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


H. H. WILDER Sc CO., 

Furnaces, Stoves, Ranges, Kitchen Furnishing Goods 

Nos. 29 and 31 MARKET STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


Does the chalk adhere still to any 
part, forming white patches ? If it 
does, the glass still remains imper- 
fect and must be again washed, 
polished, and treated wi'h the chalk. 
If the chalk is dry and the cotton 
wool in same state, the chalk should 
leave the glass by just drawing the 
handkerchief over it once or twice 
When this is the case, you may 
squeegee your prints on with per- 
fect safety, and if placed in a 
moderately warm room, they will 
not be long before they fall away 
from the glass with the required 
polish. 

If they do not, however, all that 
is necessary is to insert a sharp 
knife under one of the corners, and 
they may be easily loosened. Above 
all things, make sure that the 
prints are perfectly dry 'before at- 
tempting to remove them. They 
often feel dry at the back, while the 
surface of the print, which is the 


most important part, and which 
being furthest away from the air, is 
the longest in drying, is still damp. 

Sometimes it happens that a por- 
tion of the picture is dry and will 
come away easily, but other parts 
stick and must be left to dry still 
more. This is always bad, as it 
leaves an ugly, ineffaceable mark on 
the print. 

When the print is apparently dry 
it is always better to gently warm 
both sides of the glass before at- 
tempting to remove. 

After the pictures are taken off, 
the glass may be used again if sim- 
ply polished and dusted over with 
chalk, and the chalk again removed. 
If any of the powder be left on the 
plate, it will be afterward notice- 
able on the surface of the print. It 
is certainly a fact that the glass 
plate, after having been used several 
times, improves considerably, and it 
soon becomes a matter of difficulty 


THE CRYSTAL CAFE... 

Dinner, 11.30 till 3 o’clock. Oysters and Shell Fish. 
Orders Cooked a specialty. Lunches of all kinds. 


140 Worthen Street. 


JAMES W. GRADY, Prop. 


24 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


^■E. W. YOUNG-# 

7, 8 and 9 Hildreth Building, 

Has a complete establishment for Hair Dressing, Mass- 
age Manicuring amt Chiropody. 

I* rices very line for work of highest order. 


WEDDING AND PARTY HAIR DRESSING. 

Ladies’ hair shampoo, 25c ; Electric treatment for 
falling hair with shampoo; Hair dried with hot, 
tepid or cool air; Electric facial massage, 25c; 
Medicated steam for the face; Artistic manicuring, 
25c: Children’s hair cutting, 15c. Separate parlors 
for ladies. Over twenty-live years’ experience. 

CM IDTI IV’ <5, 36 Central Street. 

Iv. * II’ 1 Remember the Place, 


to make the prints stick, should 
such a thing be required. 

Instead of French chalk, other 
substances, such as wax or oil, can 
be used. If the plate be coated 
with a weak solution of wax in al- 
cohol, there will be no difficulty in 
removing the prints. A little oil — 
one drop will be sufficient, rubbed 
over the plate with a piece of flan- 
nel — will have the same effect. 
There is, however, a marked dif- 
ference between the surfaces of 
prints surfaced in this manner and 
those done with chalk, which in 
reality has the effect of making the 
glass thoroughly clean. The latter, 
of course, are much more brilliant. 

Gelatino-chloride of silver emul- 
sion prints do not require the same 


amount of washing as albumen pic- 
tures ; it should be short and 
thorough. By thorough is meant 
the continual change of water, not 
only by a running stream, but by 
continually emptying the dish in 
which they are washed If the 
prints be allowed to remain for a 
great length of time in water, the 
gelatine film becomes slightly de- 
composed and softens. This will 
cause them to adhere tightly to the 
glass, no matter how carefully it 
has been previously prepared. 
Therefore avoid prolonged washing, 
but do not err on the other side by 
washing too little, as the perma- 
nency of the prints will be seriously 
affected. 

A few words might also be said 


CONSTRUCTION AND ORIGINATING OF WEAVES, 

BY CHARLES G. PETZOLD. 

A Text Book for designers, overseers, loom-fixers, web drawers, 
weavers and others who are interested in the construction of cloth. On 
receipt of 25 cents, a copy of Parts 1 and II will be mailed to any 
address in the United States and Canada. The work is richly illus- 
trated, and the rules for construction of weaves clearly explained. It 
will consist of two hundred and eighty pages, and about 24 plates of art 
weaving, and is to be published monthly in twelve parts. 

CHARLES O. PETZOLD, 

37 Whitman Street, ----- Lawrence , Mass, 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


25 


STEAM BOILERS. 

sojLiNrisriEU 

TANNER STREET, 


AND ALL KINDS OF 

STEEL AND IRON PLATE WORK. 
jL <3c WHOLEY, 

LOWELL, MASS. 


upon the squeegee itself. The flat 
ones are undoubtedly the best, and 
far superior to the new-fangled 
roller absurdities. The India-rub- 
ber should be evenly cut, and neither 
too hard nor too smooth. In squee- 
geeing, never bear too hard upon 
the print, as the film is likely to be 
injured. All that is required is to 
remove all the air between the film 
and the glass; by reversing the 
glass this can be easily seen. 

As a final remark, I would say : 
Never attempt to use artificial heat 
for drying the prints upon glass, 
except, as already stated, to give a 
final warmth after the prints have 
apparently dried spontaneously. It 
must be remembered that the gela- 
tine film is a soluble one, and the 
image is easily destroyed by heat. 
Even if rendered insoluble by an 
alum bath, the effect often will 
be to cause the film to adhere 
firmly to the glass plate. — W. 
E, Woodbury, Photographic Art 
Journal. 


OBITUARY. 

Mr. Charles T. Bray, a bright 
and energetic young man, of 
Methuen, died at the residence of 
Wm. H. Johnson, 47 Gleason 
Street, August 9, at 8 a. m., after 
a three weeks’ sickness of Mal- 
ignant Diptheria, aged 35 years. 

He had lived in Methuen nearly 
ten years and had been in the em- 
ployment cf the Tremont Worsted 
Co. the most of the time. At the 
time of his death he held the posi- 
tion of designer. 

He had attended the Lowell 
Textile School for the past two 
years’ course. 

He was of a kind and genial dis- 
position and had made many 
friends while he had been in Me- 
thuen who greatly regret his death. 
He is survived by a father and 
mother who live in Millbury, Mass , 
and one sister living in Lawrence. 

His body was taken to Millbury 
for interment. 

Wm. O. Buzzell, 
Methuen, Mass. 


TO THE 11E ST- DU ESSE I) MEN! ! 

“ It is essential to know what is correct and proper.” 
Tnese essentials are studied by . . . 

JYICKERSOET, 

THE TAILOR, 


Hildreth Building, 


LOWELL, MASS. 


26 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


La ursr A J-BKA no bfi 


V at Avaoua.NfwVortt 




r J M P 9 RT£K* 9 T A Jt’Q* 


55 r eiNf-TR/M- ‘iTREgT, 

PAUL O. KABLE, Assistant. 


SdNLiaHT SH0E STORE. 

wear the Orient Shoe, 

Best $3.50 Shoe in the World. 

100 Central St., .*. Lowell, Mass. 


LAPPETS versus LENOS. 


At the time of writing a test case 
will be brought up in New York 
before the Board of General Ap- 
praisers in reference to the now 
famous fancy cotton goods ques- 
tion, according to the Journal of 
Commerce and Commercial Bulle- 
tin. It is understood that an im- 
portation of Mills & Gibb will be 
brought into question through the 
Merchants’ association and testi- 
mony will be offered by the impor- 
ters to prove that the two cents ad- 
ditional duty should not be levied 
thereon. Expert witnesses will be 


put on the stand to testify to the 
alleged injustice of a ruling by the 
appraisers on importations of fancy 
cottons made in May. 

It is understood that of late there 
has been a disposition on the part 
of customs officials to recede some- 
what from the position taken 
against leno weaves and fabrics 
where the warp or filling threads 
float on the back of the cloth to a 
greater length than an eighth of 
an inch. It is said that some goods 
have been passed and that a rebate 
has been rendered the importer, 


WM. E. BASS Si, CO., 

Manufacturers of 



THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


27 


Watch Repairing is m,g Business! 

And I give careful, painstaking attention to it. I give special attention to the repairing of fine 
watches — the kind of Watches that need extra careful adjustment. 1 try to have my work give 
such satisfaction as will win the confidence of all who leave their Watch repairing in mv hands. 1 
want yon to feel that when you leave your Watch with me for repairs the work will he done to the 
best of my ability and in a competent manner. It is my ambition to add to the reputation 1 think 
1 have in a small measure already established, of doing honest, thorough Watch repairing. 

SAMUEL. KERSHAW, 

Note the address, 114- CENT UAL STREET, Lotrell, Mass, 


but on other fabrics the two cents 
additional has been allowed to 
stand. 

Importers in New York are also 
said to have a special grievance, as 
it has been learned on reliable au- 
thority that since the decision of 
the Board of Appraisers leno goods 
have been passing through other 
ports without the additional duty. 
Two buyers of leading Philadelphia 
houses have declared that they 
have had no trouble in securing 
their goods since the above deci- 
sion, and have suggested that if 
there is likely to be any further 
trouble at this port it might be well 
to import goods through Philadel- 
phia. 

The question in dispute, the im- 
position of an additional duty of 
two cents per square yard applied 
to cotton goods which have threads 
woven into them for ornament, 


which are not in any way part of 
the body of the cloth, making what 
is known as the lappet weave, was 
raised last May, when an appeal 
was taken from the decision of the 
New York collector, who was sus- 
tained by the board. In this case 
an extra duty was assessed, it is 
claimed, because the sample, which 
was a leno weave (so called) looked 
like a lappet. The special com- 
mittee of the Merchants’ associa- 
tion took the matter up and have 
since been procuring evidence from 
all parts of the United States, as 
well as from England, to show the 
inconsistency of the decision, in the 
hope that when the matter comes 
up a ruling will be obtained that 
will stand. 

That there has been a misappre- 
hension regarding the method of 
making these two weaves is evi- 
dent from the ruling. A lappet is 


Merrimack Wool Scouring Mills 

WOOL NOILS SCOURED, CARBONIZED AND NEUTRALIZED. 

-K* 


THOMAS HARTLEY. 


Lawrence, Mass. 


28 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Before Buying Try the... 


New Wheeler & Wilson Sewing machine, 

NEEDLES AND PARTS FOR ALL KINDS OF MACHINES. 

30 John Street. Lowell, Mass. 


woven on a loom fitted for lappet 
weaving. The threads forming 
the figure are woven in by an at- 
tachment. The figure is made so 
that threads run the entire length 
or part way of the fabric and yet 
appear like filling threads. On the 
other hand the leno weave is woven 
upon an ordinary loom, with ordi- 
nary warp threads so manipulated 
that a zigzag appearance is given. 
The opinion of the board, however, 
sustaining the appraiser, says: — 
“ While the goods are not lappets, 
and are not known as such, they 
are made with the same or similar 
mechanism, and the fancy portion 
of them has the same appearance.” 
As shown above, however, there is 
no similarity between the two 
weaves, and lappet could not be 
woven on a leno loom. 

First Tramp(in the road) — “Why 
don’t you go in? The dog’s all 


right. Don’t you see him waggin’ 
his tail ? ” 

Second Tramp — “Yes, but he’s 
growlin’ at the same time. I dunno 
which end to believe.” — Titt-liits. 

She — “When are you going to 
give me the money to buy that 
new dress ? ” 

He — “Next week.” 

“ That’s what you said last 
week.” 

“Yes, and that’s what I say now, 
and am going to say next week. I 
ain’t the kind of a man who savs 

j 

one thing one week and another 
thing next week.” 

Mother — Johnny, have you been 
in swimming ? 

Johnny — No’m. Honest I ain’t. 

Mother — Then what makes your 
hair so wet ? 

Johnny — I got all sweaty runin” 
away from the boys that was 
goin’ swimmin’. 


CAMERAS TYPEWRITERS BIGYGbES 

SUPPLIES. SUPPLIES. REPAIRING. 

RUTLAND Sc SMITH, 


TELEPHONE 653-5. 


IDS MIDDLESEX STREET , 


LOWELL, MASS. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


29 


EMMONS LOOM HARNESS CO. 

Cotton Harness, Mail Harness and Reeds 

Fcr "Weaving: Cot“on, Silk and Woolen Goods. 

Mail Jacquard Heddles, Mending Eyes, and Twine Selvedges, 

Lawrence , Mass. 


ANGOLA GOAT. 

Angora cats, as objects to be 
bartered for a good price in cents, 
are beginning to attract the atten- 
tian of breeders who are alive to 
fashions in pets, but so much is not 
known of another variety of An- 
gora, the goat which is commercially 
much more valuable than puss. 
There are said to be about two 
hundred thousand of these animals 
in the United States, half of them 
high-grade Angoras The skin of 
this goat masquerades as that of 
several animals, it being the skin 
used for most fur robes, by whatever 
name they are known, as it may be 
used in various stages of growth. 
It takes dye beautifully, and when 
the hair is a month’s growth, by 
skillful black dyeing it is hardly 
distinguishable from Astrakhan. 
Real monkey-skin muffs and cloaks 
are, as a rule, merely straight-hair 
goatskin dyed. By dyeing, also, 
the skin can be very easily made to 


G.G.5MlGE)tr$ SONS,"®- 

Builders of 

Wool Washing Machines, Wool Dryers, Wool 
Waste, and Rag Dusters, Duplex Bur Pickers, 
Waste Cards, etc. Write for information con- 
cerning our new automatic Cotton Dryer, 


resemble polar or black bear. An 
especially profitable use to which 
Angora goatskin is put is as trim- 
ming, which commands a price 
per yard that is equivalent to $15 
for a single hide. The fleece of 
the Angora, which brings 25 to 35 
cents a pound, is said to be largely 
used for upholstering passenger 
coaches. The raising of these 
general utility animals has assumed 
a considerable size as an industry 
in New Mexico. 

“ I say, Jimmie, come down — 
going to have an awful lot of fun.” 

“ W’at ? ” 

“ We’ve fed the goat with the big 
bath sponge, and now we’re goin 
to let ’im drink.” 

“ Doctor,” said Mr. Spindle. “ my 
insomnia is much worse now than 
it ever was before.” 

“ Indeed,” replied Dr. Paresis. 

“Yes, sir, it is. Why, I can’t 
even sleep when it’s time to get 
up.” 

FAULKNER MANUFACTURING COMPANY^ 

Woolen Manufacturers, 

North Billerica, Mass, 
68 Franklin St., Boston, Mass, 


3 ° 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


HENRY EDWARDS & CO., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Machine Brushes for Noble, Lister and 
Cotton Combing Machines. 

Furnishing brushes for Calico Printing Machines, 
Shearing Machine Brushes, ami every description of 
Rotary and Machine Brushes made to order. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in Foreign Bristles. 
146 Fletcher Street. P. 0. Box 459. Lowell, Mass. 


A BLACKVILLE BALL. 

The man who called out the 
figures at the “ Blackville Ball,” in 
Little Rock, Ark., used these chaste 
expressions, according to the cor- 
respondent of St. Louis Post- Dis- 
patch : 

“S’loot yo pahtnah !” 

“Ki-i-11 yo’self !” 

“Evvah-body git right !” 

“Swing yo’ lady to de left!” 

“Coonjine all !” 

“Nevah say die ! All chassay !” 

“Shake yo’ heel.niggah !” 

“Ladies to de centah, an’ all 
han’s ’round !” 

“Gents fohwahd an’ all do de 
bumbashay !” 

“Evvahbody git right, fo’ mah 
baby’s done come !” 

“Kill yo’self, niggah ! Do de 
passamala !” 

“Shoot a big ’leben an’ do de 
swing !” 

“Lose six hits on a little Joe ! 


Git up dah, niggah, an’ shake yo’ 
toe!” 

“ Done ios’ out on a great big 
seben ! Come on, little honey, to 
the coonjine heben !” 

“Ki-i-11 yo’sef !” 

“Evvahbody git right!” 

“Dance yo’sef clean off o’ dis 
earth !” 

“Oh, de reason dat I loves mah 
baby is because she’s a dead swell 
lady !” 

“Do de side step an’ all join 
han’s, an’ ’scort yo’ lady to de 
’fresment stan’ !” 

Cinchly — “ Look here, old man, 
why don’t you offer me back the 
$io I let you have a year ago? 

Harduppe — “Oh, I would if I 
hadn’t been afraid of hurting your 
feelings.” 

“In what way ? ” 

“ Why, I didn’t like to give you 
the impression that I thought you 
needed the money.” 


Balance of Season at Your Own, Price . 

We must have room for our Fall and Winter Stock. We must therefore close out all we 
have left over from Summer goods, regardless of cost Everything in the line of Cloaks, 
Skirts, Golf and Bicycle Skirts, Tailor-Made Suits, Jackets, Silks and Shirt Waists. 
Everything must go. Now is your chance, come in, see them at the Sacrifice Sale. 

LOWELL CO-OPEllATLVE SUPPLY CO, 

44 BRIDGE STREET, Near Merrimack Sq., LOWELL, MASS, 


Lowell Textile Journal 

:*• ;j ( •> 

« t • i 1 . i » ‘ 

DYEING AS IT WAS.' ' 

By Francis G. Cuttle. 


If the question was asked — how 
long has the art of dyeing been in 
existence, I dare say that very few 
of my readers could answer it in- 
telligently ; and if in answer to the 
above question, the statement was 
made that dyeing has been practised 
for some three thousand years or 
more, it would in all probability be 
questioned. Nevertheless we have 
positive proof that such is the. case 
and in the limited space at my dis- 
posal and with the information at 
command I will endeavor to give a 
brief description of the.ayt as it was 
in the ancient times. 

We, with our. knowledge of the 
art today wpuld perhaj^, if conver- 
sant with the crude manner with 
which the ancients pursued the 
art, look down upon tjieir methods, 
without taking into consideration 
the fact that given the same mat- 
erials which t they used, it \yould be 
and has been proven, impossible for 


us today to obtain the results that 
they obtained. I do not mean to 
say that the ancients were superior 
in the art of dyeing to ourselves ; 
far from it, the art was never so far 
advanced as it is today ; but in 
certain branches and methods which 
they pursued they undoubtly pos. 
sessed some knowledge of which 
we today are ignorant. 

That the art was practised in the 
most ancient times we have abund- 
ant proof, by the frequent mention 
of dyed colors in the oldest .extant 
writings,; that the art^jyas., no.t, a 
common one, seems apparent from 
the use to which colored, garments 
were devo f ted, ( the wearers of vyhich 
Mere distinguished personages. 
The definite and bright colors as 
the “ blue, and purple, and scarlet ” 
mentioned several times in the book 
of Exodus, together with the Tyrian 
purple sp oftqn referred to by. Roman 
writers of the Augustian age, were 


4 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


so costly as not to be available for 
general and common use. The 
words translated purple, blue and 
scarlet, in the Scriptures, we are 
told, refer in the original to more 
than color, implying rather the col- 
ored material, such as purple or 
blue cloth, or thread ; so that such 
passages as the following : “ And 

this is the offering which ye shall 
take of them ; blue, and purple, and 
scarlet,” embraces the materials 
dyed in the colors. 

Pliney is perhaps the only one of 
the older writers from whom we 
might have expected some account 
of the processes of dyeing employed 
in his time; but with the exception 
of referring to a few tinctorial sub- 
stances, and a brief description of 
one or two dyeing operations which 
I shall give farther on, there is 
nothing detailed in his writings. 
He says, “ I should have described 
the art of dyeing had it been in- 
cluded amoung the number of the 
liberal arts.” But the art of dyeing 
in Pliney’s time was much behind 
what it had been centuries before. 
We may suppose that the informa- 
tion which Pliney gives was ob- 
tained by him, not by any research 
or inquiry on his part, but rather by 
rumor. 

From the perishable nature of 
textile substances and their com- 
paratively small intrinsic value, 
very few ancient examples of the 


dyer’s art have been preserved. We 
have, however, one account of a 
cloth containing yarn which may 
have been in the dyer’s hands in 
Egypt one thousand years before 
the Christian era ; and we have still 
in good preservation ecclesiastical 
vestments containing dyed silks 
which are certainly six to seven 
centuries old. 

Dyed skins were in common use 
in Egypt from the remotest an- 
tiquity. “ Ram’s skins dyed red ” 
(Ex. 25:5) seem to have been held 
in high esteem by the Hebrews. 
C. Hamilton Smith, in Kitto’s Cy- 
clopaedia, says that the skins in 
question were very likely tanned 
and colored crimson, for it is well 
known that what is now termed red 
morocco was manufactured in the 
remotest ages in Lybia. 

That woolen stuffs were used, 
and spun and woven into cloth for 
common use at a very early age, is 
beyond doubt ; and that woolen 
was dyed various colors, either be- 
fore or after being converted into 
cloth, is also plainly stated in his- 
tory, both sacred and profane. 
Wool was extensively used by the 
Hebrews as well as other nations 
for carpets, which were dyed of rich 
colors. Although fabrics manu- 
factured from cotton, silk and linen 
were used at least one thousand or 
thirteen hundred years before the 
Christian-era, we cannot affirm that 


T1!K LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


5 


they were all dyed though it may be 
probable. 

As the various fabrics are not act- 
ed upon alike by the same coloring 
agents, requiringdifferent treatment 
by the different agents to pioduce 
the same effects, our ability to 
prove that one or two of these kinds 
of fabrics were dyed will be no 
evidence that the others were also 
dyed. We know, speaking from 
modern experience, that a dyeing 
agent may produce a beautiful red 
or crimson on wool, and be quite 
unfit to dye cotton, and these cir- 
cumstances mav be reversed, so 
that different treatment and in 
many cases different dye drugs have 
to be used for animal and vegetable 
fabrics, and in this inquiry these 
perculiarities will have to be re- 
membered, as the ancients like the 
moderns would have to contend 
with these different properties. 
These matters we will be able to 
consider better after briefly con- 
sidering what dyeing agents, so far 
as we are familar, they had to dye 
with. 

For coloring matters the follow- 
ing were used, shell-fish, kermes, 
indigo and woad, madder, archil, 
safflower, alhavet, henna, galls, 
berries, walnut, pomegranate seeds 
and Egyptian acacia. Without 
doubt there were others though I 
think that I have mentioned the 
most important. As for salts we 


have reason to know that they used 
sulphates of iron and copper, alums, 
acetate of iron, alkaline carbonates 
and lime. The possession of such 
articles as I have mentioned indi- 
cates a considerable knowledge of 
practical chemistry, although they 
may not have known anything of 
chemistry as a science. A modern 
dyer confined to the above list 
would find it very difficult to pro- 
duce all the colors the ancients 
possessed, but it would be wrong 
to conclude that the ancients had 
not the ability to dye excellent 
colors with the materials named. 
Unfortunately our information 
about the application of these agents 
and even about the agents them- 
selves, is very meagre. The prin- 
cipal source of information is from 
general historians, the learned men 
of that day. 

The Tyrian purple is the only 
dye treated of at some length by 
Pliney and contemporary writers; 
its discovery and employment gave 
wealth and prosperity to Tyre and 
Sidon more than one thousand 
years before Christ. The coloring 
matter by which this Tyrian purple 
was dyed upon wool, was derived 
from a species of shell-fish, called by 
Pliney, Purpurea. There is some 
uncertainly as to the date of its 
first being used, but as the kings 
of Midian wore purple garments as 
early as twelve hundred and ninety- 


6 


THE LOWELL, TEXTILE JOURNAL 


one years before Christ, we may 
safely say that it was used then if 
not earlier as the Purpurea was the 
first coloring matter used for dyeing 
purple. According to Pliney, the 
best shell-fish were found in the sea 
adjoining Tyre. The fish were 
gathered and taken from their 
shells, and laid in salt for three 
days, after which the extracted and 
salted matter was slowly boiled in 
leaden vessels, workmen skimming 
off the fleshy impurities. This 
process was carried on for ten days- 
The liquor was tried by dipping 
wool into it and if the color pro- 
duced was defective the boiling was 
renewed. This liquor was, Pliney 
says, generally used with other 
dyes for the production of other 
shades and colors. The Tyrians 
put their wool through two opera- 
tions before the dyeing was com- 
plete. The purple mentioned in 
Exodus, chapter 25, was twice 
dyed. Wool which had received 
this double Tyrian dye was so very 
costly, that in the reign of Augustus 
each pound of it sold for ioco 
Raman den aru (about $180). 
Purple cloth was held in very high 
estimation in the older times and 
ultimately became the emblem and 
symbol of majesty. But lest its 
high price should not prevent it 
being worn by those not invested 
with the highest dignities, laws were 
made inflicting severe penalties, 


and even that of death under the 
latter emperors, upon all who might 
persume to wear it. The art of 
dyeing this color came at length to 
be practised only by a few individ- 
uals, appointed and maintained 
by the emperors for that purpose ; 
and it being interrupted about the 
beginning of the century all know- 
ledge of it was soon after lost ex- 
cept what remained in the more 
ancient writings. During several 
ages this celebrated dye was con- 
sidered an irrecoverable loss. This 
dye, in addition to its beauty, must 
also have been very last, for it is 
recorded by Plutarch that when the 
town of Susa was taken by the 
Greeks, a large and valuable collec- 
tion of purple cloth was found 
among the treasures of the Persian 
king Darius, and notwithstanding 
it had been kept for a period of 
one hundred and ninety years, its 
lustre and beauty were undiminish- 
ed. As far as permanency and 
beauty of color goes the Tyrian 
purple has not yet found an equal. 
Our purples and in fact several of 
the other colors derived from coal 
tar will stand favorable comparison 
with any purple yet introduced as 
far as brilliancy is concerned but 
they have not the permanency as- 
cribed to the Tyrian purple. From 
Plinev's description, modern inves- 
tigators have been enabled to re- 
discover the shell-fish which yielded 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


7 


the dye ; but the colors which they 
obtained were neither as bright nor 
as permanent as those of the an- 
cients, which fact seems to prove 
that they must have possessed some 
secret, which as yet has not been 
rediscovered, in regard to dyeing 
this famous color. 

The blue of the ancient Britain, 
Caesar says, was made with indigo 
from the woad plant. It has been 
proven by analysis that the blue 
upon the mummy cloths of the 
ancient Egyptians was dyed with 
indigo. Mr. Thomas of Clitherroe, 
who has examined these colors, 
says : “ Though I had no doubt 

that the coloring matter was indigo, 
I subjected it to severe tests and 
proved by the different reactions 
that it was indigo.” Pliney knew 
of indigo or a pigment and speaks 
of it as being obtained from the 
sea. The indigo plant when grow- 
ing on the shores of the sea was 
stripped by the waves of its bark 
and in the scum floating on the 
surface of the water, a slime, con- 
taining the coloring matter natur- 
ally collected, which would perhaps 
lead one to his belief. It is supposed 
by some writers that indigo was 
not known as a dye before his time. 
Though the Greeks and Romans of 
that period could not dye with in- 
digo, we have in existence a cloth 
dyed blue with indigo which we 
know was dyed one thousand years 


before he was born. It may be 
that the art of indigo dyeing was 
lost and again rediscovered, or it 
may have been well known to one 
nation and not to another. Certain 
it is that the indigo producing plant 
has been known from the earliest 
ages, as is attested by a number of 
circumstances ; one of which is its 
being mentioned in the old works 
of India by its Hindoo name Nil, 
which means blue. 

The leather and wool were dyed 
by the red roots of the rubia, we 
are told by Pliney, and Virgil states 
that the sheep feeding upon the 
madder plant had their wool color- 
ed red. It is a fact that swine and 
several other animals have their 
bones colored red by eating mad- 
der. The reddish colored dye of 
the mummy cloths found in Egypt 
appears to have been dyed with 
madder. 

The ancient Phoenician name 
Iola, translated in the Bible scarlet, 
was the substance Kerrnes and 
was used to dye silk and woolen 
scarlet before the days of Moses. 
It is a little worm which feeds 
upon the leaves of the prickly oak. 
The insects were gathered and 
dryed and crushed and in that 
form were used for dyeing. 

Henna was used for dyeing by 
the ancients as well as by the 
moderns. The leaves after being 
dried wore pulverized and made 


8 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


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Bring them to us and we will give them careful 
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50 Central Street, LOWELL, MASS. 


into a paste, which when used as a 
dye, gives a sort of rust color to 
animal tissues ; upon the applica- 
tion of sal ammoniac and lime to 
this rust color it changes to a dark 
greenish blue color, and finally 
passes into a black. Leather was 
dyed black with a combination of 
galls and copperas. 

The metallic salts of iron and 
copper and alumina were well 
known and their application to dye- 
ing was generally the same as at 
the present day. That they were 
used as mordants and alternates is 
evident, for Pliney, in describing 
an operation which he saw in 
Egypt, says, “ By painting or draw- 
ing on white cloths with solutions 
which in themselves possessed no 
color, but had the property of at- 
tracting or absorbing coloring 
matter, and immersing these cloths 
into heated dyeing liquor and al- 
though this dyeing liquor was one 
of equal and uniform color, yet 
when they were taken out of it, 
soon afterwards, the cloths were 
found to be wonderfully tinged of 
different colors, and these colors 
could not afterwards be discharged 


by washing.” Thus if we suppose 
certain parts of a piece of cotton 
cloth to be impregnated with alum- 
inum and the cloth afterward dyed 
with madder, after cleaning, those 
parts only impregnated with the 
mordant would retain their red 
color, while the remaining parts 
would continue white. 

We have no positive evidence 
that the ancients used the oxides 
or the salts of tin in their dyeing 
operations. A modern dyer could 
hardly produce permanent tints 
with some of the dye drugs I have 
named without using tin salts. We 
know that the ancients used the 
oxides of tin for glazing pottery, 
they may have also used the salts 
of tin for dyeing operations. 

Yellow is very seldom noticed 
in the Scripture. Yellow was a 
symbol of subjection and that 
had something to do with its 
not being mentioned. Linen dyed 
yellow by any of the dye drugs 
which we know they used, was 
fugitive, passing speedily into a 
dirty faded tint. Wilkinson, speak- 
ing of the combination of colors in 
Egypt, says that when black was 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


9 


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used, yellow was added to harmon- 
ize with it. A yellow color on 
some mummy cloth being tested 
by Mr. Thomas, gave no trace of 
tannin and seemed to have been 
dyed with some extracted matter. 
The yellow on the mummy cloth is 
more of a straw color and would 
not pass for a yellow by a dyer 
today. 


The above scanty information is 
about all we can obtain from au- 
thentic sources, but it is enough to 
show us that the art is a orreat deal 

O 

older than we would at first suppose 
and that though the methods of 
the ancients were crude, some of the 
results that they obtained would 
prove very desirable if they could 
be obtained by us today. 


THE HISTORY, CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF THE JACQUARD 

ORIGINAL. No. 2 ESSAY. 


Historical. The Jacquard ma- 
chine derives its name from a man 
who was born in the city of Lyons, 
France, in the year 1752. Joseph 
M. Jacquard was a straw-hat manu- 
facturer, a business that was entirely 
different from that for which his 
now famous machine was intended ; 
and it might be here stated that some 
of the most beneficial and revolu- 
tionizing inventions have been con- 
ceived by persons who had no 
connection whatever with the 


branch of industry in which their 
invention was to be used. 

Whilst many disclaim M. Jac- 
quard’s right to the invention 
(even Fox, in his book on weaving 
mechanism says, few people ever 
received so much credit for doing 
so little), yet, the writer believes 
that M. Jacquard is entitled to all 
the credit that has been given him ; 
he so arranged his machine and its 
connections that the ones in use 
at the present day are almost the 


IO 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


JOHN DENNIS. J. NELSON DENNIS. 

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exact counterpart of that machine. 
It is by combining the different 
parts and making a perfect whole 
that the value of a machine is seen. 

The earlier history of some parts 
that go to form the present “Jac- 
quard machine ” and its connec- 
tions, are in the main conjecture. 
There are persons who state that 
the Egyptians had some form of a 
machine that enabled them to pro- 
duce the elaborate figured cloths 
we now see as relics of ancient days; 
the Babylonians wove gorgeous 
cloths, and there is a record of the 
year 900 B. C. which states, that 
weaving had attained great excel- 
lence, and the art of working a loom 
was considered an accomplishment 
fit for the higher circles, but if these 
cloths are examined closely, it will 
readily be seen how it was possible 
to produce the^ fabrics without a 
harness-lifting machine; (the writer 
having examined cloths that came 
from the tombs of Egypt, and also 
Babylonish garments, with the later 
products of the city of Damascus) 
and especially when one bears in 
mind that the orientals weave figur- 
ed cloths at the present day, by sim- 
ply suspending the warp yarn and 
working in and out of the threads 


194 Western Ave., Lowell, Mass. 


with a needle to which is attached 
the color of filling desired, to form 
that particular part of the pattern ; 
but itwas this method of pickingout 
the threads that led to the inven- 
tion of the draw-loom, and instead 
of lifting one thread at a time a 
number of harness threads were 
tied together and the draw-boy 
would lift up several of these bun- 
ches of harness thread which would 
form the shed desired at one lift. 

The records we have with regard 
to the draw-loom mentioned, is the 
earliest authentic knowledge we 
have of any apparatus whereby 
figured cloths could be woven. 

This method is thought to have 
originated with the Chinese, pass- 
ing from there to Damascus, thence 
into Europe, and the Chinese at 
present use this form of weaving, 
and in odd places in Japan the 
draw-loom can yet be seen. 

With the draw-loom system, the 
more complicated the pattern, the 
greater the number of boys that 
were required to raise the harness 
cords ; this was a cumbersome and 
expensive arrangement. 

From the year 1604 to the end 
of the first half of the 1 8th century, 
a number of improvements were 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


I I 


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made, which tended towards the 
perfecting of the machine attribut- 
ed to M. Jacquard. Messieurs 
Simblot, Joseph Mason, William 
Cheape, Falcon and Vaucanson.are 
names that will always be associated 
with the history of the develop- 
ment of the jacquard. Although 
the one in present use is built up 
of the same parts, and performs 
essentially the same functions as 
the one invent d in 1804, yet the 
form of the hooks and needles have 
undergone great changes. A glance 
at the sketches of hooks and 
needles v.ill show clearly the ad- 
vance that has been made in this 
direction. 

Each of the hooks and needles 
were made for a certain purpose, 
and the study of them enables the 
practical man to distinguish the 
value of the different wires ; they 
show what had to be overcome to 
obtain certain results. 



No. 1 hook was turned up at the 
bottom for about 6 inches, the bot- 
tom of the hook rested on a perfor- 
ated board, but to prevent the hook 
from turning a grate was used, each 
bar of the grate passing through a 
row of hooks at A. This grate 
lifted with the hooks. The needle 
No. 2 was used; this needle en- 
circled the hook. No. 3 was made 
to dispense with the grate ; this 
was a flat hook and rested on a 
perforated board ; the needle also 


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THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


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encircled the hook. This hook 
took up too much space. No. 4 
was designed to dispense with 
springs at the end of the needle. 
There are some machines in use at 
the present time with this shape 
of hook and needle. No. 5 was 
made for the purpose of preventing 
the hooks being crowned at the 
top; the griffe did not lift so high 
as the extreme point of the hook. 
These hooks were all right whilst 
they were new, but as soon as the 
top bend of the hook became worn, 
the top portion would drop off and 
fall into the needles; the result 
will plainly be seen. The needle 
No. 8 was used in this case. No. 
6 is a hook somewhat similar in 
shape to the hooks that are in 
general use now ; the only differ- 
ence being the top bend which 
was a little deeper. A deep knife 
or griffe blade was also used. 


There are some who favor this 
style at the present day ; but there 
is no need for the deep blade if the 
machine is fixed up as it ought to 
be; the deep olade adds weight, and 
is very awkward to fix, if anything 
inside the machine requires fixing. 
Nos. 7 and 8 are the shape of 
hooks and needles that are used at 
present, and they are the best that 
have been used so far. 

A machine constructed as ex- 
plained later, and using Nos. 7-8, 
can be run with profit at 180, 200, 
or 220 picks per minute. They 
have been run faster than this. 


Construction. The Jacquard 
machine being essentially a shed- 
ding motion by which, and on it 
alone, an unlimited range of fig- 
ured and floral designs are being 
and can be woven automatically, 
it is necessary that such a machine 


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THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


13 


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be constructed compact, and as 
near perfect as possible. 

There are different varieties of 
machines, but all tending towards 
the same end; a figured fabric. 
We will classify them as follow's: 

1. Single action, meaning single 
lift and single cylinder. 

2. Double lift, single cylinder. 

3. Double action, two griffes 
and two cylinders. 

4. Rise and fall machines, mean- 
ing that the griffe and grate have 
motion, allowing a close shed when 
beating up. 

5 Special machines that com- 
bine parts of the former to obtain 
certain results. 

The machines have a ranee from 
too to 8, 12 and 1600 hooks, mean- 
ing that each machine apart from 
the few extras that are placed in it 
is capable of lifting those numbers 
of ends of a given pattern. The 
machines most commonly used are 


400, 600 and 800 hooks, so that if 
a pattern of 400 ends or half that 
number is required it can be woven 
on the 400 machine, and so on. 

What we will term the Jacquard, 
that means the machine, harness 
and all connecting parts consists 
of the following: 

“ This is a single action machine, 
as there is no perforated board on 
a double lift machine.” 

The frame and perforated board 
through which the neck cords pass, 
the grate on which the hooks rest, 
the griffe or knives with links and 
lifting lever, hooks, needles, springs 
and spring box or frame, needle- 
board or plate, cylinder, cylinder cups, 
spring hammer, batten frame, 
sometimes called swing frame, cat- 
ches for turning cylinder, neck 
cords, comber-board, harness. 

The harness proper is made up 
of 4 parts : harness or mounting 
thread which at the top is connect- 


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14 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


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. . . Mill Supplies, Ruling and Binding. 

67 MIDDLE STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


ed to the neck cords and passes 
down through the comber-board 
and is connected to the coupling 
which in this case is composed of 
a lingo, hanger and mail eye. 

When the double harness threads 
are used, the coupling has 4 parts, 
a length of harness thread be ng 
attached to the top portion of the 
former coupling and is called the 
sleeper or mid piece ; this coupling 
is connected to the harness threads 
above the comber-board. 

A Lingo is around piece of lead, 
iron or wire varying in weight and 
length from 4 to 60 to the pound, 
according to the counts of harness 
and style of fabric to be woven ; for 
ordinary damask 20 to 40 to the 
pound, for worsted or linen goods 
16 to 20, carpets and heavy tapestry 
4 to 16. 

The Hanger is the connecting 
thread from linsro to the mail. 

Mails vary, they are made of 
glass, steel and brass and have from 


three to nine holes in them, two of 
the holes being used for the con- 
necting threads. 

Sleeper is the connecting thread 
from mail to harness cord. 

It is best when building a wide 
harness to use heavier lingos on 
the sides than in the centre, as 
there is more tendency for the har- 
ness to swing at sides than at the 
centre, hence the need for a heavier 
lingo, but often the centre has the 
same weight as the sides, when a 
lighter lingo could be used and thus 
decrease the weight that has to be 
lifted. 

As the competition calls for a 
practical essay, a few practical 
thoughts under this second divi- 
sion, “ Construction of the Jacquard 
machine,” will probably be of benefit 
to the reader. 

In the setting up of a machine 
during its construction a sweat deal 
depends as to whether there will 
be much or little fixing required 


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THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


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ELISHA J. NEALE, Treasurer 


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254 and 256 Herrimack Street, - Lowell, flass. 


on it, whilst it is in the weave 
room. 

As an experiment, I have known 
hooks and needles to be covered 
with a mixture of powdered black 
lead and french chalk and the result 
has been the wires have lasted 
several months longer, but the ob- 
jectionable feature was, the dust 
would drop down in the harness 
and also fly about a little, making 
it somewhat disagreable for the 
weaver. For example, take the 
Jacquard machine in general : 

The placing of hooks and 
needles in the frame of the machine 
often because the hooks work freely 
the idea prevails that they are 
straight, but it is possible for them 
not to be so, and I have seen ma- 
chines that have been endless trou- 
ble because of that mistaken idea ; 
hooks have been crowned, needles 
have been worn away, requiring 
them to be constantly replaced, 


besides other faults that space will 
not allow to enumerate. 

Unless the hook is perfectly 
straight from grate to]griffe the 
above results will ensue, it is also 
the same with the needles, unless 
the cotter frame is perfectly straight 
with the needle-board needles will 
be worn away, cards will be pierced 
caused by the sticking of the needles, 
hooks will be missing when they 
ought to be lifted, springs will be 
broken through not being pressed 
back straight and other little ob- 
jections. 

It can readily be determined as 
to whether the hooks and needles 
are straight or not, even when only 
one row have been placed in the 
frame by glancing up and down the 
hook to see if it is the same distance 
from the top needle as it is from 
the bottom one, because one hook 
passes through the eye of one needle 
and outside seven others, so that 


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i6 


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the least bit out of perpendicular 
will cause the bottom hook to rub 
against the top needle. A few 
minutes spent on this little detail 
will save hours of labor. 

If a machine has been found 
constructed in the foregoing way, 
the defect can sometimes be over- 
come, if fixed before a number of 
hooks have been bent. 

The grate is placed on the frame 
of the machine in such a manner 
that it can be moved a little to 
right or left, backward or forward ; 
this allows for the position of the 
top portion of the hook to be 
changed, and the griffe can also be 
changed to conform with the alter- 
ed position of the grate. 

When changing either of the 
two, great care must be taken, as 
i of an inch will make a vast differ- 
ence in the position of the hooks, 
but work the two in conjunction 
and the best results will be ob- 
tained. 


A needle-board is vastly superior 
to the needle-plate ; it is easier on 
the needles and it will not be 
stretching a point to say that needles 
will last four times as long with a 
board than when using plates. If 
a board is set straight with the 
cotter frame, the only reasonable 
objection to the board is the clogg- 
ing up of the holes by the accu- 
mulation of dust and oil, making a 
thick substance that prevents the 
free working of the needles, but a 
board can soon be cleaned in the 
following manner: Have all the 
hooks on the bottom and the griffe 
lifted out of the way, place a strip 
of waste under the needle-board to 
prevent the oil from dropping, pour 
on to the needle-board a little ker- 
osene oil, at the same time pressing 
in the needles with a small piece 
of waste saturated with oil, in a 
few minutes the board can be 
thoroughly cleansed. 


Continued on page 24 . 


W. T. S. BARTLETT, 

Staple ana Fancy Hardware. Faints ana mill Supplies oi Every Description. 

Contractors’, Engineer and Machine Shop Supplies, Tools, Metals, 

Cutlery, Horse Shoes and Blacksmith Supplies. 

653-659 31ERRIMACK ST., LOWELL. 


TELEPHONE. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


17 


THE LOWELL 
TEXTILE JOURNAL. 

A Monthly Publication by Students of the Lowell Textile 
School, with papers and other valuable information by leading 
manufacturers. 

FENWICK UMPLEBY, Business Manager. 
Sub Editor, Secretary and Treasurer. 


PUBLISHED MONTHLY 

AT 

No. 67 fliddle Street, - Lowell, Hass. 

BY 

THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL COMPANY. 


Entered at the Post-Office at Lowell as Second 
Class Mail Matter. 

S»ie> SC |»|o T | ON TERMS. 

For one year, postage paid $1.00 

Single Copies . .... . 10c 

For Sale at all Newsdealers. 


Advertisements must be at the Journal Office before the 
fifteenth of each month f< r insertion that month. 

Contributions may be sentto Editorof The Lowell Textile 
Journal, and willreceive prompt attention 


EDITORIAL. 


Learn Textile Designing by the 
best method and through the most 
competent and practical teachers. 

If you are a subscriber to the 
Textile Journal you will obtain a 
thorough education in the art of 
“ Fabric Structure and Textile 
Designing.” It is the intention of 
the manager of the Textile Journal 
to place before its readers a com- 


plete course of lessons on the above 
subjects. 

If you are employed in any branch 
of textile manufacture you cannot 
afford to be without a technical 
education. 

All fees are payable in advance, 
(yearly subscriptions). 

Subscription to the Journal, one 
dollar. 

Subscription to the Textile Jour- 
nal Designing Correspondence 
Class, one dollar. 

This is the opportunity of your 
life. If you are within reach of the 
Lowell Textile School attend the 
classes. Terms are easy. 

It is impossible for the majority 
of textile workers who wish to 
better themselves to leave their 
occupations to attend technical 
schools, and it is for these that this 
method of giving instruction is 
adopted. 

The great value of technical 
education is now admitted in all 
departments of industry, and those 
who are without it are placed at a 
disadvantage. 


Hew England College of Languages, 

Special Courses for Business Men and Women. Write for Circular. 
PROF. P. KTJNZER, Ph. D., Director , 

Telephone Philips’ Building. 120 Tremont St., 3 Hamilton Place, Boston, Mass. 


i8 


l' HE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


BEST HALF-HOSE HAVE THE 



The adaptation of instruction by 
means of Trade Journals, is one of 
the greatest benefits ever conferred 
on the classes interested. 

In Europe, this method of in- 
struction has been in successful 
operation for a number of years, 
the application of it to the Textile 
Trade is therefore not original with 
us, but our methods are an im- 
provement upon the old. 

To become a student it is only 
necessary that one should have a 
knowledge of the English language, 
reading, writing and arithmetic. 


Enter your name at once as a 
member of the Textile Journal 
Designing Class. The terms are 
within reach of every textile worker. 

Programme of studies: 

The use of design or point paper. 

The method of constructing and 
amalgamating weaves. 

Plain or cotton weave : taffeta 
and tabby. 

Twills, regular and broken, swans- 
down, crow, deerskin, prunella, dog- 
skin, beaver, crowfoot, etc., etc. 

Basket weaves : hopsack and pa- 
nama. 

Sateens, regular and broken, 
coverts, Venetians, etc. 


COLUMBIAN STUDIO, 

OUR specialties: 

BROMIDE, CRAYON AND PASTEL 
WORK. 

We are Unexcelled in Children’s Photos. 

Sittings made in Cloudy 
as well as in fair weather. 


J. POWELL, Photographer, 

55 So. Whippiest., Lowell, Mass., Tel. Connection. 





THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


19 


N. Whittier, Treasurer ami General Manager. Helen A. Whittier, President. W. It. B. Whittier, Agent. 

WHITTIER COTTON MILLS, Chattahoochee, _Q». 


General Office, Lowell, Mass. 


Gallon Yams, 2s 10 40s 


Single or Twisted, 2 to 200 ends, Ply, Cable Hawser, delivered on Spools 
Skeins, Hanks, Creels, Balls, Beams, Warper Balls, Cones, 

Grey or Colored. Fire Hose Cords a Specialty. 


Fancy twills for serges, whip- 
cords, herringbones, etc. 

Combination of two or more 
colors for producing different ef- 
fects. 

Methods and principles of various 
drawing-in drafts. 

Division of drawing-in drafts, 
drafting from weaves. 

All rules and calculations for 
drawing-in, harnesses and reeds. 

Rib and oblique weaves : Crepe 
weaves, curved, corkscrew and re- 
clining twills from 27 degress to 
75 degress, double sateens, granites 
and all -over effects. 

All weaves relating to fabrics 
backed with warps or backed with 
filling, double cloths, double plain, 
two, three or more ply fabrics. 

The above is only a partial list 
of fabrics and weaves, but there is 
sufficient to inform you that the 
course will be thorough and effi- 
cient. 

Commencing with the most ele- 


mentary and proceding step by step 
until the most advanced stage is 
reached. 

Analysis of textile fabrics. This 
is one of the most important bran- 
ches in connection with the design- 
ing department. 

Rules for ascertaining data from 
a given sample. Arrangement of 
threads according to their colors, 
warp and filling, texture in loom, 
counts of yarn in finished cloth, 
weight per yard, threads per inch 
in finished and unfinished cloth, 
weave, chain and draft. 

The course of study has been 
made as complete as possible by 
Fenwick Umpleby, head master of 
Textile Design, Lowell Textile 
School, formerly head designer for 
the Geo. H. Gilbert Manufacturing 
Company, Gilbert ville. Mass ; Au- 
burn Woolen Mills, Peterborough 
Ontario; Globe Mills, Utica, N. 
Y.; Plewitt Haigh and Wilsons, 
Leeds and Robert Brearley and 
Sons, Batley. 


FRANK PARKER, 

/Tanufacturer ot 

Steel : and : Brass : Bound : Bobbins : and : Spools. 

LOWELL, MASS, 


20 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 



DELEGATES TO LOUISVILLE 
TRADE CONGRESS. 

London, Sept. 7th. — The Trades 
Union Congress, in session in 
Huddersfield, has selected John 
Weir of Dunfershire, Scotland, and 
Peter Nolan of London as delegates 
to the coming convention in Louis- 
ville. 

FACTS FROM CONSULAR 

REPORTS. 

An Australian manufacturer in 
his search for a cheap raw material 
for paper making has successfully 
experimented with turf. It is 
alleged that from the cleaned and 
bleached turf fibres he produces a 
remarkably durable paper sub- 
stance. 

It is safe to say that attempts 
are being made to produce artificial 
cotton. 

The modern demand for high- 
power machinery is shown by a 
comparison of the machinery ex- 

HENRY GUILD & SON, 

Manufacturing Jewelers 

Society and Class Pins a Specialty. 

HAKERS OF THE L T S PIN- 

433 Washington St. cor. Winter, BOSTON. 


hibited at the last four world’s 
expositions at Paris. In 1867, 
there were exhibited and operated 
52 machines with an aggregate of 
854 horsepower; in 1878 41 ma- 
chines, aggregating 2,533 horse- 
power; in 1889, 32 machines, with 
5,320 horsepower; and in 1900, 
37 machines, with 36,085 horse- 
power. The average horsepower 
per machine exhibited in 1867 was 
16 ; in 1878, 62 ; in 1889, 170; in 

1900, 973. 

R. Dondorf Breslau has engaged 
an Am erican and his wife to take 
charge of and reform a shoe factory. 
The American to have $90 per 
month, his wife $36 per month, and 
all traveling expenses to and from 
the United States are paid. 

The Queen Regent in Spain has 
signed a decree establishing the 
method of accounting time, as reg- 
ulated at Greenwich Observatory, 
commonly known as western Eu- 
ropean time. The regulations are 
to take effect the first of January, 

1901. 


Established 1840. Incorporated 1881 

TALBOT DYEWOOD BP CHEMICAL CO., 

Acids, Dyewoods,Chemicals, Drugs 

And Dyestuffs Generally. 

38 to 44 MIDDLE ST., LOWELL. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


2 I 


STUDY 

the points of our different machines and com- 
pare with others. 

UNDERSTAND 

the merits and you will be convinced beyond 
a doubt of their superiority. 

HOWARD & BULLOUGH 

American machine Go., Ltd., Pawtucket, R. I. 



LECTURE AND LESSON NUMBER ONE. 

THE USE OF DESIGN OR POINT PAPER. 


I shall open this course of lec- 
tures or talks on designing and the 
construction of fabrics, at the very 
first step of the ladder, also obliter- 
ating from my mind that some of 
you may know a little of the theory 
and also the practical part of making 
the various classes and grades of 
fabrics that your daily vocation or 
employment may bring you in con- 
tact with. In commencing the 
studies set before us, it is necessary 
for me to assume that none of you 
know anything of the art of design- 
ing, in fact to have absolutely no 
knowledge of the subject. 


We must have a line from which 
we start and commence our studies, 
and to that line we will most 
rigidly adhere. 

The examples and lessons which 
will be prepared for you will be 
such as have been thoroughly tested 
as to their utility and construction, 
by many years of practical work 
and study. If each student will 
diligently work out the numerous 
examples given him to do, and thus 
giving his mind and energy to the 
work laid out for him, he will sure- 
ly in a very short time begin to 
comprehend what is usually and 


OTIS ALLEN So SON, 

LOWELL, MASS. 

ALLEN’S STANDARD LOCK-CORNERED FILLING BOXES. 

Generally used in the New England Mills, 

ROVING CABS, T> OFFING BOXES, BACKING CASES, AND CIOTH BOARDS. 

WRITE FOR PRICES . 


22 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


C. E. RILEY & CO.S 

n 

281-285 Congress St., ( 

BOSTON. MHSS. < 

'4 

Latest Improvements and Specialties. V 

i. 


IT1PORTERS AND BUILDERS OF 

COTTON, 

WOOLEN, and 
WORSTED 

CARD CLOTHING, 

EGYPTIAN COTTON, Etc. 



generally considered a very mysti- 
fied and complicated business and 
profession. 

Taking up the subject of design 
and designing, there are many 
qualifications that make up the 
would be designer. He must be 
neat in all his work, tasteful, cleanly, 
quick in catching new ideas and 
most particular and correct in little 
things and minor detail. 

Someof the preliminary exercises 
and lessons may appear to some of 
you somewhat easy and elementary, 
and that they are not worth your 
time and consideration. This may 
be so, or it may not, but I again ask 
and urge you to work out every- 
thing from the first to the last ; I 
do believe the time thus spent will 
enable you to see and understand, 
and perhaps recall something that 
you had already forgotten. 

I propose to work out thorough- 
ly the ground work and rudiments 


of textile design by practical work, 
analysis, observations and exercises. 

There are three primary elements 
in textile design: ist, the weave; 
2nd, amalgamation and combina- 
tions of weaves and form ; 3rd, the 
mixing and blending of colors as 
applied to textile fabrics. These 
three elements, either separately or 
connectedly, are the principle fact- 
ors in all woven fabrics. 

The object to which a design is 
to be applied is of the utmost im- 
portance ; the designer must know 
the uses the fabric "has to be applied 
and the purposes they are intended 
to serve. Searching the diction- 
aries as to the true meaning of 

O 

design, I find that in its broadest 
sense, “design is a sketch, or a 
plan but this interpretation of 
design as applied to cloth construc- 
tion is not what we must have. 
When an architect draws the plan 
of a house, or a draftsman of a ma- 


H. E. SARGENT <& CO., 

Allfree High Speed Economic Engines, 

Corliss Engines, Cook Water Tanks and Boilers , 


EQUITABLE BUILDING, 


BOSTON, MASS. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


23 


H. H. WILDER OO., 

Furnaces, Stoves, Ranges, Kitchen Furnishing Goods 

Nos. 29 and 31 MARKET STREET, LOWELL, MASS. 


chine, or an engineer of a bridge, 
they first study out the convenience 
of arrangement, the conditions as 
to strength, durability and utility, 
and other requirements which are 
necessary to the purpose for which 
they are to be applied ; and it is 
indispensable that all these parti- 
culars be considered in their en- 
tirety. Therefore a textile design, 
or the design of a woven fabric and 
its specification when complete, is 
a perfect working plan, descriptive 
and illustrative of the arrangement 
and character of all the component 
parts and processes, it describes 
the different materials, as to quality 
and kind, character, size and color 
of the yarn, it gives the arrange- 
ment of the threads, also quantities 
and proportions. The design illus- 
trates the construction of the fabric 
and the specification or lay out, 
describes special processes and 
operations, to be complete and per- 


fect, it should be so comprehensive 
that any qualified manager could 
from it produce the desired fabric 
without any further instructions. 
If it is required that working plans 
for a house, machine or bridge, 
should be produced with neatness 
and precision, surely these requisites 
are much more necessary in a tex- 
tile design, which should be made 
with a perfect knowledge of that 
which pleases the eye ; in fact, it 
should with all these be an artistic 
piece of work. 

We commence our studies there- 
fore with a faint idea what a design 
should consist of, but assuming to 
be ignorant of the whole subject, 
so that the detail and elementary 
principles can be dealt with and 
the practical application shown in 
the simplest manner. 

To be continued. 


THE CRYSTAL CAFE ♦ ♦ . 

Dinner, 11.30 till 3 o’clock. Oysters and Shell Fish. 
Orders Cooked a specialty. Lunches of all kinds. 


140 Worthen Street. 


JAMES W. GRADY, Prop. 


24 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


•a-E. IfiL. YOUNGS 

7, 8 and 9 Hildreth Building. 

Has a complete establishment for Hair Dressing, Mass- 
age Manicuring and Chiropody. 

Children’s Hair Dressing a Specialty. 

Prices very loir for irork of highest order. 


WEDDING AND PARTY HAIR DRESSING. 

Ladies’ hair shampoo, 25c ; Electric treatment for 
falling hair witn shampoo; Hair dried with hot, 
tepid or cool air; Electric facial massage, 25c; 
Medicated steam for the face; Artistic manicuring, 
25c; Children’s hair cutting, 15c. Separate parlors 
for 1 a* lies. Over twenty-live years’ experience. 

36 Central Street. 

* I 1^1 Remember the Place. 


Continued from page 16. 

If in the construction of the ma- 
chine a plate has been used, the 
defect common to the use of plates 
can be overcome to a certain ex- 
tent by the use of a little powdered 
black lead and french chalk dusted 
on the needle-plate and allowing it 
to get into the holes of the plate, 
it makes the needles and holes of 
the plate smoother. 

The second vital part in the con- 
struction of amachineisthecylinder. 
These are constructed in several 
ways: ist, the wood portion 

being of three parts, and the casting 
on the end, fitting square on the 
wood work, with the gudgeon or 
spike, a separate piece, and driven 
into the wood. 2nd, the wood 


portion of three parts, with casting 
and gudgeon one solid piece, but 
the casting fixed only on two sides 
of the cylinder. 3rd, a solid wood 
cylinder, with casting and gudgeon 
solid, and fitting square on the end 
of the cylinder. 4th, the same as 
the 3rd, with the exception that the 
gudgeon is a separate piece. 

The third or fourth are by far the 
best, as the cylinder has a tendency 
to become warped when made of 
three pieces ; and when the casting 
only fits on two sides of the cylinder, 
it very soon becomes loose and 
this will cause filling skips and oc- 
casionally prevent the cylinder 
from turning the full distance, so 
that the corner of the cylinder 
strikes the needle points and a 


GONSTRUGTION AND ORIGINATING OF WEAVES. 

BY CHARLES G. PETZOLD. 

A Text Book for designers, overseers, loom-fixers, web drawers, 
weavers and others who are interested in the construction of cloth. On 
receipt of 25 cents, a copy of Parts 1 and II will be mailed to any 
address in the United States and Canada. The work is richly illus- 
trated, and the rules for construction of weaves clearly explained. It 
will consist of two hundred and eighty pages, and about 24 plates of art 
weaving, and is to be published monthly in twelve parts. 

CHARLES C. PETZOLD, 

37 Whitman Street, ----- Lawrence , Mass. 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


25 


STEAM BOILERS, 

so-A-Usnsr 


AND ALL KINDS OF 


EX 


TANNER STREET, 


STEEL AND IRON PLATE WORK. 
Xj &c WHOLEY, 

LOWELL, MASS. 


number of them are bent, or the 
cards will catch on the needle 
points and be thrown off the pegs. 

If the cylinder is constructed 
after the third and fourth style, un- 
less the casting is fitted perfectly 
square on the end of the cylinder 
and each end square with the other, 
the above results will ensue, for 
there is no fixer that can make a 
crooked cylinder do the work a 
straight one would do. There is al- 
ways trouble from a crooked cy- 
linder. 

Another apparently small matter, 
is the peg that keeps the cards on 
the cylinder; the smaller the peg, 
consistant with the work it has to 
perform, the less trouble there will 
be with the cards and cylinder. 
There are some pegs that are 
straight for about £ of an inch from 
the base of the peg, then commence 
to taper. This is a poor peg, for 
the peg is either too long or the 
taper is too acute; there is no need 


for a peg to have a deeper base 
than / 6 , in fact my preference would 
be a peg tapered from the base. 

A spring peg is better than a 
solid peg and ought to be used 
more extensively, for if the cards 
wrap on the cylinder the peg yields 
and the cards lie closer to the cy- 
linder, and in this way there are far 
less broken. 

The fitting of a peg requires care, 
for if the hole is the least bit too 
large in a short time the peg works 
loose, causing the cards to wrap or 
they drop too low and press back 
needles that ought not to be pressed 
back. The cylinder is not so 
simple after all. 

With regard to the construction 
of the harness, opinions differ as to 
whether the straight or cross-tie 
system is the best. My preference 
is the straight tie, as the best results 
are obtained fn>m it ; best results, 
consequent upon the greater speed, 
giving increasing production and 


STYLE I STYLE! STYLE I 

A Great Variety of the Latest Fabrics to Select From. 

Every Garment Made Under Mr. 

UIOKEBSOXL’S 

Supervision, ensuring first-class, work and a perfect fit. 

Hildreth Building, LOWELL, MASS. 


26 


M * H E LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


LirqrsAfcgXAfCBER 



55 r ENTTKAL-^TRgjrT. 


SaNLISHT SH0E STORE. 

wear the Orient Shoe, 

Best $3.50 Shoe in the World. 


PAUL O. KABLE, Assistant. 


100 Centra] St., 


Lowell, Mass, 


less time required in the fixing of 
the harness. 

There is less friction on the har- 
ness, and there is most certainly 
less chafing on the neck of a 
straight tie than on the cross tie, 
because there is no need of glass 
or any kind of rods in a straight 
tie to keep the harness in a straight 
line, or to prevent it from sagging 
or swinging about when the loom 
is working, but the guide rods are 
essential to the cross tie ; and no 
one can piece up a broken thread 
so quick on the cross tie as they 
can on a straight tie ; and there is 
more liability to have the broken 
harness threads (when being pieced 
up) crossed one with the other in 
the cross-tie system than there is 
with the straight tie. 


It must be admitted that the 
side harness of a straight tie does 
not lift so high as the centre har- 
ness do, forming as it were, a top 
shed that is slightly convex, but 
this is no detriment on the ordinary 
brocade harness, it is only on the 
very wide harness that there is the 
possibility of any detriment from 
such a lift, and then it is very small, 
and this objection still leaves the 
balance in favor of the straight tie, 
owing to the facility by which the 
broken threads can be pieced and 
the steadier working of the harness. 

There are several reasons why I 
consider that a Jacquard construct- 
ed on the straight-tie system is the 
best. The smaller the shed is, 
consistant with space sufficient to 
allow the shuttle to pass through, 


WM. E. BASS Sc OO., 

Manufacturers of 




THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


27 


Watch Repairing is my Business ! 

And I give careful, painstaking attention to it. I give special attention to the repairing of fine 
watches — the kind of Watches that need extra careful adjustment. I try to have my work give 
such satisfaction as will win the confidence of all who leave their Watch repairing in my hands. I 
want 3011 to feel that when you leave yonr Watch with me for repairs the work will be done to the 
best of my ability and in a competent manner. It is my ambition to add to the reputation I think 
I have in a smali measure already established, of doing honest, thorough Watch repairing. 

SAMUEL KERSHAW, 

Note the address, 114 CENTS A L STREET, Lowell, Mass. 


the better the results; so that even 
if the sides of the shed are a little 
lower than the centre, there will 
be less strain on the yarn and the 
bottom shed will be nearer the race 
plate, because the higher a shed is 
lifted the more the cloth is raised ; 
consequently, the yarn from the 
bottom shed is lifted high up from 
the race plate. 

And again, the greatest strain is 
on the yarn at the sides where the 
cloth passes through under the 
temple ; so that, if the shed is lower, 
less strain there will be at that 
point. And again, on fine goods, 
the less strain you can have on the 
cloth that passes through the tem- 
ple, the better looking is the doth, 
and there is nothing that will cause 
bare or uneven cloth at the selv- 
edges sooner than a large shed ; 
so that I consider the above rea- 
sons justify the statement, especially 


for fine fabrics, that the straight tie 
is the best. “ They have been 
proved.” 

Opinions differ as to whether 
the length of time that the double 
thread harness lasts pays for the 
added expense. That depends on 
the way the buyer looks at expense; 
often an article that costs more at 
first is the cheapest in the end, so 
that I believe a Jacquard harness 
built as follows, amply repays the 
little extra outlay spent at first. 

Take a Jacquard for weaving 
damask goods. 

Lingos, 12 inches long, 30 to the 
pound; the hanger 6 ] or 7 inches 
in length, added to a steel mail 
about^with long shaped hole in the 
centre, connected to the mid-piece 
about 16 inches long which will 
extend above the comber-board, 
then tie up the double thread 
harness to the neck cords, and as 


Merrimack Wool Scouring Mills 

WOOL Af4D NOILS SCOURED, CARBONIZED AND NEUTRALIZED. 


THOMAS HARTLEY. 


Lawrence, Mass. 


28 


THE LOWELL. TEXTILE JOURNAL 


Why not find out about it now? 

Now is the time to investigate the FOWLER AUTOMATIC DRAFT 
REGULATOR, if it has the merits we claim for it YOU should know it 
and have it applied to your heating apparatus. 

Manufactured by Fowler Automatic Draft Regulator and Vantilator Co., Lawrence, Hass. 

For sale by El. J. CARROLLS CO., 

73 Middle Street. - Lowell, Mass. 


the height of the Jacquard depends 
upon circumstances, it is hardly 
feasible to give a length for the 
harness, but for a 40 inch reed 
space, say about 5 feet 6 inches from 
mail to bottom of hook. 

The Comber-board. There are 
solid comber-boards and slip or 
sectional comber-boards. The latter 
are the best, because the extreme 
ends of the board wear out the 
soonest, owing to the angle of the 
thread and when the holes are 
worn, there is a tendency for the 
harness to stick up if the least bit 
of dust gets on the board, causing 
the ends to weave up on the cloth, 
but if slips are used the old ones 
can be replaced, or in the formation 
of a new harness the centre slips 
can be used again. 

The use of slips also allow the 
width of the harness to be increased, 
say for example : The harness is 
tied up for a 40 reed 36 in., and an 
order has to be filled 34 reed 36 
in., if a solid board was used the 
yarn would chafe at the sides, be- 
cause the harness occupied would 
be narrower than the reed, but by 
using slips they can be opened out 


a little to conform with the width 
required ; this is a great advantage 
in a mill where changes often occur. 

The Griffe. There are different 
methods by which the griffes are 
lifted, bui the following is con- 
sidered the best by the majority of 
those who have given a thought to 
the “ Practical Construction of the 
Jacquard Machine,” namely the 
overhead lever lift, and independent 
cylinder motion. 

That is a lever supported on a 
stand that is attached to the top of 
the machine, the lower portion 
being fixed to the supports of the 
machine, or the levers can be sus- 
pended from the beam that supports 
the roof or ceiling. One end of the 
lifting lever is attached by a link 
to the cross bar of the griffe ; the 
other end is connected to the long 
rod that descends to the crank shaft 
or pick cam shaft, as the case de- 
mands, whether for single or double 
lift. 

For a double lift machine, an 
equal size crank can be used for 
this system of raising the griffe, 
which is a decided advantage. 

The foregoing system can be 


THE LOWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


29 


EMMONS LOOM HARNESS CO. 

Cotton Harness, Mail Harness and Reeds 

Fcr Weaving: Cotton, Silk and Woolen Goods. 

Mail Jacquard Heddles, Mending Eyes, and Twine Selvedges, 

Lawrence , Mass . 


used for either straight or cross tied best motion the writer has ever 
harness, and can also be used when seen. 

the overhead space is small, by A glance at the sketch, and the 
simply cranking the lever. slide cylinder motion commends 



There are also different methods 
of working the cylinder, and as this 
article will not allow a description 
of all the methods, the following 
will be explained, as having the 


itself; it can actually be termed as 
ball bearing, which most certainly 
gives the easiest and best results. 

To be continued. 



Builders of 


Wool Washing Machines, Wool Dryers, Wool 
Waste, and Rag Dusters, Duplex Bur Pickers, 
Waste Cards, etc. Write for information con- 
cerning^ur new automatic Cotton Dryer. 


FAULKNER MANUFACTURING COMPAN Y, 

Woolen Manufacturers, 

North Billerica, Mass. 
68 Franklin St., Boston, Mass. 




30 


THE ROWELL TEXTILE JOURNAL 


LESTER’S DANCING ACADEMY, 

BURBANK HALL. 

TUESDAY EVENING, Advanced Classes. 

WEDNESDAY EVENING, , . . ... Beginners. 

SATURDAY EVENING, , Intermediate. 

WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON, .... Children. 

Member of Normal School Association M. of D. 


THE WILSON 

CLOTH TRIMMING 

AND 

INSPECTING MACHINE 

Gives best results at low cost of operation. 

The large number in use in leading mills “ tells 
the story ” of their success. 


Quick delivery. Write for quotations. 


PERHAM Sc STIOKN EY, 

(Successors to Atherton Machine Co.) 

LOWELL, - - MASS. 

7 j ■ ■■ ■ ■- 


Balance of Season at Your Own Price. 

We must have room for our Fall and Winter Stock'. We must therefore close out all we 
have left over from Summer goods, regardless of cost. Everything in the line of Cloaks, 
Skirts, Golf and Bicycle Skirts, Tailor-Made Suits, Jackets, Silks and Shirt Waists. 
Everything must go. Now is your chance, come in, see them at the Sacrifice Sale. 

LOWELL CO-OPERATIVE SUPPLY CO , 

44 BRIDGE STREET, Near Merrimack Sq., LOWELL, M ' "S,